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1057f The Battle of Magh Rath (Moiraj, 

and the Banquet of Dun na N-Geclh, Irish 
Text, with Translation and Notes, by John 
O'Do'novan, LL.D., scarce, £1 10s. 1842 

















If. > A 

- 1 1982 






patron : 

^resilient : 
His Grace the Duke of Leinster. 

Council : 

Elected June, 1842. 

The Earl of Leitrim. 

The Viscount Adare, M. P., M. R. I. A. 

Lord George Hill, M. R. I. A. 

John Smith Furlong, Esq., Q. C, Treasurer. 

Rev. Richard Butler, A. B., M. R. I. A. 

Captain Larcom, R. E., M. R. I. A. 

Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., V. P. R. I. A., Secretary. 

James Mac Cullagh, Esq., LL. D., M. R. I. A. 

Joseph Huband Smith, Esq., A. M., M. R. I. A. 

George Petrie, Esq., R. H. A., M. R. I. A. 

James Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

a 2 

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HE following historical tale is now, for the first time, 
translated and printed. The text has been, for the 
most part, obtained from a vellnm MS. in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin (H. 2. 16.), a compilation 
of the fifteenth century, but the name of the author 
or transcriber does not appear. Of this MS. it origi- 
nally occupied upwards of eleven closely written and very large leaves, 
of which one is unfortunately lost : the deficiency has been supplied 
from a paper copy, No. 60, in the collection of Messrs. Hodges and 
Smith, Dublin, which was made in 1 72 1-2, by Tomaltach Mac Morissy, 
for James Tyrrell. This paper copy was corrected by Peter Connell, 
or 0' Connell, a very good Irish scholar (author of the best Irish Dic- 
tionary extant, though never published a ), who has explained many 
difficult words in the margin, of which explanations the Editor has 
in many cases availed himself. This paper copy was indeed very 
useful throughout, inasmuch as it gives in most instances the modern 
orthography, and thus throws light on many obsolete words and 
phrases strangely spelled in the vellum copy. The Editor has not 


a It exists in MS. in the British Muse- Provost and Senior Fellows of Trinity Col- 
um, and a copy of it, in two large volumes lege, Dublin, is preserved in their valuable 
folio, recently made by the liberality of the Library. 


been able to procure access to a third copy, which he regrets, as 
there are still some defects which cannot be supplied, and a few ob- 
scurities in the text which he has been unable to remove. The 
necessity of collating several copies of ancient productions of this 
nature has been felt by all Editors, as well of the ancient classic au- 
thors as of the works of the writers of the middle ages. But Irish 
MSS. are often so carelessly transcribed, many of them being uncol- 
lated transcripts of older MSS., that it is especially unsafe to rely on 
the text of a single copy. The Editor has found, on comparing dif- 
ferent MSS. of the same ancient Irish tract, that the variations are 
often so considerable, as to render it necessary to compare at least 
three copies, made from different sources, before one can be certain 
tli at he has the true original reading. On this subject the venerable 
Charles 0' Conor, of Belanagare, who was extensively acquainted 
with ancient Irish MSS., writes as follows, in a letter to his friend 
the Chevalier Thomas O'Gorman, dated May 31st, 1783, of which 
the original is in the possession of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, of 
Dublin : 

" I approve greatly of your intention to get our Annals and other historical docu- 
ments translated. But if not undertaken by a man who has a critical knowledge of 
the phraseology, with the changes made therein, from the sixth to the tenth century, 
the sense will be frequently mistaken, and a bad translation will be worse than none 
at all : even a publication of the Irish text would require the collation of the several 
MSS. for restoring the original reading and correcting the blunders of ignorant tran- 

It appears from the Stowe Catalogue that there is a good copy 
of the Battle of Magh Rath in the Library of his Grace the Duke 
of Buckingham, at Stowe b , but the Editor has not had access to it. 


b Application was made to his Grace the MS. ; but his Grace's rules do not permit 
Duke of Buckingham for a loan of this any MS. to leave his Library : and the 


There was another copy in the Book of Fermoy, as appears from ex- 
tracts in the possession of the Editor, bnt this Book, which was in the 
collection of the Chevalier 0' Gorman towards the close of the last 
century, has since been carried out of Ireland, and the Editor has 
been unable to discover into what hands it has fallen. He has been, 
therefore, under the necessity of publishing the present work from 
the two MSS. above referred to, preferring the text of the vellum 
copy throughout, except where it is obviously defective, in which cases 
lie has supplied its deficiencies from the paper copy. 

This historical tale consists of two parts, of which the former is 
prefatory to the latter, and probably written at a later period. The 
first part is entitled Fleadh Duin na n-Gedh, i. e. the Banquet of Dun 
na n-Gedh, and the second Cath Muighe Rath, i. e. Battle of Magh 
Rath or Moira ; the two parts have evidently been the work of diffe- 
rent hands, as the marked difference of style and language indicates. 
The first is simpler, plainer, and more natural in its style, and less 
interrupted by flights of bombast ; but the name of the author of 
either part does not appear. 

The Battle of Magh Rath, as will be presently shown, was fought 
in the year 63J, and it would seem certain, from various quotations /3' 

given throughout the tale, that there were formerly extant several 
accounts of it more ancient, and perhaps more historically faithful, 
than the present. In the form in which it is now published, it is 
evidently interpolated with fables, from the numerous pieces in prose 
and verse, to which the battle, which was one of the most famous 
ever fought in Ireland, naturally gave rise. 

Though the language of the original appears very ancient, and is 
undoubtedly drawn from ancient authorities, still the Editor is of 


funds of the Society are not as yet suffi- petent Irish scholar into England for the 
cient to enable the Council to send a com- purpose of making collations. 



opinion that the present version of it is not older than the latter 
end of the twelfth century, or immediately after the Anglo-Norman 
invasion of Ireland. This opinion he has formed from the fact, that 
Congal Claen, King of Ulidia, is called Earl (lapla) of Ulster (see 
pp. 198, 199), a title which the writer would not, in all probabi- 
lity, have used, if he had lived before the time of John De Courcey, 
the first person that ever bore the style of Earl of Ulster in Ireland. 
This fact will probably satisfy most readers. But although we have 
no evidence from any real authority that the word Earl was ever 
used as a title among the Irish, it may be urged by those who wish 
to argue for the antiquity of the tale, that the word Earl, which is 
certainly of Teutonic origin, might have been introduced into Ire- 
land in the eighth century by the Danes, and that, therefore, an Irish 
writer of the eighth or ninth century, whose object was to use as 
oreat a variety of terms and epithets as possible, might be tempted 
to borrow the term Iarla from the Danes, although it had never at 
that time been adopted as a title by the Irish. This argument may 
to some look plausible, but the Editor does not feel that it is sufficient 
to justify us in assigning a higher antiquity to the work in its present 
form than the twelfth century. 

The mention of shining coats of mail (luipec) also tends to the 
same conclusion (see pp. 192, 193); for it is the universal opinion of 
antiquaries, — an opinion not yet disproved, — that the ancient Irish 
had no general use of mail armour before the twelfth century. To 
this, however, it may also be objected, that the Danes unquestionably 
had mail armour in fighting against the Irish, and that some of the 
Irish kings and chieftains adopted the custom from them in the ninth, 
tenth, and eleventh centuries ; that it is natural, therefore, to suppose 
that an Irish writer, in the ninth or tenth century, whose object was 
to magnify the military power and skill of a favourite monarch, the 
progenitor of a powerful race whom he wished to flatter, would as- 


cribe to him the possession and use of all the military weapons he 
had ever seen in his own time; and if this be admitted, it could be 
argued that the Eomance now published might have been written 
before the English invasion. 

But the answer to all such reasonings is, that the Tale was un- 
questionably intended to flatter the descendants of its hero, King 
Domhnall, grandson of Ainmire, while his race were in full power in 
the north of Ireland; and, therefore, that its author must have lived 
before the year 1 197, when Flaithbhertach O'Muldory, the last chief 
of Tirconnell of this monarch's family, died. How long before that 
year the date of this composition should be placed cannot now be 
well ascertained, but when the whole case is duly weighed, it will 
be seen that it could never have been written after the extinction of 
the race of the monarch, on whom the exploits described reflect so 
much glory. 

With respect to the style of this tale, it must be acknowledged 
that it belongs to an age when classical strength, simplicity, and 
j)urity had given way to tautology and turgidity. As we have already 
observed, it is loaded with superfluous epithets, many of them in- 
troduced to form a string of alliterations, which, instead of perfect- 
ing the image or rounding the period, " with proper words in proper 
places," often have the effect of bewildering the mind, amidst a chaos 
of adjectives, chosen only because they begin with the same letter, 
or a string of synonimous nouns, one or two of which would have 
sufficiently expressed the sense. This kind of style was much admired 
by some Irish writers of the last century, and even in the beginning 
of the present the Eev. Paul O'Brien, in his Irish Grammar (pp. 
70-72), has expressed his high admiration of it, in his explanation of 
Complex Adjectives ; his words may be here quoted, as containing a 
good explanation of the nature of the style in which the Battle of 
Magh Rath has been written. 




" First, Of the Adjective compounded with the Substantive. 

" When an Adjective is thus formed, if it precede the Substantive, it conveys a 
more forcible meaning than if it followed ; as peap cecmn-cpéctn, a headstrong man ; 
peap qiécm-cecmnac, a resolute man, &c. In this last the former Substantive becomes 
.in Adjective, as in the English heart-broken and broken-hearted, &c. 

"Secondly, — Of Simple Adjectives compounded with Impersonal Possessives. 

" In forming these, the simple precedes the possessive ; as péalc glcm-poilpeac, 
a bright-shining star ; glop binn-jurac, a sweet-sounding voice, &c. Such Adjectives 
involve two Substantives, which then become Adjectives, and may be termed, 

"Thirdly, — Adjectives compounded of Adjectives ; thus, oióce ^lcm-péalc-poil- 
peac, a bright star-shining night ; peap binn- jlóp-juéac, a sweet sounding- voiced man c . 
These are again compounded, and become, 

" Fourthly, — Adjectives compounded of compound Adjectives; as 015-pectp jpu-ai^- 
pinn-píoo-pain-óual-pcaineo^ac, a soft-silken- wide-spreading-ringleting-fair-haired 
youth, i. e. the youth of soft-silken- wide-spreading, ringleting fair hair c . Adjectives of 
this description have the Substantive in their first syllable ; for if it be placed in the 
last syllable, the whole compound becomes an expressive Substantive ; as, 

Ct Fifthly, — Q épéan-ápo-pluaj-cac-ceannpalcnp, thou mighty ruler of lofty em- 
battled chiefs . 

" Sixthly, — Of Participial Adjectives, compounded of compound Substantives, 
compounded of compound Adjectives. In these the Epic Bards delighted, magnifying 
the exploits of their heroes beyond measure, and inspiring their hearers with a thirst 
for military glory, emulation of feats, and contempt of death. Of which the following 
soliloquy of Dpilpopj, over the grave of his brother Gpgrhop, gives a sufficient ex- 
ample : 

Sectpc peipce mo cpoióe puió liaj cú Gpgmoip ! 

Ceo jleóóac mo popj éú, a óeapbpáéaip. 

Q bile oíoion ap milió a o-ceajmcnl ! 

TTIo núaip nac b-puilip mop pia a 5-comóáil, 

Q15 laocpaió léna cpeaccrhaó ip-clann. 


" M'Grath's History of the Wars of cept in poetry or poetic style." — Notes to 
Thomond abounds with these compound the Grammar, p. 205. 
Adjectives ; but they are seldom used ex- 


Q peapca uairne, mo vheoóain-cpenc ip cuoim liom. 
Cé oeópac mé cpó-líonra cpion ope, 
Gipope pe cpéijre mo aonbparap. 

<t)o béapaó pe oian-luaó-cpóóacc buan-cnám-capjapra ppuié-léim, píojbu- 
pac panrac-puaig-mapbéac ppaip-leaoapra, oiocopjapéa éajmaplamail po-rpei^- 
reac, geup-náimoeamuil, apo-aijeancac, neim-rim peoil-pjaéa^acppol-oéancapéu 
oeilb-jpain-cloó-aócumapra piop-Báip-neulamuil, peobac puilceac, leoman-bpap- 
japj-neapc-eaccmap, map peub-buinne-pleib-cuinne-gapb-juapac, a meooanrpom- 
éional-bopb-puilreac na laoc meap, &c.' 


" Argmhor ! Love of the love of my heart, beneath this stone thou liest ! A mist 
of sorrow to mine Eyes thou art, my Brother ! Stern bulwark of our heroes in battle ! 
Woe is me, no longer art thou sharer of the Spoils among the Chiefs of Lena, defeating 
the Sons of Anger. Thou too, alas ! his grassy mansion, art dear to me,' — Though 
my aged-bursting-breast with tearful eye bend over thee, hearken thou to the mighty 
deeds of my only Brother — Who with fleet-valiant-bone-crushing Arm. — Torrent- 
like-rapid, dartingly-eager, mortal his strides ; dauntless, dealing death around ; 
invincible, fierce, vigorous, active, hostile, courageous, intrepid, rending, hewing, 
slaughtering, deforming forms and features ; shaded with clouds of certain death. 
Sanguine as the Hawk of prey ; furious as the resistless-strongframed-blood-thirsty 
Lion ; impetuous as the boisterous-hoarse-foaming-bold-bursting-broad-mountain bil- 
lows ; would rush through close-thronged crowds of enraged warriors, &c." 

The same writer, treating of the degrees of comparison, gives us 
the following account of them, which, though not altogether correct, 
conveys a strong idea of what he considered bardic eloquence : 

" There are in common Irish but the three degrees of comparison found in all other 
Languages ; but the Bards, in the glow of poetic rapture, passed the ordinary bounds, 
and upon the common superlative, which their heated imaginations made the positive 
degree, raised a second comparative and superlative ; and on the second also raised a 
third comparative and superlative ; from an irregular but noble effort to bring the 
Language to a level with their lofty conceptions ; which uncommon mode of expressing 
their effusions, though it may seem romantic to others, the natives regarded as a source 
of peculiar beauty, and a high poetic embellishment to their language." — pp. 60, 61. 

Another writer, who has done much to illustrate the legendary 

b 2 lore 


lore of Ireland, has noticed this turgidity of style, in the following 
words, from which it will be seen that the modern Irish scholars with 
whom he conversed admired it as much as the bards of the middle ages : 

ct The overabundant use of epithet is a striking peculiarity of most compositions in 
the Irish language : by some writers this has been ascribed to the nature and struc- 
ture of the language ; by others to the taste of the people. In a conversation which 
J once had with some Irish scholars, I well remember one of them stepping forward 
in the formidable gesture of an excited orator, and addressing me in an exalted tone 
of voice in defence of epithets. ' These epithets,' said he to me, with outstretched arm, 
' are numerous in the original Irish, because they are enlivening and expressive, and are 
introduced by historians to decorate their histories, and to raise the passions of the 
reader. Thus were the youth at once instructed in the grand records of their lofty 
nation, — in eloquence of style, — and in the sublimity of composition 11 .' " 

At what period this style was first introduced into Ireland, or 
whence it was originally derived, would now be difficult to ascer- 
tain. The oldest specimen known to the Editor, of a historical tale, 
of a similar character with the present, is the Romance called Tain Bo 
Cuailgne, which is an account of the seven years' war carried on 
between Connaught and Ulster in the first century. It is said to 
have been written in the seventh century; but it is not nearly so much 
loaded with epithets as the present story. From this, and the fact 
that the oldest specimens of Irish composition remaining, such as the 
fragments in the Book of Armagh, and in the Liber Hymnorum, and 
the older Irish lives of St. Patrick, and other saints of the primitive 
Irish Church, are all written in a narrative remarkably plain and sim- 
ple ; it would appear that this very turgid style was introduced into 
Irish literature in the ninth or tenth century, but whence the model 
was derived is not so easy to conjecture. The Arabians and other 
oriental nations had many compositions of this kind, but it does not 
appear that the Irish had any acquaintance with their literature at so 


d Researches in the South of Ireland, by T. Crofton Croker, pp. 334, 335. 


early a period. Several specimens of this style of composition, writ- 
ten by the celebrated Shane O'Dugan, who died in 1372, are to be 
found in the Book of Hy-Many, but the most elaborate and celebrated 
work in this style is that entitled Caithreim Toirdhealbhaigh, i. e. 
The Triumphs of Turlogh [O'Brien], written in the year 1459, by 
John, son of Rory Magrath, chief historian of Thomond. Of this work, 
which comprises the History of Thomond for two centuries, there 
are extant in Dublin several paper copies; it was translated, towards 
the close of the last century, by Theophilus O'Flanagan, assisted by 
Peter Connell, but was never published. Its style far exceeds that 
of the present story, in the superabundant use of epithets, and in 
extravagance of conception and description, as may appear from the 
following extract, which is a description of Donogh Mac Namara, 
chief of Claim Cuilen, in Thomond, harnessing himself for battle : 

" A. D. 1309 Ty curie net h-ima- "After that harangue of Donogh to his 

jallrha fin t)onnchaió pe n-a óeag- brave people he arose on the spot with 

rhuineip, po eipi£ 50 h-uiprheirneccc, courage and activity to clothe himself in 

opjctpoa o'aeioeao pem 'pem íonaopoin. shining armour. His noble garment was 

Gjup eugaó ap o-cup a uapaleioe o'a first brought to him, viz., a strong, well- 

íonnpcujió, .1. cocun ocungean, oea£- formed, close-ridged, defensively-furrowed, 

cúmra, oluié-iomaipeac, oin-eicpijeac, terrific, neat-bordered, new-made, and 

oeapg-aripaoac, oep-ciumap-blcnr, oe- scarlet-red cassock of fidelity ; he expertly 

alb-nuaóac, oaé-cpoióeapg, oiogpcupe, put on that gold-bordered garment [or 

agup 00 cuip uime 50 h-éapgaió an c- cotun] which covered him as far as from 

eioeaó oip-ciúrhpac poin, a^up íp e com- the lower part of his soft, fine, red-white 

peco do óíon a óea^-cocun Oonncaió, .1. neck, to the upper part of his expert, 

o loccap a maoc-bpájao mín-copcpa, 50 snow-white, round-knotted knee. Over 

muUaca £lun £apca, gleigil, coip; agup that mantle he put on a full-strong, 

00 jaoccó uime-piun ap uaccap an íonaip white-topped, wide-round, gold-bordered, 

pin,lúipiocláin-cpeabpaó, luib-^léigeal, straight, and parti-coloured coat of mail, 

leabap-cpumn, áóbal, paippinj, op-bóp- well-fitting, and ornamented with many 

oac, oioppaió, opuimneac, olúié-cliarac, curious devices of exquisite workmanship, 

oei^-pi^ce, blaic, buan-pocaip, cneip- He put on a beautiful, narrow, thick, and 

ciuj, cpaoib-j;lic, ceipc-piajlac, puaic- saifron-coloured belt of war, embellished 



nij, plip-jeul, po-jpápac. Cfjup po jaB 
cuic-cpiopcaoil-ciu£, ciuvhap-bláic, cpi- 
oc-niarhca, cloó-búclac, ceannpac-ópóa, 
50 n-a lann lúc-lucmap, cpuinn-peaoá- 
nac, ceipc-imleac, ace mun ap ba aiob- 
pi£e a áipoe op a peaóanaib, ajgup do 
ceannapoap an epiopcopp, ceapc-blaic, 
cpuinn-paolcannac ceaona pom cap a 
caé-lúipij, ajup eannac íompaoa, pao- 
Bap-jopm, iapann-jlan cpein-peannac, 
caoib-leucan, cpeap-uplarh, bán-cúlac, 
blác-rhaioeac, piapoarnail, claip-péió, 
caoilciu j, ceapc-poip^neamac, a g-cean- 
jal an cpeapa blaic-peió, bpeac-óacac 
pin; a^up 00 gabaó pgabal péic-jeal, 
paipping-péió, pionn-ppoijcioc, paic-jpe- 
apac, peióm-laioip, pijce, uime cap uac- 
cap a op-Unpije; ajup 00 jab clojac 
clap-oainjean, ciurhap-cpumn, copp- 
ceapc-blaic, coinnioll-riiopóa, cpaob- 
raipjneac, cian-pulainj, pa n-a ceann- 
baiciop; ajup 00 gabapoap a cloioiorh 
colgoa, clap-leicean, claip-leicpeac, 
cian-ainigneac, coppóeapac, caic-minic, 
lán-cpuailleac, cpop-opóa, cpiop-aitilac 
cuije, gup ceannapoape 50 caom-ac- 
jaipio cap a caob ; agup 00 gabapoap 
a £a gapca, jep-paobpac, gopm-óacac, 
gpep-rhiolla, lonajlaic oeip, pa comaip 
a oiubpaicce ; agup cappaió pe a cpaoip- 
10c cpann-aóbal, cpo-óainjean, C0I5- 
oípioc, ceoi-neirhneac coriinaió cuije 
íona cle-láirh o'á oinje, agup o'á oian- 
bualaó. Ctjup mop beag copann na 
cpén-peaonac'pancpaic pin,ag cuinjeaó 
a g-cocun, epaob-copepa, ajsjup a luip- 
10c loinmop-jlan, ajup a lann lapap- 
rhop, agup a g-cpaoipioc cuaipc-aiórheil; 

with clasps and buckles, set with precious 
stones, and hung with golden tassels ; to 
this belt was hung his active and trusty 
lance, regularly cased in a tubic sheath, 
but that it was somewhat greater in 
height than the height of the sheath ; he 
squeezed the brilliant, gilt, and starry 
belt about the coat of mail ; and a long, 
blue-edged, bright- steeled, sharp-pointed, 
broad- sided, active, white-backed, half- 
polished, monstrous, smooth-bladed, small- 
thick, and well-fashioned dagger was fixed 
in the tie of that embroidered and parti- 
coloured belt ; a white-embroidered, full- 
wide, strong, and well- wove hood(p5abal) 
was put on him over his golden mail ; 
he himself laid on his head a strong- 
cased, spherical-towering, polished- shining, 
branch-engraved, long-enduring helmet ; 
he took his edged, smooth-bladed, letter- 
graved, destructive, sharp-pointed, fight- 
taming, sheathed, gold-guarded and girded 
sword which he tied fast in haste to his 
side ; he took his expert, keen-pointed, 
blue-coloured, and neat-engraved dart in 
his active right hand, in order to cast it at 
the valiant troops, his enemies ; and last, 
he took his vast-clubbed, strong-eyed, 
straight-lanced, fierce-smoking, and usual 
spear in his left, pushing and smiting 
therewith. Great was the tumult of the 
army then, seeking for their purple- 
branched cassocks, brilliant mails, blazing 
swords, and spears of ample circumference, 
restraining their steeds backward by the 
reins, as not obedient to the guidance 
of their riders, choosing their arms, the 
young adhering, for their beauty, to their 



ajup aj arcup a n-eac cap a n-aip o'á golden arms, and the old aiming at tl 
n-apaóaib, o nac paib a n-aipe pe h-iom- ancient arms with which they often before 
£abail a o-caoipij, aj coja na o-cpen- acted great deeds in battle, — the soldiers 
apm, a£up a n-o^baió aj aópaóap, a n- closely sewing their ensigns to their vast 
aille, o'á n-óp-apmaib, ocup na h-ojlao poles, and fastening their colours by the 
a 5 paijeaó na pean-apm o'a n-oeap- borders to the lofty poles of their spears'." 
naoap airiop a n-impeapnaib po mime 
poirhe pin ; ajup na mileó aj mion-puai- 
jeal na meipgeaó pip na mop-cpann- 
aib, a^up na h-oncoin '55a g-ciurhap- 
oaingniujao ap na cpaoipiocaib." 

The tale, now for the first time printed and translated, is founded 
on more ancient documents relating to the Battle of Magh Rath, as 
appears from various quotations which it contains ; but it is obvious 
that the writer, not finding a sufficient number of characters recorded 
by history, was under the necessity of coining some names to answer 
his purpose, such as Eochaidh Aingces, king of Britain, Daire Mac 
Dornmhar, king of France, &c, but the greater number of his cha- 
racters were real historical personages. Although, therefore, this 
tale cannot be regarded as a purely historical document, still it is 
very curious and valuable as a genuine specimen of an ancient Irish 
story founded on history, and unquestionably written at a period 
when the Irish language was in its greatest purity; it is also useful 
as containing many references to ancient territories, tribes, customs, 
notions, and superstitions which existed among the ancient Irish 
before the introduction of English manners ; and it is particularly 
interesting to the lover of Irish literature as containing a large stock 
of military and other technical terms, and preserving several idioms of 
the ancient Irish language, which are now, and for some centuries have 
been, obsolete. A general and just complaint among the lovers of Irish 


e This translation, made towards the and Peter O'Connell, is preserved in the 
close of the last century, by O'Flanagan Library of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 


lore has long been, that there is no perfect work, of an antiquity 
higher than the days of Keating, accessible to the student of our 
language ; it is to be hoped, therefore, that the publication of the 
original text of this ancient story will in some measure remove this 
complaint. It will, at least, rescue from oblivion and preserve from 
final destruction a considerable portion of the ancient language of 
Ireland, which must have been inevitably lost if not now preserved 
while the language is still living, and while the power of unfolding 
its idioms and explaining its obsolete terms yet remains. 

Compositions of this nature were* constantly recited by the poets 
before the Irish kings and chieftains at their public fairs and assem- 
blies, for the purpose of inspiring the people with a thirst for military 
glory. This fact is distinctly stated in the account of the celebrated- 
fair of Carman (now Wexford), preserved in the work called Dinn- 
senchus, or History of Remarkable Places ; and it is also recorded 
in a vellum MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (H. 3. 17. 
p. 7 97.) , that the four higher orders of the poets, namely, the Ollamh, 
Anruth, Cli, and Cano, were obliged to have seven times fifty chief' 
stories and twice fifty sub-stories to repeat for kings and chieftains. 
The subjects of the chief stories were demolitions, cattle-spoils, 
courtships, battles, caves, voyages, tragedies, feasts, sieges, adventures, 
elopements, and plunders. The particular titles of these stories are 
given in the MS. referred to, but it would lead us too far from our 
present purpose to insert them here. 

Those readers who have studied ancient history only through 
the medium of modern popular books, will no doubt be surprised at 
the style and spirit of the present production, and particularly at the 
extraordinary incidents introduced into it as historical facts. But 
we should consider that those modern writers whose works we read 
for a knowledge of ancient history, must have waded through many 
fabulous tracts before they were able to separate truth from fable, 



and that the statements they give as true ancient history are, after all, 
no more than their own inferences drawn, in many instances, from 
the half historical, half fabulous works of the ancients. In the middle 
ages no story was acceptable to the taste of the day without the assist- 
ance of some marvellous or miraculous incidents, which, in those all- 
believing times, formed the life and soul of every narrative. At that 
period the Irish people, and every people, believed in preternatural 
occurrences wrought by magic, by charms, and particularly by dis- 
tinguished saints before and after their deaths, as firmly as their de- 
scendants now believe in the wonders wrought by natural science ; 
and it should not be expected that any lengthened story could have 
been written in that age without the introduction into it of some of 
those marvellous incidents which were so often reported and so eagerly 
received. The modern reader should also consider, that all the lite- 
rature of the middle ages is tinged with narratives of miraculous oc- 
currences, and that writers then gave interest to their subjects by 
mixing up with the real incidents of life, accounts of supernatural 
events produced by saints, witches, or demons, in the same way as 
modern novelists enchant their readers by delineating the charms 
and natural magic of real life. The novels of Sir Walter Scott may 
also be referred to as a proof that the marvellous has not even yet 
lost its attractions , although perhaps it may require his master hand 
to present the legends and mythology of our ancestors in such a dress 
as to give pleasure to modern fastidiousness. 

In using the productions of the writers of the middle ages as his- 
torical monuments, we should, be very guarded in selecting what to 
believe, and more particularly perhaps, what to reject : we are no 
doubt more ready to discredit what may be really true than to believe 
any fable ; but we should not reject all the incidents mentioned in 
ancient writers merely because we find them mixed up with the 
miraculous. For, granting that such writers may have been imposed 
irish arch. soc. 6. c upon 


upon by the reports of others, or by the fanciful temperament of their 
own minds, as far as regards preternatural occurrences, it does not 
therefore follow that their testimony is to be rejected on the manners 
and customs of their own times, or on facts which were of every day oc- 
currence, and which it required no philosophy or perfect acquaintance 
with the laws of nature to be able to comprehend and to describe. 

That the Battle of Magh Eath was a real historical occurrence 
and no bardic fiction, cannot for a moment be doubted. It is referred 
to by Adamnan, the eighth abbot of lona, who was thirteen years old 
when it was fought. In the fifth chapter of the third book of his 
Life of St. Columba, speaking of the prophecy which that saint de- 
livered to Aidan, he writes as follows : 

" Hoc autem vaticinium temporibus nostris completum est in Bello Rath, Dom- 
nallo Brecco, nepote Aidani, sine causa vastante provinciam Donmi]l nepotis Ainmi- 
rech : et a die ilia, usque hodie adhuc in proclivo sunt ab extraneis, quod suspiria 
doloris pec tori incutit." 

The event is also recorded by the very accurate annalist, Tigh- 
ernach, under the year 6 37, in the following words : 

"A. D. 637 — Cae rriuije Roxh pia "A.D.637 The Battle of Magh Rath 

n-t>omnall, mac Qeóa,ocuppia macaib was fought by Domhnall, son of Aedh, 

Geóa Slcune, peo Domnall pegnauic and by the sons of Aedh Slaine (but 

Cemopiam in 1II0 cempope, in quo ce- Domhnall at this time ruled Temoria), in 

cioic Conned Caech, pi Ulao, ocup Pa- which fell Congal Caech, king of Uladh, 

elan, cum mulcip nobilibup ; in quo and Faelan, with many nobles ; and in 

cecioic SuiBne, mac Colmain Cuaip." which fell Suibhne, the son of Colman 


This Suibhne, the son of Colman Cuar, was prince of Dalaradia, 
and is said to have fled panic-stricken from this battle, and to have 
spent many years afterwards in a state of lunacy, roving from place 
to place until he was murdered at Tigh Moling (now St. Mullin's, in 
the present county of Carlow), by St. Moling's swine-herd.— See 
Note q , pp. 236, 237. 



The battle is also mentioned in the Chronicon Scotorum, at the 

year 6 $6, as follows : 

• A.D. 636 Cadi ITlui^e Rat- pia "A.I). 636 The Battle of Magh Rath, 

n-t)omncill, mac Geóa, ocup pia macaib by Domhnall, son of Aedh, and by the 

Qeóa Slaine, peo Domnallj mac CCeóa sons of Aedh Slaine (but Domhnall, son 

pe^nauic Uemopiam in 1II0 eempope, of Aedh, ruled Temoria, at that time); in 

in quo cecioic Congal Caech, pi Ulaó, which fell in the thick of the fight Congal 

ocup paelcu, macGipmeaóai 5, 1 b-ppir- Caech, king of Uladh, and Faelchu, son of 

juin, pi lTlióe cum mulcip nobilibup." Airmeadhach, king of Meath, with many 


" An account of the battle is also given in the Annals of the Four 
Masters (but incorrectly entered under the year 634), as follows : 

" A. D. 634 Cadi TTlcn je Rach pia " A.D. 634 The Battle of Magh Rath, 

n-t)omnall, mac Goóa, ocup pia ma- fought by Domhnall, son of Aodh, and the 

caib Qoóa Slaine, pop Congal Claon, sons of Aodh Slaine, against Congal Claon, 

mac Scanolcnn, pi Ulaó, ou 1 o-copchaip son of Scanlan, king of Uladh, in which 

Congal, pi Ulaó, ocup almupcaib map Congal, king of Uladh, and many foreign- 

aon pip." ers along with him, were slain." 

Thus translated by Colgan, in note (9) on the fifth chapter of the 

third book of Adamnan's Life of Columba : 

"Anno sexcentessimo trigesimo quarto, et Domnaldi Regis Undecimo ; proplium de 
Magh Rath (id est de Campo Rath) in Ultoniá, conseritur per Domnaldum filium Aidi, 
filii Ainmirechi, Hibernia? regem, et filiis Aidi Slaine, contra Congalium Claon, Scan- 
dalii filium, Regem Ultonia?, et multas transmarinas gentes ei assistentes ; in quo 
Congalius et multi ex transmarinis occubuerunt." 

After this Colgan states that he had read a history of this bat- 
tle, but that he had not a copy of it by him at the time that he was 
writing. His words are : 

" In historia hujus belli seu prselij, (quam saepius legi, et nunc ad manum non 
habeo,) legitur prgedictus Congalius, (anno 624, in alio proelio de Dun-cetherne per 
•eundem Domnallum superatus, et in Albionem relegatus,) ex Scotis Albiensibus, 
Pictis, Anglo-Saxonibus et Britonibus collectum, ingentem exercitum duxisse contra 
Regem Domnaldum ; et postquam per septem dies per totidem conflictus et alternas 
victorias dubio Marte acerrimé dimicatum esset ; tandem victoriam Regi Domnaldo 

C 2 cessisse, 


ccssissc, interfecto Congalio, et transmarinis copiis atrociter caesis. Cum ergo locus et 
tempus belli hujus satis correspondeant, videtur eo tempore facta ilia vastatio quam 
suo tempore factam esse indicat Adamnanus. Nam Adamnanus (iuxta iam dicta) anno 
624 natus agebat annum decimum, vel undecimum tempore illius praelii anno 634 

It is highly probable that Colgan here refers to the account of 
the Battle of Magh Rath now printed and translated. 

The venerable Charles O'Conor of Belanagare has taken so ac- 
curate a view of the political causes and effects of this battle, that the 
Editor is tempted to present the reader with the entire of what 
he has written on the subject : 

" The Treachery of Conall Guthbinn gave the Nation an utter Dislike to the 
South Hy-Nialls. The North Hy-Nialls obtained the Throne, and did not deserve 
such a preference. Malcoba, a pious Prince, was cut off by his Successor Subney 
Meann : He, in Turn, by Congal Claon, a Prince of the Rudrician Race of Ulad, the 
determined Enemy of his Family. Domnall, the Brother of Malcoba, and son of Aodh, 
the son of Ainmirey, ascended the Throne, and began his Administration with an Act 
of extreme Justice ; that of taking Vengeance on the murderer of his Predecessor. 
Congal Claon he defeated in the Battle of Dunkehern, and obliged him to fly into 
Britain ; the common Asylum of the domestic Mal-contents. 

"Congal Claon remained nine Years in Exile: And as this Parracidebid fair for 
the Destruction of his native Country, he merits particular notice in History. In 
Power he possessed some Virtues, and in adversity wore the Semblance of all. Al- 
though an Outcast in a foreign Country, divided by different Languages and Interests, 
he retained a Dignity of Conduct which often throws a Lustre about Adversity itself. 
He kept up his Party at Home, who (by defeating Connad Kerr, King of the Albanian 
Scots, and Lord of the Irish Dalriads) supported his interests. Among Strangers, he 
had the Iniquity of his Conduct to justify, and the more cruel Slights, which perse- 
cute unfortunate Princes, to manage : He did the one with Plausibility ; he conquered 
the other with Patience and Dignity. Able, active, perseverant ; no ill Fortune could 
depress his Spirits, no Disappointment fatigue his Ambition. He exerted every Talent 
which could win Esteem from the Great, and every Art which could turn that Esteem 
to his own Advantage : At Home, formidable to his Enemies, popular among his 
friends ; Abroad, brave without Insolence ; flexible without Meanness ; he gave the 
Nation a very important Advantage over him ; That of guarding against the Greatness 
of his Genius and of uniting against him, although otherwise much divided within 



LtseM This he balanced, by reconciling the most opposite Interests in Britain, when 
his cause became an Object of Consideration. Saxons, Britons, Albanian Scots, and 
Picts, flocked to his Standard. His domestic Partizans prepared for his Reception, and 
he landed with Safety on the Coast of Down. 

" Domnall, King of Ireland, was not unprepared. He had Wisdom in his Coun- 
cils, and Troops, who proved a match for equally gallant Troops raised within his 
Kingdom, and for those of the four Nations who joined them. He immediately en- 
camped near the Enemy at Moyrath, and began as bloody a battle as can be found in 
the Records of that age : It continued with various success for six whole days, until f 
Victory declared for the Nation on the seventh. Congal Claon, the soul of the Enemies' 
Army, was defeated and slain at the Head of the Troops of Ulad. The foreign Troops 
were soon broke with great Slaughter ; and Domnall Breac, King of the Albanian 
Scots, hardly escaped to Britain, with the sorry Remains of a fine Army, which should 
be employed for the defence of the people he so wantonly attacked. This Contradic- 
tion to every Principle of sound Policy, was foreseen by Columb Kille, who laboured 
so much to reconcile the Interests of the British Scots to those of the parent Country : 
; A Prediction,' says St. Adamnan, ' which was completed in our own Time, in the 
War of Moyrath ; Domnall Breac, the Grandson of A idan, having, without any Pro- 
vocation, laid waste the Country of the Grandson of Anmirey : a Measure, which, to 
this Day, has obliged the Scotish Nation to succumb to foreign Powers, and which 
gives our Heart Grief, when we consider it.' This is the Account of a cotemporary 
Writer, who was Abbot of the Island of Hy. It is one of the most important Events 
in the Scotish History ; and yet, through the Destruction of Records in the Time of 
Edward the First, the latter Historians of North Britain were Strangers to it." 

" It is certain that Ireland was never in greater Danger, from the first Entrance of 
the Scotish Nation, than in this War raised against it by Congal Claon : But the civil 
Constitution being sound in the main, resisted the Disease, and shook it off in one 
great effort. In a future [ ? later] age the Posterity of this very People abandoned 
their King, their Country, and their own Independence, almost without a Show of 
Resistance, to a Handful of foreign Freebooters 8 ." 

Notwithstanding the celebrity of the monarch Domhnall, the 


f " This Engagement, so decisive for memorable of late by giving a title to the 
the Nation, in the year 637, rendered present learned and worthy possessor, Sir 
Moyrath, ever since, famous in the Irish John Rawdon, Earl of MoyraP 
Annals. It retained [ ? retains] the Name s Dissertations on the History of Ire- 
down to our own Time, and was rendered land, pp. 214 to 218. Dublin, 1766. 


mdson of Ainmire, and the importance of the Battle of Magli Rath 
in the histories of Scotland and Ireland, Mr. Moore, the latest author 
of the History of Ireland, does not condescend so much as to name 
the monarch or to notice the battle. His defence is as follows: 

tw I Living now allowed so long a period of Irish history to elapse without any re- 
ference whatever to the civil transactions of the country, it may naturally be expected 
that I should for a while digress from ecclesiastical topics, and leaving the lives of as- 
cetic students and the dull controversies of the cloister, seek relief from the tame and 
monotonous level of such details in the stirring achievements of the camp, the feuds of 
rival chieftains, and even in the pomps and follies of a barbaric court. But the truth 
is, there exist in the Irish annals no materials for such digression 11 !" 

And again, 

" With the names of such of these princes as wielded the sceptre since my last 
notice of the succession, which brought its series down to A. D. 599, it is altogether 
unnecessary to incumber these pages, not one of them having left more than a mere 
name behind, and in general the record of their violent deaths being the only memo- 
rial that tells of their ever having lived'." 

Mr. Moore is confessedly unacquainted with the Irish language ; 
and the remains of our ancient literature were, therefore, of course 
inaccessible to him. That great ignorance of these unexplored 
sources of Irish history should be found in his pages is, therefore, not 
surprising : but he ought to have been more conscious of his deficien- 
cies in this respect, than to have so boldly hazarded the unqualified 
assertion, that there exist in the Irish annals no materials for the 
civil history of the country ! 

Should the Irish Archaeological Society receive such support 
from the public as to enable them to continue their labours, the false- 
hood of such a statement will be abundantly manifested; and it 
will perhaps appear also that, notwithstanding the destruction and 
dispersion of so large a proportion of our ancient records, and the 
mutilation of those that remain by indifference or malice, there is no 

h History of Ireland, vol. i. p. 275. ' Ibid. p. 276. 

XXI 11 

nation of Europe that is in the possession of more copious and curious 
materials for the illustration of its internal history, civil and ecclesi- 
astical, during the middle ages, than despised and neglected Ireland. 
" On a déja remarqué ailleurs," say the Benedictines, quoted by Mr. 
Moore himself 3 , " que les gens de ce pays, presqu'á l'extremité du 
monde, avoient mieux conserve la hterature, parcequ'ils étoient moins 
exposes aux revolutions, que les autres parties de l'Europe." 

The Editor cannot close these remarks without returning thanks 
to those friends who have assisted him in editing the present work, 
but particularly to Dr. Todd of Trinity College, and to Mr. Eugene 

J. O'D. 

i History of Ireland, vol. i. p. 277. 


At a General Meeting of the Irish Arch^ological Society, held 
in the Board Room of the Royal Irish Academy, Grafton-street, Dub- 
lin, on Monday, the 13th day of June, 1842, 

George Petrie, Esq., M. R. I. A., R. H. A., in the Chair. 

The Secretary opened the proceedings by reading the following 
Report of the Council, agreed upon at their Meeting of the 2nd of 
June : 

" The Council, at the end of their year of office, are happy to be able to 
announce that the prospects of the Society are such as to leave but little doubt 
of its future success. 

" They have still, however, to complain that the nobility and gentry of Ire- 
land have not joined the Society in sufficient numbers to enable it to undertake 
the publication of the more voluminous and difficult of our ancient records. 
The total number of Members now on our books being but 241, besides thirteen, 
who have not yet paid their subscriptions. 

"One cause of this has doubtless been, that the objects of the Society have 
been but little known, and where known, have been but imperfectly understood. 
In Ireland, vdiere every thing is unhappily viewed, more or less, through the 
medium of party, it seemed to the public difficult to conceive how any Society 
could be formed without a leaning to one side or the other, and many persons 
very naturally held back until the real character of the Society should more 

a fully 

Cully develope itself. It is evident, however, from the mere inspection of our 
list of Members, that these feelings have had but a partial operation ; and the 
Society may congratulate itself in having been one of the few successful attempts 
in this country to induce men to forget their differences, and unite together in 
the promotion of a great national undertaking. 

"In addition to this temporary cause of prejudice against the Society, it has 
unfortunately happened that several accidental circumstances have retarded the 
completion of our publications during the past year ; so that we have had, to 
the public, the appearance of doing nothing, and many were led to doubt whether 
we were in a condition to fulfil our engagements to our Members. 

" These and such like difficulties, however, which have probably kept back 
many who ought naturally to have joined us, must gradually be removed by the 
publications of the Society ; which, it is hoped, will not only effectually convince 
the public of the purity of our intentions, and of the possibility of carrying out 
our design without any party bias, but also make known the great value and 
interest of the historical documents which it is the object of the Society to bring 
to light. 

" It is necessary, however, to explain to the Society the cause of the delay 
that has taken place in the appearance of the volumes, which have been an- 
nounced as the intended publications of the past year. 

" The idea of establishing a Society for the publication of the ancient his- 
torical and literary remains of Ireland was first seriously entertained at the close 
of the year 1 840 ; and a Provisional Council was then formed for the purpose 
of ascertaining, by correspondence with the literary characters of the day, and 
by circulating a brief statement of the object proposed, whether a Society such 
as that to which we now belong would be likely to meet with support from the 

" Several months, however, were necessarily spent in these preliminary mea- 
sures, and early in the year 1841, the Provisional Council had received promises 
of such respectable support, as to convince them that success was reasonably 
certain, and that they might safely proceed to the regular formation of the So- 

" A Meeting was accordingly called in May, 1841, at which the fundamental 
laws of the Society were agreed upon, and your present Council appointed for 
carrying your designs into effect. 


"Up to that time, however, scarcely any preparations had been made for 
printing. The Provisional Council had been in a great measure occupied in 
the correspondence necessary for the formation of the Society : nor was it pos- 
sible for them, until they had ascertained how far public support could be ob- 
tained, to enter upon the engagements necessary for the preparation of many 
works with a view to the future publications of the Society. 

" All this, therefore, became the duty of your present Council : and they 
have endeavoured to make such arrangements, as they hope will ensure to the 
Members the regular appearance, within reasonable intervals, of the Society's 
books. All the works intended for the present year are in the hands of the 
printers, and those in progress are many of them ready for the press, as 
soon as the funds at the disposal of the Council will permit their being under- 

" The Council, in addition to the volume of Tracts, and the volume of 
Grace's Annals, already in the hands of the Society, have resolved that the 
Book of Obits of Christ-Church Cathedral, edited by the Rev. Mr. Crosthwaite, 
shall also be given to all who were Members in the year 1 84 1 , or who have 
paid the subscription for that year. 

" This latter work, though far advanced, is not yet completed ; and from 
the peculiar difficulties it presents, the necessity of the most exact and careful 
collation with the original, and the laborious index and notes which the Editor 
is preparing, and which will greatly enhance its value, its progress through the 
press must necessarily be slow. 

" It is probable, therefore, that some of the works announced for the year 
1842, will be issued before the Book of Obits is ready for delivery. But this 
inconvenience the Council are convinced the Society will gladly submit to, 
rather than run the risk of doing injustice to the Editor of a volume of such 
singular difficulty and interest, by any attempt to hurry its publication. 

" Cormac's Glossary, which has been for some time in Mr. O'Donovan's 
hands, is ready for the press. But it has been held back, partly because the 
funds of the Society will not at present admit of its being proceeded with, and 
partly because there are some MSS. in England, which ought to be collated 
before such a work should be put forth. The collation of these MSS., how- 
ever, would be attended with great expense, as it would be necessary to send 
over to England a competent person, and to support him during his stay in the 

a 2 neighbourhood 

neighbourhood of the Libraries where the MSS. to be consulted are preserved. 
The Council have therefore thought it better to defer the publication of this 
work for the present ; and in the meantime they are engaged in such inquiries 
as they hope may ultimately lead to the satisfactory accomplishment of their 

" The Royal Visitation Book of the Province of Armagh in 1622, has been 
for some time ready for the press, but as it will be a volume of some bulk, and 
from the quantity of tabular matter it contains, expensive in printing, it has been 
deferred, until the funds of the Society are increased. 

"For the same reason Mr. Curry's translations of the ancient Irish historical 
tales, ' The History of the Boromean Tribute,' and ' The Battle of Cairn Cho- 
naill,' have been postponed, although both are ready for the press. 

" There is one other topic upon which it will be necessary to say a few 

" The number and value of the works which have been assigned to the 
Members of the last and present years, very far exceed the actual means of the 
Society ; nor will it be possible for the Council to bring out books of equal 
value, in future years, unless the number of the Members be very much in- 
creased. The Council, however, have thought it better to proceed on the sup- 
position that the full number of Members, at present limited by the Rules of the 
Society to 500, will ultimately be obtained, and, therefore, they have not hesi- 
tated to run the risk, in the first instance, of drawing somewhat more largely 
than they would be justified in doing hereafter, on the capital of the Society. 
They have every hope, however, that the publication of the volumes now in 
progress will bring in a large accession of Members to the Society ; and they 
would press upon the existing Members the necessity of exerting their influence 
with their friends for this purpose. 

" It is desirable to have it made known, that Members now joining the So- 
ciety can obtain the books for the year 1841, on paying the subscription of One 
Pound for that year ; a privilege which the Council have allowed to such 
Members as have joined since the last annual Meeting, and which they would 
recommend to continue for the present year. However, they are of opinion 
that hereafter, the books of past years, if any should remain, ought to be sold 
to new Members at an advanced price, to be determined by the Council for the 
time being. 

" Since 

"Since the appearance of our first publication, the following noblemen and 
gentlemen have joined the Society : 

The Right Hon. Lord Eliot. 

The Right Hon. Lord Albert Conyngham. 

Sir Montague L. Chapman, Bart. 

Sir Aubrey De Vere, Bart. 

John Ynyr Burges, Esq. 

Thomas Fortescue, Esq. 

Rev. James Kennedy Bailie, D. D. 

Clement Ferguson, Esq. 

Thomas Hutton, Esq. 

Rev. James Graves. 

Rev. Classon Porter. 

Rev. Charles Grogan. 

Samuel Graeme Fenton, Esq. 

Colman M. O'Loghlan, Esq. 

William Hughes, Esq. 

Robert Ewing, Esq. 

Rev. Matthew Kelly. 

James W. Cusack, Esq., M. D. 

Thomas Kane, Esq., M. D. (for the Limerick 

Edward Wilmot Chetwode, Esq. 
Rev. John N. Traherne. 
Edward Magrath, Esq. (for the Athenaeum 

Club, London). 
Colonel Birch. 
William Curry, Jun., Esq. 

" The name of William Torrens M'Cullagh, Esq., was omitted, by an acci- 
dent, in the list of original Members, published with the last Report ; and the 
name of John Low, Esq., was inserted in the same list by a mistake. 

" During the past year the Society has lost one of its original Members, the 
Rev. Csesar Otway, by death. 

" In conclusion, the Council have to announce that his Excellency the Lord 
Lieutenant, upon being informed of the objects of the Society, was graciously 
pleased to accept the office of Patron, and the Council have had the honour of 
presenting to his Excellency copies of the Society's publications." 

The Report having been read, the following Resolutions were 
adopted unanimously : 

" i . That the Report now read be received and printed, and that the thanks 
of the Society be given to the Council for their services." 

" 2. That the respectful thanks of this Meeting be presented to His Excel- 
lency the Lord Lieutenant, for his gracious condescension in accepting the office 
of Patron of the Society." 

"3. That Dr. A. Smith and Mr. Hardiman be appointed Auditors of the 
Accounts of the Society for the ensuing year, and that their statement of the 
accounts of the Society be printed as an Appendix to the Report." 


His Grace the Duke of Leinster was then elected President of 
the Society for the ensuing year, and the following Noblemen and 
Gentlemen were elected as the Council : 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Lei- 

The Right Hon. the Viscount 
Adare, M. P, M. R. I. A. 

The Lord George Hill. 

John Smith Furlong, Esq., Q. C. 

Rev. Richard Butler, M. R. I. A. 

Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., V. P. R. I. A. 

James Mac Cullagh, Esq., LL. D., 

Sec. R. I. A. 
Captain Larcom, R. E., M. R. I. A. 
Aquilla Smith, M. D., M. R. I. A. 
George Petrie, Esquire, R. H. A., 

M. R. I. A. 
Jos. H. Smith, Esq., A.M., M.R.I. A. 
James Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

It was then moved by the Rev. J. C. Crosthwaite, and seconded 
by George Smith, Esq., 

"That the thanks of the Society be presented to the Council of the Royal 
Irish Academy for their kindness in giving the Society the use of their rooms 
for the present Meeting." 

And then the Society adjourned. 





















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I 842 

patron : 


Council : 

The Right LIon. the Earl of Leitrim. 

The Right Hon. the Viscount Adare, 
M. P., M. R. L A. 

Lord George Hill, M. R. I. A. 

John Smith Furlong, Esq.,Q. C, Trea- 

Rev. Richard Butler, M. R. I. A. 

Captain Larcom, R. E., M. R. I. A. 

Rev. J. LI. Todd, D. D., V. P. R. I. A., Se- 

James Mac Cullagh, Esq., LL. D., Sec. 

R. I. A. 
Aquilla Smith, M. D., M. R. I. A. 
George Petrie, Esq., R. H. A., M. R. I. A. 
Jos. H. Smith, Esq., A. M., M. R. I. A. 
James Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

jOTemkrs of fyz jfeocfetg. 

[Life Members 

His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury 
His Grace the Lord Primate of Ireland. 

* His Grace the Duke of Buckingham. 

* His Grace the Duke of Leinster. 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland. 
The Marquis of Conyngham. 
The Marquis of Downshire. 
The Marquis of Ely. 
The Marquis of Ormonde. 

* The Marquis of Kildare. 
The Earl of Bandon. 

The Earl of Carlisle. 

The Earl of Cawdor. 

The Earl of Charlemont, M. R. I. A. 

The Earl of Donoughmore. 

are marked thus *.] 

, i The Earl of Dunraven. 
The Earl of Enniskillen. 
The Earl of Fife. 
The Earl Fitzwilliam. 
The Earl Fortescue. 
The Earl of Leitrim, M. R. I. A. 
The Eari. of Meath. 
The Earl of Powis. 
The Earl of Rosse, M. R. I. A. 
The Viscount De Vesci. 
The Viscount Lismore. 
The Viscount Lorton. 
The Viscount Massareene. 
* The Viscount Palmerston. 
The Viscount Powerscourt. 



The Viscount Templetown. 

The Viscount Acheson, M. P. 

The Viscount Adare, M. P., M. R. I. A. 

The Viscount Morpeth. 

The Lord Eliot, M. P. 

Lord George Hill, M. R. I. A. 

Lord Albert Conyngham. 

The Lord Bishop of Chichester. 

The Lord Bishop of Cashel, Waterford, 

and Lismore. 
The Lord Bishop of Clogher. 

The Lord BisHOPof Cork, Cloyne, and Ross. 
The Lord Bishop of Derry and Raphoe. 
The Lord Bishop of Down, Connor, and 

The Lord Bishop of Kilmore, Elphin, and 

The Lord Bishop of Kildare. 
Lord Carberry. 
Lord Cremorne. 
Lord Farnham. 
Lord Fitzgerald and Vesci. 

Abraham Abell, Esq., M.R.I. A., Cork. 

William Antisell, Esq., Abbey-st., Dublin. 

.TohnH. Armstrong, Esq., A.B., Fitzwilliam- 
square, Dublin. 

Rev. James Kennedy Bailie, D.D., M.R.I. A., 
Ardtrea House, Stewartstown. 

Hugh Barton, jun., Esq., Regent-street, 

Robert Bateson, Esq., Belview, Belfast. 

Miss Beaufort, Hatch-street, Dublin. 

Sir Michael Dillon Bellew, Bart., Mount 
Dillon, Galway. 

Rev. William M. Beresford, Ballytore. 

Colonel R. H. Birch, Dublin. 

John Blachford, Esq., 36, Moorgate-street, 

Maxwell Blacker, Esq., Q. C, Merrion- 
square, Dublin. 

Loftus Bland, Esq., Pembroke-st., Dublin. 

Bindon Blood, Esq., M.R.I.A., F.R.S.E., 


*Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P., M.R.LA., 

Right Hon. Maziere Brady, Lord Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer, M.R.LA. 

Haliday Bruce, Esq., M.R.LA., Dublin. 

John Bruce, Esq., F.S.A., London. 

Rev. Doctor Brunton, Edinburgh. 

Samuel Bryson, Esq., Belfast. 

John Ynyr Burges, Esq., Parkanaur, Dun- 

Rev. Samuel Butcher, A.M., M.R.LA., Fel- 
low of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Rev. Richard Butler, A.B., M.R.I. A., Trim. 

Robert Call well, Esq., M.R.LA., Herbert- 
place, Dublin. 

Edward Cane, Esq., M.R.I. A., Dawson-st., 

George Carr, Esq., M.R.LA., Mountjoy-sq., 


*Rev. Joseph Carson, A.M., M.R.LA., Fel- 
low of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Rev. William Carus, A. M., Fellow of Tri- 
nity College, Cambridge. 

Thomas Cather, Esq., 20, Blessington-street, 

Sir Montague L. Chapman, Bart., Killua 
Castle, Athboy. 

Edward Wilmot Chetwode, Esq., M.R.LA., 
Woodbrook, Portarlington. 

Rev. Wm. Cleaver, A.M., Delgany. 

Rev. Thomas De Vere Coneys, A. M., 
Professor of Irish in the University of 

Fred. W. Conway, Esq., M.R.LA., Rath- 
mines-road, Dublin. 

J. R. Cooke, Esq., Blessington-st., Dublin. 

* Rev. G. E. Corrie, B. D., Fellow of St. 

Catherine's Hall, Cambridge. 


1 1 

Very Rev. Henry Cotton, D.C.L., Dean of 

Thomas Coulter, Esq., M.D., M.R.I. A., 

Trinity College, Dublin. 

James T. Gibson Craig, Esq., Edinburgh. 

Rev. John C. Crosthwaite, A.M., Dean's 
Vicar, Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin. 

Rev. Edward Cupples, LL. B., V. G. of 
Down and Connor, Lisburn. 

Miss J. M. Richardson Currer, Eshton 
Hall, Yorkshire. 

* Eugene Curry, Esq., Dublin. 
William Curry, Jun., Esq., Dublin. 

* James W. Cusack, Esq., M.D., Kildare-st., 


Rev. Robert Daly, A.M., Powerscourt. 
C. Wentworth Dilke, Esq., London. 

Rev. Robert V. Dixon, A.M., M.R.I. A., 

Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

W. C. Dobbs, Esq., Fitzwilliam-pl., Dublin. 

Major Francis Dunne, A. D. C, Brittas, 

Rev. Charles R. Elrington, D.D., M.R.I. A., 

Regius Professor of Divinity, Dublin. 

Robert Ewing, Esq., Greenock. 

Samuel Gra?me Fenton, Esq., Belfast. 

Sir Robert Ferguson, Bart., M.P., London- 

Clement Ferguson, Esq. 

Patrick Vincent Fitzpatricíí, Esq., Eccles- 
street, Dublin. 

Thomas Fortescue, Esq., Ravensdale. 

W. D. Freeman, Esq., Upper Mount-street, 

Alfred Furlong, Esq., Newcastle, County 

John S. Furlong, Esq., Q.C., Leeson-street, 

Edmund Getty, Esq., Victoria-place, Belfast. 
Rev. Richard Gibbings, A.M., Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. 

Michael Henry Gill, Esq., Great Brunswick- 
street, Dublin. 

The Knight of Glin, Limerick. 

G. B. Grant, Esq., Grafton-street, Dublin. 

Robert Graves, Esq., M. I)., M. R. I. A.. 

Rev. James Graves, Borris in Ossory. 

John Gray, Esq., Greenock. 

Right Hon. Thomas Grenville, Cleveland- 
square, London. 

Rev. Charles Grogan, Harcourt-st., Dublin. 

John Gumley, Esq., LL.D., St. Stephen's- 
green, Dublin. 

James Haire, Esq., Summer-hill, Dublin. 

Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart.,M.P., Wimpole- 
street, London. 

J. Orchard Halliwell, Esq., Hon. M.R.I. A., 

James Hardiman, Esq., M.R.I. A., Galway. 

Andrew S. Hart, Esq., LL.D., M.R.I. A., 

Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Hon. Algernon Herbert, Saffron Walden. 
JohnE. Herrick, Esq., Eelmount, Cookstown. 
Thomas Hewitt, Esq., Cork. 
Sir J. W. H. Homan, Bart., Cappoquin. 

W. E. Hudson, Esq., Upper Fitzwilliam- 
street, Dublin. 

William Hughes, Esq., Westland-row, Dublin. 

John Hely Hutchinson, Esq., Paris. 

Thomas Hutton, Esq., Dublin. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., M.P., London. 

Rev. James Ingram, D.D., President of Tri- 
nity College, Oxford. 

David Irving, Esq., LL.D., Edinburgh. 

John H. Jellett, Esq., A.B., M.R.I. A., Fel- 
low of Trinity College, Dublin. 

* Robert Jones, Esq., Fortland, Dromore 

Robert Kane, Esq., M.D., M.R.I. A., Glou- 
cester-street, Dublin. 

William Kane, Esq., Gloucester-st., Dublin. 

Thomas Kane, Esq., M.D., Limerick. 

Denis H. Kelly, Esq., Castle Kelly, Mount 

Rev. Matthew Kelly, Maynooth College. 

Henry Kemmis, Esq., Q.C., Merrion-square, 

The Rt. Hon. the Knight of Kerry, Listowell. 
b 2 Rev. 

1 2 

Rev. Henry Barry Knox, Monks Eleigh, 
Bilderstone, Suffolk. 

(ieorge J. Knox, Esq., M.R.I. A., Maddox- 
street, London. 

David Laing, Esq., Signet Library, Edin- 

Henry Lanauze, Esq., College-green, Dublin. 

Captain Thos. A. Larcoin, R.E., M.R.I. A., 

Rev. William Lee, A.M., M.R.I. A., Fellow 
of Trinity College, Dublin. 

The Right Hon. Baron Lefroy, Leeson-st., 

John Lindsay, Esq., M.R.I. A., Cork. 

Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D., V. P. ILL A., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Rev. Richard Low, Ahascragh, Galway. 

Joseph Lowell, Esq., London. 

Very Rev. J. P. Lyons, Lyons Port, Ballina. 

* Jas. Mac Cullagh, Esq.,LL.D., M.R.I. A., 

Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

William Torrens M' Cullagh, Esq., Upper 
Gloucester-street, Dublin. 

Alexander M'Donnell, Esq., Dublin. 

George M'Dowell, Esq., A.M., M.R.I.A., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

M'Gillicuddy of the Reeks. 

James M'Glashan, Esq., Dublin. 

Rev. John M'Hugh, Baldoyle. 

John W. M'Kenzie, Esq., Edinburgh. 

Rev. Thomas M'Neece, A.M., M.R.I. A., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Sir Fred. Madden, Hon. M.R.I. A., British 


James Magee, Esq., Lr. Merrion-st., Dublin. 
Edward Magrath, Esq., Athenaeum, London. 
John Mahon, Jun., Esq., Warneford-court, 
Throckmorton-street, London. 

Pierce Mahony, Esq., Dame-street, Dublin. 

Rev. Samuel R. Maitland, F.R.S., F.A.S., 
Palace, Lambeth. 

Andrew J. Maley, Esq., Merrion-sq., Dublin. 

Henry Martley, Esq., Q.C., Lower Gardiner- 
street, Dublin. 

George Mathews, Esq., Spring Vale, Belfast. 
Rev. George Maxwell, Askeaton. 

* Andrew Milliken, Esq., Grafton-st., Dublin. 

Henry J. Monck Mason, Esq., M.R.I. A., 

Rev. Charles H. Monsell, Coleraine. 

William Monsell, Esq., M.R.I. A., Tervoe, 

Thomas Moore, Esq., Sloperton, Devizes. 

John Shank More, Esq., Great King-street, 

Joseph Neeld, Esq., M.P., Grosvenor-square, 

Joseph Nelson, Esq., 28, Gloucester-street, 

William Nugent, Esq., Killester Abbey, Ra- 

Sir Lucius O'Brien, Bart., Dromoland. 

Augustus Stafford O'Brien, Esq., M.P., Bla- 
therwycke, Northamptonshire. 

William Smith O'Brien, Esq., M. P., Car- 
moy Hill, Limerick. 

The Rt. Hon. Daniel O'Connell, M.P., Lord 
Mayor of Dublin. 

Mat. O'Connor, Esq., Mountjoy-sq., Dublin. 

The O'Donovan, Montpelier, Douglas, Cork. 

* John O'Donovan, Esq., Dublin. 

Thomas O'Hagan, Esq., Upper Mountjoy- 

street, Dublin. 
Major O'Hara, Annamoe, Collooney. 
Colman M. O'Loghlen, Esq., Dublin. 

Charles O'Malley, Esq., North Gt. George's- 
street, Dublin. 

Rev. Caesar Otway, A.B., M.R.I. A., Dublin, 
(Deceased, 1842). 

Rev. Mortimer O'Sullivan, D.D., Killyman. 

Rt. Hon. Sir R. Peel, Bart., M.P., London. 

Louis Hayes Petit, Esq., F.R.S., London. 

George Petrie, Esq., R.H.A., M.R.I.A., 
Great Charles-street, Dublin. 

* Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., Broadway, 


John Edward Pigott, Esq., 8, Merrion-sq., 
South, Dublin. 


J 3 

Robert Pitcairn, Esq., Queen-st., Edinburgh. 

Rev. Classon Porter, Larne, County An- 

William Potts, Esq., Dame-street, Dublin. 

Hon. Edward Preston, Gormanstown Castle, 

Colonel J. Dawson Rawdon, M. P., Cold- 
stream Guards, Stanhope-street, London. 

Rev. L. F. Renahan, College, Maynooth. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., M.R.I. A., Ob- 
servatory, Armagh. 

Richard Roth well, Esq., Rockfield, Kells. 

Rev. Franc Sadleir, D.D., V.P.R.I. A., Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Francis A. Sanders, Esq., A.B., Dublin. 

Rev. William Sewell, A.M.. Fellow of Exeter 
College, Oxford. 

Right Hon. Frederick Shaw, M.P., Recorder 
of Dublin. 

Remmy H. Sheehan, Esq., Mespil House, 

Evelyn R. Shirley, Esq., M.P., Eatington 
Park, Shipton-on-Stour. 

Rev. J. H. Singer, D.D., V.P.R.I.A., Se- 
nior Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Aquilla Smith, Esq., M.D., M.R.I. A., Dub- 

* Rev. John Campbell Smith, Glasgow. 

Jos. Huband Smith, Esq., A.M., M.R.I. A., 

Wiiliam Smith, Esq., Carbeth Guthrie, Stir- 

John Smith, Esq., LL.D., Secretary of the 
Maitland Club, Glasgow. 

* George Smith, Esq., Lower Baggot-street, 


John George Smyly, Esq., Merrion-street, 

George Lewis Smyth, Esq., Bridge-street, 

Sir Wm. Meredith Somerville, Bart., M.P. 

Rev. Thomas Stack, A.M., M.R.I. A., Fel- 
low of Trinity College, Dublin. 

William Stokes, Esq., M.D., M.R.I. A., Re- 
gius Professor of Physic, Dublin. 

Andrew Storie, Esq., Signet Library, Edin- 

Hon. Andrew Godfrey Stuart, Aughnacloy. 

Rev. Hamilton Stuart, Rochfort, Buncrana. 

William Villiers Stuart, Esq., Dromana, 


Rev. George Studdert, A.B., Dundalk. 

* Robert James Tennent, Esq., Belfast. 
James Thompson, Esq., Belfast. 

Robert Tighe, Esq., Fitzwilliam-sq., Dublin. 

* W. F. Tighe, Esq., Inistiogue. 

*Rev. J. H. Todd, D.D., V.P.R.I. A., Fel- 
low of Trinity College, Dublin. 

George Tomb, Esq., Temple-street, Dublin. 

Rev. Rob. Traill, D.D., M.R.I. A., F.R.S.E., 

Schull, Skibbereen. 

Rev. John M. Traherne, Coedriglan, Car- 

Travers Twiss, Esq., F.R.S., University Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

Crofton Moore Vandeleur, Esq., Kilrush. 

Sir Aubrey de Vere, Bart., Curragh Chase, 
A dare. 

Sir Hussey Vivian, Bart., M.P., London. 

John Walker, Esq., Cornhill House, Cold- 
stream, W.B. 

Rev. Charles Wm. Wall, D.D., M.R.I.A., 

Senior Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

James A. Wall, Esq., Baggot-street, Dublin. 
Hugh Walsh, Esq., Drumsna. 

Sam. Hibbert Ware, Esq., M.D., F.R.S.E., 


Charles T. Webber, Esq. M.R.I. A., 22, 

Upper Gloucester-street, Dublin. 

Hon. Henry R. Westenra, Dell, Windsor. 

Lestock P. Wilson, Esq., North Audley-st., 

Rev. J. Wilson, B.D., Fellow of Trinity 
College, Oxford. 

Rev. James Wilson, D.D., Precentor of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. 

Edwnrd Wright, Esq., Blessington-street, 

Rev. Walter Young, Enniskillen. 




I. The number of Members shall be limited to 500. 

II. The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a President and Council of 
twelve Members, to be elected annually by the Society. 

III. Those Noblemen and Gentlemen who have been admitted Members prior to 
the first day of May, 1841, shall be deemed tjie original Members of the Society, and 
all future Members shall be elected by the Council. 

IV. Each Member shall pay four pounds on the first year of his election, and one 
pound every subsequent year. These payments to be made in advance, on or before 
the first day of January, annually. 

V. Such Members as desire it, may become Life Members, on payment of the 
sum of thirteen pounds, or ten pounds, (if they have already paid their entrance fee) in 
lieu of the annual subscription. 

VI. Every Member whose subscription is not in arrear shall be entitled to receive 
one copy of each publication of the Society issued subsequently to his admission ; and 
the books printed by the Society shall not be sold to the public. 

VII. No Member who is three months in arrear of his subscription shall be en- 
titled to vote, or to any other privileges of a Member ; and any Member who shall be 
one year in arrear shall be considered as having resigned. 

VIII. Any Member who shall gratuitously edit any book, approved of by the 
Council, shall be entitled to twenty copies of such book, when printed, for his own use: 
and the Council shall at all times be ready to receive suggestions from Members, rela- 
tive to such rare books or manuscripts as they may be acquainted with, and which 
they may deem worthy of being printed by the Society. 

IX. The Council shall have power to appoint officers ; and to make b} r -laws not 
inconsistent with the fundamental laws of the Society. 

The Council invite the attention of the friends of the Society and of Irish literature 
to the plan already proposed in the original Prospectus, of publishing a Miscellany, in 
which such shorter Pieces as cannot conveniently be issued in a separate form, may 
from time to time appear. The Council will be thankful for any tracts or documents 
of this kind, which those who have access to public libraries, or family collections, ma}- 
have the kindness to send them. Reprints of rare books relating to Ireland form a 
most important object of the Society's labours, and any such that may be entrusted to 
the Council for publication, will be used with the greatest possible care, and safely re- 
turned with thanks. 


! 5 

Noblemen and Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members of the Irish Archaeo- 
logical Society are requested to forward their names and addresses to the Secretary, 
Rev. Dr. Todd, Trinity College, Dublin. The publications of the year 1841 may be 
obtained by Members now joining the Society, on payment of the annual subscription 
for that year. Literary Societies and public libraries may procure the Society's pub- 
lications by causing their Librarian or any other officer to become a Member of the 
Irish Archa3ological Society in their name. 

Subscriptions will be received in Dublin by Messrs. Hodges and Smith, the So- 
ciety's Booksellers, 21, College-green. 

In London, by Mr. T. Clerc Smith, 13, Henrietta-street, Covent Garden. 

In Belfast, by Edmund Getty, Esq., Victoria-place. 

In Cork, by John Lindsay, Esq., Maryville, Blackrock. 

In Edinburgh, by David Laing, Esq., Signet Library. 

In Glasgow, by John Smith, Esq., LL.D., 70, St. Vincent-street. 

Those Members who may find it inconvenient to pay their subscriptions to these 
gentlemen, will have the goodness to procure a Post- Office order made payable to the 
Secretary, Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., Trinity College, Dublin ; or to the Treasurer, John 
Smith Furlong, Esq., Q. C, 146, Leeson-street, Dublin. 



[Life Members are marked thus *.] 

His Excellency Earl De Grey, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
The Most Noble the Marquis of Waterford. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Clancarty. 

Miss M. J. Alexander, Dublin. 

Rev. Charles Crosthwaite, A. M., Monas- 

J. Walter K. Evton, Esq., F. S. A. Lond. 

and Ed., Elgin Villa, Leamington. 
Rev. Robert Gage, A. M., Rathlin Island, 

Rev. W. S. Gilly, D. D., Norham, Berwick- 

on- Tweed. 
* Rev. Thomas Goff, Carriglea, Kingstown. 

Richard Griffith, Esq., Dublin. 

George Alexander Hamilton, Esq., Hamp- 
ton Hill, Dublin. 

Leonard L. Hartley, Esq., Middleton Lodge, 
Richmond, Yorkshire. 

* A. J. B. Hope, Esq., M. P., Bedgebury 
Park, Lamberhurst. 

Rev. John Lingard, D. D., Hornby. 

Charles P. Mac Donnell, Esq., Bonabrougha 
House, Wicklow. 

* The 


The Most Rev. John Mac Hale, D. D., Tuam. 

The Hon. General Meade, Newry. 

Rev. Philip Moore, Rossbercon. 

* Rev. Charles Porter, A. M., late Fellow of 
Caius College, Cambridge, Aughnamullen, 

Col. Henry Edward Porter, Carrickmacross. 

Evelyn John Shirley, Esq., M. P., Carrick- 

W. F. Skene, Esq., Inverleith Row, Edin- 

Richard Thompson, Esq. (for the London^In- 
stitution), Finsbury-square, London. 

Rev. M. A. Tierney, F. R. S., F. S. A., Arundel. 

Rev Whitley (for The Portico), Man- 

William Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm, Neath. 
* John Wynne, Esq., Hazlewood, Sligo. 

pteaoh ouin Na N-^eoh. 


pceaoh ouiN Na N-5eoh, 
ocus uucaiu cauha TTIU151 pciuk inso. 

I JI15 ampa pop Gipmn, peachcup ano, .1. Oom- 
nall, mac Qet>a, mic Qinmipech, mic Sebna, mic 
pep^upa CennpoDa, mic Conaill ^ulban, mic 
Neill Nai-^iallaig, t>e ceniul Uuachail Ueccrhaip ocup U^aine 
TTIaip anall. lp e in u-U^aine TTlap pin po ^ab para ^pene ocup 
epca, mapa ocup cipe, ocup Opucc, ocup oairin, ocup para na n-uile 
t)úl aicpi^e ocup nemaicpi^e, ocup nac t>uil pil a mm ocup a ual- 
main, ím pi^i n-Gpenn bo oilpiu^ao t>ia clomt> co bpóxh. Ocup 
po ^ab íepom Uuaral Uecumap, mac piachach pinnola, na para 
ceona pop plicc a penauap .1. U^aine Ulaip, ocup 56 00 cipea ppia 


The ornamental initial letter 6 is taken Note A, at the end of the volume, 

from the Book of Kells. The Society is b Oaths. — "Ro jab para, literally, "took 

indebted to Dr. Aquilla Smith for the or exacted the guarantees of the sun, &c." 

facsimile from which the wood cut was but as this would hardly be intelligible 

engraved. in English, the liberty has been taken of 

Ugainé Mor — The pedigree of King rendering it as in the text. The historical 

Domhnall, up to Ugainé Mor, is given in fact is also recorded in the Book of Lein- 


NCE upon a time there was a renowned king over 
Erin, namely Domhnall, son of Aedli, son of Ain- 
mire, son of Sedna, son of Fergus Cennfoda, son of 
Conall Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, of 
the race of Tuathal Techtmhar and Ugainé Mor a . 
Now this Ugainé Mor exacted oaths b by the sun 
and moon, the sea, the dew and colours, and by all the elements 
visible and invisible, and by every element which is in heaven and on 
earth, that the sovereignty of Erin should be invested in his descen- 
dants for ever. And Tuathal Techtmhar, the son of Fiacha Finnola, 
exacted the same oaths in imitation of his ancestor Ugainé Mor, 


ster, and in the Leabhar Gabhala. 0' Fla- 
herty (Ogygia, p. 260) mentions it in the 
following words : — " Imperium ultra Hi- 
berniam in occidentalibus Europe insulis 
mari Mediterraneo, quod Siculum et Afri- 

canum continet citerioribus usque propa- 
gavit. Axioma regium principum ac mag- 
natum Hiberniae j urej urando per res creatas 
omnes visibiles et invisibiles adhibito, sibi, 
atque p steris suis in perpetuum devinxit." 


cloino-pium im pi^i n-Gpenn rap papu^at) na pach pin ocup r,a 
n-oul po naipc-pium poppo, puoilpi Uempac co n-a colamnaib ocup 
pen-uuaca Uempa ocup TTliOe t>o spep oca clomt)-pium co bpox ; 
ocup 56 no paemao neac Do cloino Ugaine no Uhuaúail pi£i Do 
rabaipc uaiDib oo neac aile, ap ai cpa, noca 0I15 in pi$ pin ceacc 
1 Uemaip, acu mine úuca pepann bup compurain ppia 00 cloino 
U^ame TTlaip ocup Uuaúail Uecumaip 1 cein bup pi^ he popaib; 
ocup m can ac béla m pi^ pin, Uemaip 00 beic ac claino U^ame, 
amail po naipc U^aine pepin pop pipu 6penn, in ran po ^ab ^iallu 
Gpenn ocup Qlban ocup co cip Leacha alia naip. 

Qp ai pin, po h-epcaineo Uemaip íapum la ftuaoan Lorpa ocup 
la xn. appeal na h-Gpenn, ocup la naemu Gpenn ap cena. Ocup 
cipe no ^abao in pi^i nip ba h-aóa 00 beic 1 Uemaip ó pó h-epcain- 
eaó h-i, ace m c-maD ba ppuinu ocup ba h-aibniu lap in pi^ no 
^ebab Gpinn, íp ann no bit) a Oomnap no a aiupeab. Oorhnall mac 


c For an account of the oath which 
Tuathal Techtmhar exacted from the men 
of Ireland, see the Book of Leinster and the 
Leabhar Gabhala of the O'Clery's. O'Fla- 
herty gives it in the following words : 

" Tuathalius, regni diademate potitus, 
comitia Temoria3 indixit, ad qua? Hiber- 
nian proceres magno numero confluxerunt. 
Ubi omnes, per sua gentilitia sacramenta, 
solem, lunam, ac caetera numina, terres- 
tria ac coelestia, quemadmodum sui majores 
ipsius majoribus pridem Herimoni et Hu- 
goni voverunt se cum posteris suis ipsi 
ac nepotibus Hiberniae regibus, quamdiu 
solum Hibernicum sale ambitum inviola- 
tam fidem et obsequium praestituros." — 
Ogygia, part iii. c. 56. 

d Ceazta. — Leatha is the name by which 
Italy is called in the ancient Irish MSS. ac- 
cording to Duald Mac Firbis. This story 
was evidently written to flatter the pride of 
the Hy-Niall race, and to show that if any 
other family succeeded in obtaining the 
sovereignty they should be viewed in the 
light of usurpers ; and indeed it were well 
for the ancient Irish if the sovereignty 
had been vested in some one family. 
O'Conor, in his Dissertations on the His- 
tory of Ireland, states that the Hy-Niall 
formed as old and as uninterrupted a dy- 
nasty as any family in Europe. 

e £orpa Lothra, now Lorrah, a village 

in the Barony of Lower Ormond, in the 
north of the county of Tipperary, where St. 

and stipulated that if the sovereignty of Erin should be contested 
with his descendants in violation of these oaths, taken on the ele- 
ments, by which he bound them, his progeny should still have the 
legitimate possession of Tara with its supporting families, and the 
old tribes of Tara and Meath perpetually and for ever ; and that 
should any of the race of Ugainé or Tuathal even consent to resign the 
sovereignty to any other person, the latter could not, nevertheless, come 
to dwell at Tara, unless he had given lands equally ancient as Tara 
to the descendants of Ugainé Mor and Tuathal Techtmhar while he 
should be king over them ; and that when this king should die, Tara 
should revert to the race of Ugainé, according to the injunction laid 
by Ugainé himself on the men of Erin, when he took the hostages 
of Erin and of the countries extending eastwards to Leatha d . 

Notwithstanding this, Tara was afterwards denounced by St. 
Ruadhan of Lothra 6 and the twelve apostles of Erin, and all the other 
saints of Erin, so that, whoever obtained the sovereignty, it was not 
auspicious for him to reside at Tara from the time it was cursed, but 
the seat and habitation of each king who obtained the chief sway, was 
fixed in whatever locality he deemed most commodious and delight- 
fur. When Domhnall, the son of Aedh, assumed the sovereignty, 


Ruadhan, or Rodanus, erected a monastery Northern Hy-Niall race, was at Aileach, 
in the sixth century. For a full account near Derry ; the seats of the Southern 
of the cursing of Tara by this saint, the Hy-Niall were at Lough Leane, near Castle- 
reader is referred to the Life of St. Rodanus, pollard, and at Dun na Sgiath, on the 
published by the Bollandists, 25th April, north-west margin of Loch Ainninn, now 
to Mageoghegan's Translation of the An- Lough Ennell, near Mullingar ; the seat of 
nals of Clonmacnoise, at the year 565, and the Dal-Cais was at Kincora, in the town 
to Petrie's History and Antiquities of Tara of Killaloe; and the seats of the two 
Hill, p. 1 01. monarchs of the 0' Conor race, at Rath 
f These royal seats were in various parts Croghan, in the present county of Ros- 
of Ireland ; that of the monarchs of the common, and at Tuam, in the count}' 

Geba, ímoppo, o po $ab pi£e Gpenn ba peat) a t>un-apup corh- 
nuibce oo poe£ae Gpenn cécup Oun na n-^eo pop bpu na boinne. 
Ocup po ropaino pium peer nriúpu mop-aiobli mion t>un pin pa 
copmailiup Uempai£ na pi£, ocup po ropaino 510 ci^e in t)úine pin 
pa copmailiup uige na Uempac .1. in rmocuaipu mop-aobal, ip mci 
no bio in pi^ pepin ocup na pi^na ocup na h-ollumam, ocup an ip 
oeach ppi cec n-oán oleena; ocup in Con^ llluman, ocup in Lor\^ 
Lai^en, ocup in Choipip Connacc, ocup in Gacpaip Ulao, ocup 
Capcaip na n-^iall, ocup T?ecla na pileo, ocup J^pianan in en 
uaicne, — ip epioe 00 pi^neo laCopmac mac Gipu ap uup 01a m^in 
.1. 00 55paine — ocup na ri^e oleena cenmoúau pin. 


of Galway. But the monarch of Ireland, 
of whatever race he happened to be, or 
wherever he fixed his residence, was ne- 
vertheless called King of Tara as often as 
King of Erin by the Bards. 

8 Dun na n-gedh. — This name is now 


k Long Laighean, — i. e. the Leinster 

1 Coisir Connacht, — i. e. the Connaght 
Banqueting house. 

m Eachrais Uladh, — i. e. the Ultonian 
It was probably the name of house. These four houses seem to have 
the large fort on the south side of the formed a part of the Teach Midhchuarta. 

Boyne, near Dowth, in the county of East n Prison of the Hostages For the situ- 

Meath. In Mac Morissy's copy it is written ation of Dumha na n-giall, at Tara, near 

Dun na n-gaedh, which seems more cor- 
rect. King Domhnall afterwards removed 
his residence to Ard Fothadh, near the 
town of Donegal, where he died, according 
to the Annals of the Four Masters, in the 
year 639 \_recte 642]. 

h Midhchuairt. — For an account of the 

which must have stood Carcair na n-giall, 
the Prison of the Hostages, see Petrie's 
Hist, and Antiq. of Tara Hill, plate 7. 

Star of the Poets. — There is no men- 
tion made of this house in Petrie's History 
and Antiquities of Tara Hill. 

p Grianan of the one pillar — This is the 

Teach Midhchuarta, or Banqueting Hall fort called Rath Graine, in Petrie's His- 

at Tara, see Petrie's History and Antiqui- tory and Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. 192. 

ties of Tara Hill, p. 1 60, et sequent. The relative situation of all the ruins, as 

1 Ollaves — Ollamh signifies a chief pro- existing on Tara Hill, in the tenth century, 

fessor of any science. are shown on plate 10 of that work, and 

J Long Mumhan, — i. e. the Munster as they exist at present on plate 6, and 

he first selected Dun na n-gedh g , on the bank of the Boinn [the 

River Boyne], to be his habitation beyond all the situations in Erin. 

And he drew [formed] seven very great ramparts around this 

fort after the model of regal Tara, and he also laid out the houses of 

that fort after the model of the houses of Tara, namely, the great 

Midhchuairt h , in which the king himself, and the queens, and the 

ollaves' 1 , and those who were most distinguished in each profession, 

sit; also the Long Mumhan j , the Long Laighean k , the Coisir Con- 

nacht 1 , the Eachrais Uladh m , the Prison of the Hostages", the Star of 

the Poets , the Grianan of the one pillar (which last had been first 

built at Tara by Cormac Mac Art q , for his daughter Grainne), and 

other houses besides. 


also on the Ordnance Map of the county 
of Meath, Parish of Tara. 

q Cormac Mac Art. — The commence- 
ment of the reign of this monarch is re- 
corded in the Annals of Tighernach, at 
A. D. 218, and his death is entered in 
the Annals of the Four Masters at the 
year 266. His daughter Graine, for whom 
the Grianan here mentioned was erected, 
was the wife of the celebrated warrior 
Finn Mac Cumhaill, the Fingal of Mac 
Pherson's Ossian. The word " Grianan" 
may be thus correctly defined : 1 . A beau- 
tiful sunny spot, as Grianan Calraighe, a 

very frequently used in the old Irish His- 
torical Tales and Romances. The follow- 
ing description of the erection of a Gria- 
nan, as given in a very ancient historical 
tale, entitled Fledh Bricrinn, i. e. the 
Feast of Bricrenn, preserved in Leabhar 
na h-Uidhri, a MS. of the twelfth century, 
now in the possession of Messrs. Hodges 
and Smith, will give one a tolerably cor- 
rect idea of what the ancient Irish meant 
by the word : — " Then did Bricrenn erect a 
Grianan near the couch of King Concobhar 
and those of the heroes. This Grianan 
he formed of gems and various rich mate- 

place in the parish of Calry, in the north rials, and placed on it windows of glass on 

of the county of Sligo. In this topogra- 
phical or rural sense, it is translated by 
Colgan, solarium, terra Solaris, (Acta SS. 
p. 13, not. 6). 2. A bower or summer- 
house. 3. A balcony or gallery, a boudoir. 
4. A royal palace. In the third and 
fourth sense here set down, this word is 

every side. One of these windows he placed 
over his own couch, so that he might see 
the whole extent of the great house out 
of it." 

In the third sense it is used in the 
Leabhar Breac, fol. 27, a, a, to translate 
the Latin word ccenaculum. 


Coolaip Ooimnall at^ai^ íapum íp in ui^ pin, ocup auci píp ocup 
aiplina ín^nao, ocup íp e ac conaij.c cuilen con po h-aileo laip 
(.1. peap^lono ainni in chon pin) pop a £lun pepir, a Oul pop ouible 
ocup t>apacc uaoa, ocup cuanapra Gpenn ocup Glban ocup Saxan 
ocup bpeccm tio cinol t>o'n cuilen pin, co capo-pac peer cara t>o n 
pi^ co pepaib Gpenn íme ppi peer laa na peccmaine, ocup co 
rapOua áp cecmt) eruppu cac laiúi Dib-pin, ocup in peccmao laa 
ann po mebcnt) pop na conu. Ocup po mapbra cú m pi£, an t>ap- 
laip, íp in car Demenac oib pin. ÍTIupclaip íapum m pi£ ap a 
cot>luD ocup t>o uaéo t>o biog ap in ímOai^ co m-bui lomnocc pop 
uplap in ci^e. Oo bepc umoppo ben in pi^, .1. in^en pi^ Oppai^e, 
a t)i lami ím a bpa^air, ocup apbepu ppip, aipip ocum-pa, a pi^, 
ol pi, ocup na uuc h'aipe pe pi^ipib aiDce, ocup na poc uamnai^rep 
rpiúu; ap auac Conaill, ocup 605am, ocup Qip^ialla, ocup Clann 
Colmain, ocup Sil Get>a Slaine, ocup ceúpe pine Uempach ittuiu 
anochc ip in C15 pi, ocup aipip pop ceill, ol pi. 


r Vision. — The word pip is given in 193. She was probably the sister of Croin- 

Cormac's Glossary as cognate with the seach, the daughter of Aedh Finn, Prince of 

Latin word visio. Ossory,who was married toKingDomhnall's 

s Erin. — Its Nominative is Gipe, Gen. brother, Maelcobha, the clerk. The death 

Gipenn, Dat. or Oblique case Gipmn. of Duinsech is recorded by all the Irish 

c Alba, now Scotland. Nom. Ctlba, Gen. Annalists ; Tighernach, whose chronology 

Glban, Dat. or Oblique case Glbcnn. is the most correct, dates it A. D. 639. 

u Sacpcm, i. e. that part of England y Race of Conall, — i. e. the descendants 

then in the possession of the Saxons. of Conall Gulban, who was the youngest 

v ópeoxcnn, i. e. that part of Britain son of the monarch Niall of the Nine 

then in the possession of the Welsh or an- Hostages, and who died in the year 464. 

cient Britons. They had their possessions in the present 

w Gp cenn, literally " slaughter of county of Donegal, and in later ages 

heads," i. e. of men; strages capitum. branched into several great families, as 

x The king's wife She was named Duin- O'Muldory, O'Canannan, O'Donnell, O'Do- 

sech, accordingto the history of remarkable herty, O' Gallagher, O'Boyle, &c. 

women, preserved in the Book of Lecan, fol. z Race of Eoghan, — i. e. the descendants 

One niglit as Domlmall afterwards slept in this house, he had a 

vision" and a dream : he saw a greyhound whelp, Fearglonn by name, 

which had been reared by himself, go forth from him, even from his 

knee, with rage and fury, gathering the dogs of Erin s , Alba r , Saxon - 

land" and Britain*; and they gave the king and the men of Erin 

around him seven battles during the seven days of the week, and a 

slaughter of heads w was made between them each day, but on the 

seventh day the dogs were worsted, and in the last battle the king's 

own hound, as he thought, was killed. The king then awoke from 

his sleep, and he sprang affrighted from his bed, so that he was naked 

on the floor of the house. The king's wife x , the daughter of the king 

of Ossory, put her two arms about his neck and said to him, " Tarry 

with me, O king," said she, " and do not heed visions of the night, and 

be not affrighted by them, for the race of Conall y and Eoghan 2 , the 

Oirghialla a , the Clann Colmain 5 , the sons of Aedh Slaine c , and the 

four tribes of Tara d , are around thee this night in this house, and 

therefore, 1 ' said she, " remain steady to reason." 

" A blessing 

of Eoghan, son of the same monarch. Mahons, O'Carrolls, O'Hanlons, Maguires, 

Eoghan died in the year 465. After the O'Hanraghtys, Mac Kennas, &c. &c. Their 

establishment of surnames the moredistin- country comprised the counties of Louth, 

guished families of this race were O'Neill, Armagh, and Monaghan, and the greater 

MacLoughlin, O'Kane, O'Hagan, O'Gorm- part of Fermanagh. 

ley, O'Quin, Mac Cathmhaoil, now Mac b Clann Colmain, — i. e. the Race of Col- 

Cawell, O'Mullen, &c. &c. man, the son of Dermot. This Colman 

a The Oirgkiatta They were the de- flourished about the year 562, and wa>s 

scendants of the three Collas, who de- the ancestor of the O'Melaghlins of West- 

stroyed the Ultonian palace of Emania, in meath, the chiefs of the Southern Hy- 

the year 333 (Ann. Tighernach.), and drove Niall race. 

the ancient Ultonians, or Clanna Rudh- c AedhSlaine He reigned jointly with 

raighe, beyond Glen Righe and Lough Colman, the son of Baedan, from the year 

Neagh, into the present counties of Down 599 to 605. 

and Antrim. In later ages the principal d The four tribes of Tara The four 

families of the Oirghialla were the Mac tribes or families of Tara, after the esta- 



bennacr pope, a ben, ol pe, if maic pom cecaipcip; ocup t)o 
caet> lee íp in leapait> lap pin; ocup po mppacu in pi^an pcela 
t>e cm ar conaipe íp in pip. Ni éibép ppir a pi^an, ol pe, na ppi 
neac aile, no co poipiup co li-aipm a pil TTlaelcaba Cleipech, mo 
nepbparaip, ap íp ebpeichem aiplm^úi íp oeach pil a n-Gpinn. 

Uéic íapnm in pi^ i cino mip cet) caipprech co h-aipm á m-bui 
TTlaelcaba, mac GeOa, mic Qmmipec, co Opuim Oilaip, uaip íp arm 
po bui lap pá^bail pi^i n-6penn ap ^paó Dé ocup in Choimt>eó na 
n-oul, ocup oipepem-bec ai^i ann pm, ocup en Oeicnebup ban, ocup 
cet>cleipecalw ann pin, ppi h-oippent> ocup ceilebpaD cec upaúa. 
l?ainic umoppo in pi$ co Opuim Oilaip co ceac TTlailcaba, ocup 
pepúap pailui ppipann, ocup t>o ^nirep pópaic Ooib, ocup au na^ap 
biat) ooib cu m-ba paireac íau uile. Gnaiu ann ['in ppi peexmam, ocup 
mnipioDomnalliapum aaiplin^ci t>o TTlaelcaba coleip,ocupapbepu 
ppip, beip bpeiú puippe pin, a bpaúaip ínmam, ol pe. l?o h-imoep^ra 
íapum im TTlaelcaba lap cloipcecc na h-aiplm^n, ocup apbepu, íp 
cian ocaa caippn^i in aiplin^ce pin, a pi^, ol pe ? ocup bépac-pa 
bpeic puippi. TTIac pi 5, ol pe, ocup cuilen con, inano aiplin^i 
Doib. Gear t>a Dalca a^uu-pa, a pi£, ol pe, .1. Cobrach Caem mac 


blishment of surnames, were the O'Harts, when Domhnall, the brother of Maelcobha, 

O'Regans, O'Kellys of Bregia, andO'Conol- and hero of this tale, succeeded, 

lys. See prose version of O'Dugan's To- f Druim Dilair was the ancient name of 

pographical Poem, drawn up for Maguire a place near Belleek, in the barony of Magh- 

by the Four Masters, in the MS. collection eraboy, and county of Fermanagh. See 

of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, No. 178, O'Reilly's Irish Writers, pp. xli, xlii ; also 

p. 345, line 1 2. the Leabhar Gabhala of the O'Clerys, reign 

e Maelcobha, the cleric, the son of Aedh, of Maolcobha, pp. 186 to 189, where Druim 

was King of Ireland from the year 612 to Dilair is described as near the margin of Caol 

615, when he retired to Druim Dilair, Uisce, now Caol na h-Eirne, near Belleek. 

having resigned the government to Suibhne ^Hermitage — t) ' pepc, which is the name 

Meann, who reigned till the year 628, of many places in Ireland, is translated 

1 1 

"A blessing be upon thee, O woman," said lie, "well hast thou 
quieted me ;" and he then returned with her into the bed. And the 
queen requested him to relate to her what he had seen in the vision. 
" I will not tell it to thee, O queen," said he, " nor to any one else, 
until I reach the place where Maelcobha, the cleric, 6 my brother, is, 
for he is the best interpreter of dreams in Erin." 

In a month afterwards, the king proceeded with a hundred 
chariots to Druim Dilair/ where Maelcobha, son of Aedh, son of 
Ainmire, was dwelling, having resigned the sovereignty of Erin for 
the love of God, the creator of the elements, and having here a small 
hermitage, g with ten women, and one hundred clerks to offer masses 
and sing vespers at the hours. The king arrived at Druim Dilair at 
the house of Maelcobha, where he was welcomed, and where a 
resting-place was prepared for him and his people, and food was 
distributed to them till they were all satisfied. They remained here 
for a week, and Domhnall fully revealed his dream to Maelcobha, 
and said to him, " Give thy judgment on that, dear brother." Mael- 
cobha grew red on hearing the dream, and said "It is long since the 
events shown in that dream were predicted, king," said he, " and I 
will pass my judgment upon it. A greyhound whelp in a dream," said 
he, " is the same as a king's son : thou hast two foster-sons, king," 
said he, " namely, Cobhthach Caemh, h the son of Raghallach, the son of 


desertus locus and desertum by Colgan. the death of his father, Raghallach, is 
(Acta SS. p. 579, cap. 3). It originally noted by Tighernach, at the year 649, and 
meant desert or wilderness, but it was that of his brother Cellach, at the year 
afterwards applied to a hermit's cell or 705. " Cellach Mac Ragallaigh Righ Con- 
habitation, as appears from the Leabhar nacht post clericatum obiiV The name 
Breac, fol. 1 00, a y a, and a MS. in the Lib. Cobhthach, which signifies victorious, is 
Trin. Coll. (H. 2. 18.) fol. 113, b, a. still preserved in the family name O'Cobh- 
h Cobhtach Caemh. — No mention is made thaigh, which is usually anglicised Coffet/, 
of this Cobhthach in the Irish Annals, but without the prefix 0'. 



Recalled g» mic UaDach; pi^ Connacc in Ra^allac hifin; ocup 
Congal Claen, mac Scannlain Sciarlerain; J115 Ulat) pepin in ui 
Congal. GpDai^piD ceccap Dib 1 u'a^aio-piu, a pi£, ocup Do bépa 
Dibep^ai^ ocup oep Denma uilc Qlbcm, ocup Ppan^c, ocup Saxan, 
ocup bpecan laip 00 cum n-Gpenn, ocup Do bepau pecc caca duic- 
piu ocup D'pepaib Gpenn ap cena, cu m-ba h-ilapóa áp pló^ popaib 
Diblínib, ocup in peccmaD car cuippirep euupaib caecpaiD 00 
Dalra-pu íp m car pin. Ocup íp 1 pm bpec na h-aiplin^n ac conap- 
caip, a pi$, ap TTlaelcaba, ocup apeó íp coip Duiupiu, a pi£, olpe, 
pleao Do úup^nam a^uD, ocup pip Gpenn Do uap^lom Dia caiuim 
ocup geill caca cuiciD a n-Gpmn 00 £abail, ocup na 01 Dalca pin 
pi lee a£;uO-pa Oo con^bail a n-^lapaib co ceann m-bliaóna. Qp 
íp necuap Dib cic ppic, Dai£ ceic a neim apcac aiplmjjn allapui^ 
Do bliaoam; ocup a le^uD amac lap pin, ocup peoDu imDa ocup 
maine Dípíme t>o rabaipc Doib íapum. 

Ni Dm^encap pin lim-pa, ol in pi^, áp íp cupca no puicpmD 
pi Gpe máp Do £énainD pell pop ma óalcaDaib pepin, ap ni cic- 
paio ppim-pa caiDce, ocup t)ia uipcaip pipu in Domain ppim-]'a ni 
ncpao Congal. Conao ann apbepu po: 

Gc conapc aiplin^i n-olc, 

peccmam pop mfp $up a nocu, 

íp Do uana^up om' Ú15, 

o'a h-aipneip o'a h-innipin. 

nio cuilen-pa cuanna a clu, 

pep^lonn pepp h-i na cec cu, 


5 Congal Claen is called Congal Caecli wry-eyed, 

in the Annals of Tighernach, at the year ■) Then he said. — This is the usual ar- 

637, and Congal Caoch, or Congal Claon, rangement of ancient Irish tales: a cer- 

in the Annals of the Four Masters, at the tain portion of the story is first told in 

year 624. It appears from this story that prose, and the most remarkable incidents 

both epithets are synonymous, and mean in the same afterwards repeated in metre, 

x 3 

Uadach; (thisRaghallach is king of Connaught); and Congal Claen' 1 , 
the son of Scannlan of the Broad Shield; Congal himself is king of 
Ulster. Either of these will rise up against thee, king, and will 
bring the plunderers and the doers of evil of Alba, France, Saxon- 
land, and Britain with him to Erin, who will give seven battles to 
thee and the men of Erin, so that great slaughter shall be made be- 
tween you both, and in the seventh battle which shall be fought be- 
tween you, thy foster-son shall fall. And this is the interpretation of 
the vision thou hast seen, O king," said Maelcobha. " Now it is proper 
for thee, O king," said he, " to prepare a banquet, and to invite to it 
the men of Erin, and to obtain the hostages of every province in 
Erin, and also to detain in fetters, to the end of a year, these two foster- 
sons of thine, because it is one of them who will rise up against 
thee, and because the venom goes out of every dream within the 
year. Then set them at liberty, and bestow many jewels and much 
wealth upon them." 

" This shall not be done by me," said the king, " for sooner would 
I quit Erin than deal treacherously by my own foster-sons, for they 
will never rise up against me, and if all the men of the world should 
oppose me Congal would not." And then he said j : 

Domhnall. — " I have seen an evil dream, 

A week and a month this night, 

In consequence of it I left my house, 

To narrate it, to tell it. 

My whelp of estimable character, 

Ferglonn, better than any hound, 


often in the nature of a dialogue between amusement of their chieftains, at their 

two of the principal characters. It is public feasts, and that the portions given 

generally supposed that these stories were in metre were sung See Preface. 

recited by the ancient Irish poets for the 


Dap lin po nnoil oam cuain, 
O'ap mill Gpinn ppi h-oen uaip. 

bep-pi bpeic pip uippe-pm f 
uaic a TTlailcaba, clepi^ 
ip uu olijep co h-eimeach, 
ac pipi£, ac píp-cléipech. 

fflac pi^" ip cuilen mílcon, 

inant) Doib ^up ip ^nimpab; 
memo menma Ooib malle, 
Ocup inant) aiplm^e. 

TDac pi£ UlaO, apo a pmacc, 
no mac pi£ cuicet» Connacc, 
Cobrach — cic ppiu ap cec poen, 
no a peap cumra, Con^al Claen. 

Cobrach t>o ciaccam ppim-pa, 
nnaips a oeip, uaip ip innpa; 
ip ni ncpaD Con^al cam, 
ppini-pa ap oep^-op in Domain. 

Comaipli na millpet) neac, 
uaim ouic, a ui Qinmipec: 
a n-gabail pe bliaóain m-bain, 
ni ba mepait)i h' ébail. 

TTlaipo" aipe t>o cuait) t>o'n ^np, 
Oia nom' £ébaó airpecup, 
t>a n-t>epnamt), nip puaipe m ^lonn, 
noca DecpainO ceill na cont). 


Uic m pig Dia Ú15 lap pm, ocup po cinoilleo pleaó bainopi laip 
t>o oénam bainopi a óúine ocup a pi£e, ocup ni paib a n-Gpinn Dun 


l 5 

Methought assembled a pack 
By which he destroyed Erin in one hour. 
Pass thou a true judgment upon it, 

Maelcobha, O cleric, 

It is thou oughtest readily, 

Thou art a seer and a true cleric." 
Maelcobha, — " The son of a king and a greyhound whelp 

Show the same courage and exploits; 

They have both the same propensity, 

And in dreams are [denote] the same thing. 
The son of Ulster's king of high authority, 

Or the son of the king of the province of Connaught, 

Cobhthach, — will oppose thee in every way, 

Or his playmate, Congal Claen." 
DomJinall. — " That Cobhthach should oppose me 

It is cruel to say, for it is difficult; 

And the comely Congal would not rise up 

Against me for the world's red gold." 
Maelcobha. — " A counsel which shall injure no one 

From me to thee, O grandson of Ainmiré : 

To fetter them for a full bright year; 

Thy prosperity will not be the worse for it." 
DomJinall. — a Alas, for the judge who came to the decision, 

For which remorse would seize me; 

Should I do the deed, 'twould not be joyful, 

1 would not consult sense or reason. 

I have seen," &c. 

After this, the king returned to his house, and prepared a banquet 
to celebrate the completion of his palace and his accession to the 



amail a óún-pum, acu nap ba bint> laip an pi^ain ocup la Oonv 
nall pepin a ainm .1. Oun na n-^éo 00 goipoip De. Ocup íp é 
po páió Domnall ppi a maepu ocup ppi a peccaipiu, ocup ppi 
h-oep uobai^ a cana ocup a cipa, ina b-pui£bet)ip a n-Gpinn oe 
ui^ib 566 Do úabaipu leo Oo cum na pleifte pin, ap nip bo miat) 
la Oomnall co m-beir 1 n-Gpint) cenel m-bít) nách pui^bicea popp 
in pleiD pin. l?o cmolao rpa in pleat) mle icip pin, ocup nut), 
ocup copmaim, ocup cenel cec bio olcena, cenmorau na h-ui^i 
nama, ap nip ba peio a pa^bail. 

Ocup t)o oeacaoap oep in uobai£ peacnóin TTIíóe pop íapaip 
na n-ui^e, conupcaplaOap pop Ouipreach m-bec, ocup oen bannpcal 
ann, ocup caille t>ub pop a cint), ocup pi oc ípnai^re ppi Dia. Qc 
ciao mmncip in pi^ ealca Oo ^éoaib 1 n-Dopup in Ouipri^e. Uia^aic 
íp in ueac ocup po £abac iant) Ian t)e ui£ib 566 ann. Ocup apbep- 
caDap pop pen maiu t>un, ol lau, uaip t)ia pipnrnp 6pe, ni pui^birea 
m but) mó oloapeo t)e ui^ib 56b in oen mat) innui. Nipu pen mair, 


k His accession to the throne. — It was a Magli Rath. 

custom among the Irish chieftains to give m To procure them That is, it was not 

a feast at the completion of any great work, easy to procure them at that season, as 

or on their succession to the chieftain- geese do not lay throughout the year, 

ship. n Duirtheach. — This word has been in- 

1 Dun na n-Gedh signifies the dun or correctly rendered nosocomium by Dr. 
fort of the geese. In Mac Morrissy's copy O' Conor, throughout his translation of 
of this Tract, which was corrected by Peter the Irish Annals, but correctly pceniten- 
Connell, now forming No. 60 of the MS, Hum cedes, and domus pcenitentice, by Col- 
collection of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, it gan, who understood the ancient Irish 
is written Dun na n-Gaedh, i. e. the fort of language far better than Dr. O'Conor. 
the darts or wounds. It is curious, that (Acta SS. p. 407 and 606). Peter Connell, 
the writer of the story does not state why in his Dictionary, explains it, a house of 
King Domhnall had imposed such a name austerity, rigour, and penance. There are 
on his new palace. It does not appear to several ruins of Duirtheachs still remain- 
be derived from the goose eggs which are ing in Ireland, and we learn from an ancient 
made the principal cause of the battle of vellum MS. in the Library of Trinity Col- 


throne k . There was not in Erin a fort like his fort, "but neither the 
Queen, nor Domhnall himself, deemed the sound of the name by whieh 
it was called melodious, viz., Dun na n-Gedh 1 . And Domhnall com- 
manded his stewards and lawgivers, and the collectors of his rents 
and tributes, to gather and bring to the feast all the goose eggs that 
could be found in Erin, for Domhnall did not deem it honourable 
that there should be in Erin a kind of food that should not be found 
at that banquet ; and all the materials were collected for the feast, 
wine, methegiin, and ale, and every kind of food besides, except the 
eggs alone, for it was not easy to procure them m . 

And the collectors went forth throughout Meath, in search of the 
eggs, until they came to a small Duirtheach 11 [hermitage], in which was 
one woman with a black hood p upon her head, and she praying to God. 
The king's people saw a flock of geese at the door of the Duirtheach ; 
they went into the house and found a vessel full of goose eggs. " We 
have had great success," said they, " for should we search Erin, there 
could not be found more goose eggs together in one place than are 
here." " It will not be good success," said the woman, " and it will not 


lege, Dublin, that the Duirtheach was the Erc's Hermitage, 

smallest of the sacred edifices in use ° One woman.— -The word bcrnnpcal, 

amongst the ancient Irish. See the pas- which is also written bcmp^al, is now ob- 

sage given in full in the second part of solete, but it occurs so frequently in the 

Mr. Petrie's Inquiry into the Origin and ancient MSS. that its meaning cannot be 

Uses of the Eound Towers of Ireland, mistaken. It is always used to denote 

where the meaning of the word is dis- female or woman, as is peppcal to denote 

cussed at full length. male or man. " lp cpia bunpgal cainic 

The site of the Duirtheach above re- báp oo'n bir, i. e. it is through, or on ac- 

ferred to, which is on the margin of the count of, a woman, death entered into the 

Boyne, near the village of Slane, in the world." — Leabhar Breac. 

county of East Meath, is now occupied by p With a black hood. — The word caiUe 

a small chapel in ruins, which, though is evidently cognate with the English 

only a few centuries old, is still called word cowl. It is translated velum by Col- 



ícip ón, ol in bannpcal, ocup ni ba lich Oo'n pleit) ^up a m-bepreap 
in m-bec m-bíó pin. CiO pin? ol lac. Nin. ol in bannpcal ; naem 
mipbuloa Oo muinOcip Oe pil punn .1. Gppuc Gape Slaine, ocup íp e 
a moo beiú íp in boinn conice a oi ocpail o maoain co pepcop, ocup 
a palcaip popy» in cpacu ma piaonaipi, ocup pé oc ípnai^á 00 
^pep; ocup íp 1 a ppomO ceca nóna lap cocu punn u^ co leiuh 
ocup upi ^apa t>o bipop na bomne; ocup ip e lp coip Ouib-pi cen a 
papu^ao imon m-bec m-bio pin pil aici. Ni capopau íapum 
muinncip uaibpec in pi^ nac ppea^pa puippi. Uaip baOap airi^ 
a h-ucc upeoin íao Oo'n cup pin, ocup bepaiu leo cuiO in pipeoin 
ocup in naeim t>ia ainoeoin. TTlaip^ cpa guy» a pucat) in m-bec 
m-bio pin, ap po páp mop ole Oe íapuam, uaip ni paibe Gpiu oen 
aOai^ o pin llle a pio na a y»ocpa, no cen pun uilc ocup eccopa 00 
oenum moei co cenn auhaió. 

Uic in u-eplam 01a Ú15 íapum .1. Gppuc Gape Slame, cpacnor.a, 
ocup innipio in bannpeal p^ela a papuigúe 00. pepsaigcen uime 
pin in pipén, ocup apbepc: ní pu pén maiuh Oo'n ci ^up a pucaO 
in cenel bíó pin, ocup náp ub é píó na leap Gpenn uic oo'n pleió 
^up a pucaO; ace ^up ab é a h-impepna, ocup a con^ala, ocup a 
hepio uic 01, Ocup po epcain íapum in pleao amail ip neim- 
neacu pop caemnacaip a h-eapcaine. 

Q m-bacap 

gan, and explained in a Glossary preserved beyond dispute : " po buaip TTIac Caille 

in a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, caille uap ceann naorh ópijoe, i. e. Po- 

(H. 3. 18.) p. 524. "ópéio oub," a black suit Maccaleus velum super caput Sanctce 

veil ; and by O'Clery, " ópeio biop ap Brigidce^ 

ceannaib ban," i. e. a veil which women q Bishop Ere This is an anachronism, 

wear on their heads. O'Brien, in his Die- for Bishop Ere, of Slaine, who was cotem- 

tionary, explains this word, " a veil or porary with St. Patrick, died in the year 

cowl given to a nun or monk," and quotes 514 (Ussher's Primordia, p. 442), and this 

the following passage from an Irish Life battle was fought in the year 638, that is, 

of St. Bridget, which puts its meaning 124 years after Erc's death! The pro- 

l 9 

redound to the happiness of the banquet to which this small quantity 
of provisions will be brought." "Why so?" said they. "It is plain," 
said the woman; " a wonder-working saint of God's people dwells 
here, namely, Bishop Ere, of Slaine q , and his custom is to remain im- 
mersed in the Boinn/ up to his two arm -pits, from morning till evening, 
having his Psalter before him on the strand, constantly engaged in 
prayer ; and his dinner every evening on returning hither is an egg 
and a half, and three sprigs of the cresses of the Boinn ; and it be- 
hoves you not to take away from him the small store of food which 
he has. But the proud people of the king made no reply to her, — 
for they were plebeians in the shape of heroes on this occasion, — 
and they carried away the property of the righteous man and saint, 
in despite of him [her]. But woe to him to whom this small quantity 
of food was brought, for a great evil sprang from it afterwards ; for 
Erin was not one night thenceforward in the enjoyment of peace, or 
tranquillity, or without a desire of evil or injustice, for some time. 

The holy patron, Bishop Ere, of Slaine, came to his house in the 
evening, and the woman told him how he was plundered. The 
righteous man then became wroth, and said: " It will not be good luck 
to the person to whom this kind of food was brought; and may the 
peace or welfare of Erin not result from the banquet to which it 
was brought ; but may quarrels, contentions, and commotions be the 
consequence to her." And he cursed the banquet s as bitterly as he 

was able to curse it. 


bability is, that the original composer of which flows through the towns of Trim, 

the story had written Comharba [i. e. sue- Navan, and Drogheda, and has its source 

cessor] of Ere, of Slaine; but all the copies in Trinity Well, at the foot of a hill, an- 

to which we have access at present agree ciently called Sidh Nechtain, in the barony 

in making the Saint Ere himself. — See of Carbery, and county of Kildare. 

Note B, at the end of the volume. s He cursed the banquet It would ap- 

x Boinn, now the celebrated River Boyne, pear that the irritability said to be so dis- 

D 2 


Q nvbacap muinnnip in pi£ ann lap pin ina comt>ail, au concacap 
in lanamuin cucu .1. bean ocuppeap; meoicep ppi mulba of cappaic 
pop pléib cec m-ball t)ia m-ballaib; ^épiúep alcan beppra paebup 
a lup^an; a pála ocup a n-eapcat)a pempu; 56 pocept>ua miac 01 
ublaib pop a cennaib ni poipeo uball tub lap, acu conclipeo pop 
bapp cec oen puainne Do'n pule a^apb, aic^ep, po innpap epia n-a 
5-cenbaib; guipmrep ^ual, no ouibicep frearaig cec m-ball t)ib; 
^ilicep pnecua a puile; concepcau pabach Dia pépicuaip conclipeo 
t>ap cul a cint> pecuaip, ocup concepDac pabach t)ia pép uacuaip 
con poil^eo a n-^luine; ulca popp in m-bannpcail ocup in peppcál 
cen ulcain. Opolbach ecuppu '5a h-imapcop Ian t)e ui^ib 560. 
bennacpac Do'n pig po'n mnap pin. CiD pm? ol in pig. Nin. oliau, 


procul arceatur : et ipsis ecclesiis ab irre- 
verenti populo debita veneratio vel servi- 
liter exhibeatur." — Topographia Hibernice, 
Dist. 2. c. lv. 

Another specimen of this kind of in- 
dignant cursing will be found in the Irish 
Tale entitled, " Death of Muirchertach 
Mor Mac Earca," preserved in a vellum 
MS. in the Library of Trin. Coll. Dub. 
(H. 2. 16.) p. 3 16. It is the curse uttered 
by St. Cairneach of Tuilen (now Dulane, 
near Kells, in the county of East Meath), 
against the Royal Palace of Cletty, on the 
Boyne, inhabited by Muirchertach Mor 
Mac Earca, who became monarch of Ire- 
land A. D. 513. The following are the 
words of this curse literally translated : 
" A curse be upon this hill, 

Upon Cletty of beautiful hillocks, 

May nor its corn nor its milk be good ; 

May it be full of hatred and misery ; 

May neither king nor chief be in it, &c." 

tinguishing a feature in the Irish character, 
was, at least in those times, exhibited as 
strikingly by the ecclesiastics as by the 
laity. In the twelfth century Giraldus 
Cambrensis wrote the following curious 
remark on this subject: 

" Hoc autem mirabile mihi et notabile 
videtur: quod sicut nationis hujus homi- 
nes hac in vita mortali prge aliis gentibus 
impatientes sunt et prsecipites ad vindic- 
tam: sic et in morte vitali, meritis jam 
excelsi, prae aliarum regionum Sanctis, 
animi vindicis esse videntur. Nee alia mihi 
ratio eventus hujus occurrit: nisi quoniam 
gens Hibernica castellis carens, prsedoni- 
bus abundans, Ecclesiarum potius refugiis 
quam castrorum municipiis, et prsecipue 
Ecclesiastici viri seque suaque tueri solent : 
divina providentia simul et indulgentia 
gravi frequentique animadversione, in Ec- 
clesiarum hostes opus fuerat. Ut et sic 
ab ecclesiastica pace impiorum pravitas 


As the king's people were afterwards at the assembly, they saw a 
couple approaching them, namely, a woman and a man; larger than the 
summit of a rock on a mountain was each member of their members ; 
sharper than 1 a shaving knife the edge of their shins ; their heels and 
hams in front of them ; should a sackful of apples be thrown on their 
heads not one of them would fall to the ground, but would stick on the 
points of the strong, bristly hair which grew out of their heads ; 
blacker than the coal or darker than the smoke was each of their mem- 
bers ; whiter than snow their eyes ; a lock of the lower beard was carried 
round the back of the head, and a lock of the upper beard descended 
so as to cover the knees; the woman had whiskers, but the ma» was 
without whiskers. They carried a tub between them which was full 
of goose eggs. In this plight they saluted the king. " What is that?" 
said the king. " It is plain," said they, " the men of Erin are making a 


1 Sharper than — This mode of descrip- this form, by stating that it is not pro- 

tion by comparatives ending in cep is perly a form of the comparative degree, 

very common in ancient Irish MSS., but but an amalgamation, or synthetic union, 

never used nor understood in the modern of a Noun formed from the Adjective, and 

Irish. This form of the comparative de- the Preposition cap beyond; so that in the 

gree comprises in it the force of a com- above instance jeipicep is to be considered 

parative, and that of the Conjunction an amalgamation of jeipe or gei pi (a Sub- 

than, which always follows it in English, stantive formed from the Adjective jéap), 

or of the Ablative case in Latin. Thus sharpness, and the Preposition cap, beyond; 

jéipicep alcan is the same as the mo- and thus according to them geipicep alcan, 

dern níop géipe íná alcan, '•'■sharper than if literally translated, would be a " sharp- 

a razor." When the Noun following this ness beyond, i. e. exceeding, a razor^ — See 

form of the comparative degree is of the Observations on the Gaelic Language, by 

feminine gender it always appears in the R. M'EUigott, published in the Transactions 

Dative or Ablative case, as gilicep jpein, of the Gaelic Society of Dublin, vol.i. p. 36, 

whiter than the sun, which is exactly simi- where, however, that very clever scholar 

lar to the Latin lucidior sole. Some Irish seems to consider this a regular compara- 

grammarians have attempted to account for tive form of Irish Adjectives. 


pipu Gpenn oc cea^lumao pleoi ouiu-piu, ocup oo bep cec peap a 
cuman^ oo'n pleió pin, ocupipe ap cuman^-ne ma pil pop ap mum 
oe ui^ib. Qííi buioec oe, ol in pi^. bepap íp in Oun íac, ocup oo 
bepap ppomo céo Oo biúo ocup copmaim Ooib. Loin^iOin peppcal 
pm ocup ni uapo ni oe oo'n banpcal. Do bepap ppoino ceo eli 
Ooib. Loin^io oiblinib pin. Uabap biao Oun, ol íau, má uá lib 
h-é. lp cubup Oun, ol Capciabach, .1. pecuaipe in pi^, ni uibeprep 
co coippec pipu Gpenn olcena Oo'n pleio. QpbepuaOap pum, bio 
olc Ouib pinne 00 comailc na pleoi ap uup, ap bio impepnai£ pipu 
Gpenn impe, ap íp 00 mumnuip íppmn oun, ocup po ^niac micel- 
maine mop Oo na plo^aib. Cm^ic amac íapum ocup uia^aiu pop 

l?o cocuipúea íápum cuiceOai^ Gpenn Oo'n pleio pm, ocup a 
pi^u, ocup a coipi^, ocup a n-oc-ri^epnn, ocup a n-ampaio, ocup oep 
caca Oana ^naúaig ocup m^nachai^ olcena. lp lac po ba cui^e- 
Oai£ pop Gpmn in can pm .1. Con^al Claen, mac Scannlam, 1 pi^i 
n-Ulao, ocup Cpimcann, mac QeOa Cipp, 1 pi^i Lai^en, ocup 
TTiaelouin, mac QeOa bennain, 1 pi^i TTiuman, ocup a bparaip .1. 
lollann, mac QeOa bennain, pop Oepmumam, ocup fta^allac, mac 


u Vanished, Sfc This is the kind of slain in the battle of Ath Goan, five years 

characters introduced into ancient Irish before the battle of Magh Rath. 

stories, instead of the footpads and bandits " A. D. 632 Bellum Atho Goan in 

of modern novels. Wonder-working saints Iarthar Lifi in quo cecidit Cremtann mac 

and horrific phantoms were, in the all- Aedo filii Senaich, Rex Lageniorum." — 

believing ages in which such tales were Ann. Ult. 

written, necessary to give interest to every " A. D. 633 The battle of Ath Goan 

narrative, whether the piece was fiction, in Iarthar Lifi, in quo cecidit Cremmthann 

history, or a mixture of both. mac Aedo mac Senaigh, Rex Lageniorum : 

v Crimthann,the sonofAedhCirr This Faelan mac Colmain mic Conaill mic 

is another anachronism, for, according to Suibhne, Rex Midice, et Failbe Flann, Rex 

the Annals of Ulster and Tighernach, this Momonice, victores eranV — Ann. Tig. 

Crimthann, King of Leinster, had been w Maelduin, the son ofAedh Bennain 

2 3 

banquet for tliee, and eacli brings what lie can to that banquet, and 
our mite is the quantity of eggs we are carrying." " I am thankful for 
it," said the king. They were conducted into the palace, and a dinner 
sufficient for a hundred was given to them of meat and ale. This the 
man consumed, and did not give any part of it to the woman. Another 
dinner sufficient for a hundred was given them, and the woman alone 
consumed it. They demanded more, and another dinner for a hundred 
was given them, and both of them together consumed it. " Give us 
food," said they, " if ye have it." " By our word we shall not," said 
Casciabhach, the king's Rechtairé, " till the men of Erin in general 
shall come to the feast." The others then said, " Evil shall it be to 
you that we have partaken of the banquet first, for the men of Erin 
shall be quarrelsome at it, for we are of the people of Infernus." And 
they predicted great evils to the multitudes, and afterwards rushed 
out, and vanished into nothing 11 . 

After this were invited to the banquet the provincial kings of 
Erin and her dynasts and chieftains, with their young lords and life- 
guards, and also the professors of every science, ordinary and extra- 
ordinary. These were the provincial kings of Erin at that time, viz., 
Congal Claen, the son of Scannlan, in the government of Ulster, 
Crimthann, the son of Aedh Cirr v , in the government of Leinster ; 
Maelduin, the son of Aedh Bennain w , in the government of Munster ; 
and his brother Illann x , son of Aedh Bennan, over Desmond ; and 
Raghallach, son of Uadach y , in the sovereignty of Connaught; and 


According to the Annals of Tighernach, in the year 640, and burned to death in the 

the father of this Maelduin died in the year 641, on the island of Inis Cain. 
year 619. He was the ancestor of the x His brother Ittann. — Thislllann is not 

famous family of O'Moriarty, in the county mentioned in any of the Irish Annals, 
of Kerry, as mentioned in all the genealo- ? Raghallach Mac Uadach, King of Con- 

gical Irish books. Maelduin himself was naught, was slain, according to the Annals 

defeated in the battle of Cathair Cinn Con, of Tighernach, in the year 649. 

2 4 

Uabac, i pi^i Connacc, oeup Dorhnall mac Qet>a pepin 111 aipo-pi^i 
pop Gpmn uaipcib pin uile. 

Uucéa íapum na ploi^ pin uile, pipu, macu, mna, pceo ín^ena, 
laecaib, clepcib, co m-baoap pop paicúi Oínn na n-^éo oc rece t)o 
úocaiéim na pleOi t>o ponca anO la Oorrmall, mac Qet)a. l?o epig 
in pi^ t>o peprain pailn ppip na pigu, ocup apbepu pocen ouib inle, 
ol pé, íuip pi£ ocup pi^ain, ocup pilio ocup ollum. Ocup apbepe 
ppi Congal Claen, ppia oalua pepin, eip$, ol pé, t>o óécpain na 
pleói moipe pil ípin tnm, ocup t>ia taióbpmó, áp ac maiú Do raió- 
bpiuf) ocup c' paipcpiu pop nách ní ac cípiúea. 

Ueiu, Oin, Congal íp in ceac a poibe in pleó, ocup po oécuprap 
uile ln, ícip biao ocup pin, ocup copmaim, ocup po ropaint) a pope 
popp na h-uigib 560 ac conaipc ann, ap ba h-m^nat) laip, ocup pó 
romail mfp a h-115 t>ib, ocup íbit) 015 ma tnait). Ocup cic amac 
lap pm, ocup apbepr: ppi Oomnall, ba D015 lim, ol pé, oia m-beoip 
pipu Gpenn ppi epi mípa íp in tmn, co m-biat) a n-t>aiclnn bío ocup 
O151 ínD. 6a buióec m pi^ t>e pm, ocup uéic pepin t>o oeicpiu ria 
pleoi, ocup innipcep t>ó amail po epcain Gppuc Gape Slaine in 
plet), ocup cec oen no cairpet) na h-ui^e t)o paca uaDa pepm. 
Ocup au cí in pi^ na h-11151 ocup po íappacc cia po romail ní Oo'n 
ui^ eapbaóaig ucuu, ol pe; áp po piuep-prum in céona po roimelao 
ni t)o'n pleit) ocup pi ap na h-epcame, cumat) t>e cicpao GpmD t)o 
millet), ocup a aimpeip-pium 00 óenum; conit) t)e pm po íappacc 
pcéla in ui^e ucuu. Qpbepuaftap each, Con^al, ol lar, t)o oalra 
pepm, íp e po romail in 115. 6a bponac m pi£ oe pin, áp ni paibe 
a n-Gpmn neac buO meapa laip t>o tomailc na pletn ap cup má 


z To view the great feast, — t)o oécpain enne, which is the form still in common 

na pleói moirie. The verb oécpam, to use. 

see, or view, which is now obsolete, is a The broken egg, — t)o'n uij eapbaóaij 

changed in Mac Morissy's copy to o'pec- ucur. The word eapbaoctig is supplied 

Domhnall, the son of Acdh himself, in the sovereignty of Erin, over 
all these. 

All these hosts, men, youths, women, and damsels, laity and 
clergy, were conducted to the Green of Dun na n-Gedh to partake 
of the feast prepared there by Domhnall, the son of Aedh. The 
monarch rose up to welcome the kings, and said, " My love to you 
all both king and queen, poet and ollave ;" and he said to Congal 
Claen, his own foster-son, " Go," said he, " to view 2 the great feast 
which is in the palace, and to estimate it, for good is thy survey and 
examination of whatsoever thou seest." 

Then Congal entered the house in which the feast was prepared, 
and viewed it all, both viands and wine, and ale, and he laid his eye 
upon the goose eggs which he saw there, for he marvelled at them, 
and he ate a part of one of them, and took a drink after it. He then 
came out and said to Domhnall, " I think," said he, " if the men of 
Erin were to remain for three months in the palace, that there is a 
sufficiency of food and drink for them there." The king was thankful 
for this, and went himself to take a view of the feast ; and he was 
told how Bishop Ere of Slaine had cursed the feast, and every one 
who should partake of the eggs which had been taken away from 
him ; and the king saw the eggs, and asked who ate a part of the 
broken egg a (pointing to that which Congal had broken), for he knew 
that the first person* who should partake of the banquet which had 
been cursed, would be the man who would destroy Erin, and disobey 
himself; wherefore he asked about this egg. All replied, " It was 
Congal, thy own foster-son, that ate of the egg. v The king was 
sorrowful for this, for he felt more grieved that Congal should have 


from the paper copy. Ucuc is the an- obsolete, an céao ouine being substituted 
cient form of the modern úo, i. e. that, or in its place ; but it is constantly used in 
yon. the ancient MSS. to denote the first person 

b The first person, — In céoncc, is now or thing. 



Corral, ap poppiuep-pium a mi-ciall ocup a olc co menic ppip 
poime pin. Ocup apbepu in pig lap pin, ni roimela neach ni oo'n 
pleo pa, ol pe, co cucuap xn. appbal na h-Gpenn oia bennacao, 
ocup oia coipea^pao, ocup gu pa cuipeu a h-epcame pop culu oia 

Uucra íapum na naeim pin uile co h-oen inao, co m-bacap 
ip m oun la Domnall. Ice punn anmanna na naem t)o óeacaoap 
ann pin .1. pint>en TTIU151 bile, ocup pinOen Cluana h-lpaipt), ocup 
Colum Cilli, ocup Colum mac Cpimuhamn, ocup Ciapan Cluana 
mic noip, ocup Caint>ech mac h-ui Oalant), ocup Cornwall beann- 
caip, ocup bpenaint) mac pmolo^a, ocup bpenamt) bipoip, ocup 
l?iiat>an Locpa, ocup NmoiO Cpaiboec, ocup TTIobi Clapamech, 
ocup Tilolaipi mac Nauppoich. lue pin xn. appoal na h-6penn 


c The twelve apostles, Sfc. — In Mac Mor- 
issy's copy, we read oa Gpr. oecc na 
h-Gipionn, the twelve Bishops of Erin, 
which seems more correct ; but it is strange 
that there are thirteen, not twelve, saints 
mentioned in both copies. 

d Finnen o/Magh Bile. — This is another 
gross anachronism; for Finnen of Magh Bile, 
now Movilla, in the county of Down, died 
in the year 576, i. e. 62 years before the 
Battle of Magh Rath, " A. D. 576, Quies 
Finnin Magh Bile." — Ann. Inisf, as cited 
by Lanigan, vol. ii. pp. 26, 27. 

e Finnen ofCluain Iraird, now Clonard, 
in Meath, died in the year 552 ; so that 
we cannot believe that he was present at 
this banquet — See Lanigan's Ecclesiasti- 
cal History of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 22, and 
all the Irish Annals, which place his death 
about this period. 

f Colum Cille — St. Columbkille was 
born in the year 519, and died in the year 
596, in the seventy- seventh year of his 
age See Lanigan, vol. iii. pp. 244, 245. 

s Colum Mac Crimthainn, was abbot of 
Tir-da-glas, now Terryglass, in the barony 
of Lower Ormond, in the county of Tip- 
perary, and died in the same year with 
St. Finnen of Clonard, namely, in the year 
552 Lanigan, vol. ii. pp. 71, 75. 

h Ciaran ofCluain Mic Nois, now Clon- 
macnoise, on the Shannon, in the barony 
of Garrycastle, and King's County, died 
in the year 549. — Lanigan, vol. ii. pp, 52 
and 59. 

1 Cainnech Mac h- Ui Dalann, the pa- 
tron of Aghaboe, in the Queen's County, 
died in the year 599, in the eighty-fourth 
year of his age. — Lanigan, vol. ii. p. 201. 

J Comhghall of Bennchar. — St. Comgall, 

2 7 

partaken first of the banquet rather than any other person in Erin, for 
he had often before experienced his rashness and propensity to evil. 
And after this the king said, " No one else shall partake of this feast, 
until the twelve apostles of Erin are brought to bless and consecrate 
it, and avert the curse if they can." 

All these saints were afterwards brought together, so that they 
were in the palace with Domhnall. The following are the names 
of the saints who went thither, viz., Finnen of Magh Bile d , Finnen of 
Cluain Iraird e , Colum Cille f , Colum Mac Crimhthainn g , Ciaran of 
Cluain Mic Nois h , Cainnech Mac h-Ui Dalann 1 , Comhghall of Benn- 
char j , Brenainn, the son of Finnloga k , Brenainn of Birra 1 , Ruadhan 
of Lothra m , Ninnidh the Pious 11 , Mobhi Clarainech , and Molaisi, the 
son of Naclfraech p . These were the twelve apostles of Erin, and 


patron of Bermchar, now Bangor, in the parish of Inis Muighe Samh, now Inis- 

county of Down, died on the iothof May, macsaint, in the north-west of the county 

A. D. 60 1. — Lanigan, vol. ii. p. 63. of Fermanagh, was living in the year 530, 

k Brenainn, the son of Finnloga, the pa- but the year of his death is uncertain, 

tron saint of the see of Clonfert, in the His bell is still preserved in the museum 

county of Galway, was born in the year at Castle Caldwell, near Belleek, in the 

484, and died in 577, in the ninety-fourth county of Fermanagh, where the writer of 

year of his age. — Lanigan, vol. ii. pp. these remarks saw it in the year 1835. — 

28, 30. See Lanigan, vol. ii. p. 55, note 173. 

1 Brenainn of Birra. — St. Brenainn, or ° Mobhi Clarainech, patron of Glas- 

Brendan, of Birra, now Birr, or Parsons- naidhen, now Glasnevin, near the city of 

town, in the King's County, died on the Dublin, died on the 1 2th of October, A. D. 

29th of November, A. D. 571. — Lanigan, 545 — See Four Masters, ad ann. 544, and 

vol. ii. p. 39. Lanigan, vol. ii. p. 78. 

m Ruadhan of Loihra. — St. Ruadan, the p Molaisi, the son of Nadfraech, he was 

patron of Lothra, now Lorrah, in the the brother of Aengus, the first Christian 

county of Tipperary, died on the 15th of king of Munster, and died about the year 

April, A. D. 584. — Lanigan, vol. ii. p. 570 — See Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History, 

233. vol. ii. p. 188. 

n Ninnidh the Pious, the patron of the It will have been seen from the thirteen 



ocup ceo naem malle ppi cec naem oib. Do paca mle in lin 
naem pin no bennacan ocup no coipegpan na plem, ocup ap ai pin 
cjia nip péupac a h-epcaine no cup pop cúlu, náig po éomail 
Congal ní no'n plem pépiú po bennaígeó h-í, ocup nip pécpac a 
neim pein no cup pop culu. 

l?o pumigen na ploig iap pin; po puió umoppo in pig ap uup 
íp in impcing ópnai. Ocup íp e ba bép ocup ba nligean acu-pum, 
in ran bun pig o Uib Neill in Oeipcipc no bian pop Gpino cunian 
h-e pig Connacu no bian pop a laim neip; mán ó Uib Neill in 
Uuaipcipu umoppo in pigi, pig Ulan no bm pop a laim neip, ocup 
pig Connacu pop a laim cli. Ni b-amlam pin no pala in aóaig 
pin, ace TTlaelonap TTIaca, pig noi rpicha cen Oipgiall, po cui- 
pean pop gualainn in pig, ocup na cuigeaOaig ap cena no pumiugan 
amail po bui a n-nan no cac. TTlop olc no uece ne íapram. 

l?o náileó íapum bian ocup neoc popaib comnap mefca meóap- 
caoine ; ocup cucca ug geió pop méip aipgmgi, 1 piannaipi cec pig 
íp m rig; ocup o painic in méip ocup in ug 1 piannaipi Congail 
Claem, no pigneó miap cpanna no'n méip apgam, ocup no pigneó 
ug cipce clum-puaine no'n uig gem, amail po uipcanpac páiói ó 


preceding notes, that none of these saints q Golden Couch Impcinj ópocn. The 

could have been present at the Banquet of word impcinj is explained in a MS. in 

Dun na n-Gedh, and that either the writer the Library of Trin. Col. Dublin, (H. 3. 

of it was a very inaccurate historian, or 18.) p. 212, by the modern word leabcnó, 

that his transcribers have corrupted his a bed or couch, which is unquestionably 

text. The entire difficulty could be got its true sense in this sentence, 

over by substituting bishops for apostles, r Southern Hy-Niall. — TheO'Melaghlins, 

and by inserting the word comharba, i. e. now corruptly Mac Loughlins, of Meath, 

representative or successor, before the were the heads of the Southern Hy-Niall 

names of these saints. The probability, after the establishment of surnames, 

however, is, that the anachronism is an s Northern Hy-Niall. — After the esta- 

original blunder of the writer himself. blishment of surnames, the heads of the 

2 9 

each saint of them had one hundred saints along with him. All this 
number of saints was brought to bless and consecrate the feast, but 
they were not able to avert the malediction, because Congal had tasted 
of the feast before it was blest, and the venom of this they were not 
able to avert. 

After this the hosts were seated. First of all the king sat in the 
golden couch q , and the custom and law at this time was, that when 
the monarch of Erin was of the Southern Hy-Niall r , the king of Con- 
naught should sit at his right hand ; but if of the Northern Hy-Niall s , 
the king of Ulster should be at his right hand, and the king of 
Connaught at his left hand. It did not happen so on this night, 
but Maelodhar' Macha, king of the nine cantreds of Oirghiall, was 
placed at the king's right shoulder, and the provincial kings were 
seated where they ought to sit. A great evil afterwards resulted 
from this. 

Meat and drink were afterwards distributed to them, until they 
became inebriated and cheerful ; and a goose egg was brought on a 
silver dish, before every king in the house ; and when the dish and 
the egg were placed before Congal Claen, the silver dish was trans- 
formed into a wooden one, and the goose egg into the egg of a 
red-feathered hen u , as prophets had foretold of old. When the Ul- 


Northern Hy-Niall race were the O'Neills territory of Orior — " Eex Orientalium" — 

and the Mac Loughlins of Tyrone, and and place his death, the former in 640, 

the O'Muldorys, O'Canannans, and O'Don- and the latter in 639. 

nells of Tirconnell. u Red-feathered hen This is an extra- 

c Maelodhar Macha, king of Oirghiall. ordinary miracle, and the first striking 

According to the Annals of the Four result of Bishop Erc's malediction. It 

Masters, Maelodhar Macha was king of all would have puzzled even Colgan to recon- 

Oirghiall, and died in the year 636, but cile it with the theology of the seventeenth 

the more accurate Annals of Ulster and of century. The king had intended to offer 

Tighernach make him only chief of the no insult to Congal, but the curse of St. 


céin. Oc conncaoap Ulajo pin, níp riiiao leo puioe na Ionian 
ocup in t>ímiat) pin po itíiDi^ pop a pi^ .1. pop Correal Claen. l?o 
epi^ Oin gilla ^paoa 00 muinnuip Con^ail .1. 5 ai P 5 an °' mac 
Soua^am, ocup apbepc: ní pn pén maiú Duiu a nocc, a Cor^ail, 
ol pé, az Tnopa na h-aicipi t>o paoac pope a C15 m pi£ anocc .1. 
fílaelooap ÍTlaca, pi$ Oipgiall, 00 cup rp in ínao po pa oíi ouic-piu, 
ocup 115 56010 pop méip ap^aiO 1 piaonaipi cec pi^ íp in C15 acc 
rupa ir aenap, ocup 115 cipce pop meip cpanoa 1 u' piaonaipi-piu. 
Ni rapt) Corral t>ia aipe cumao 'oimiat) t)ó cec ní po ^ebao a 
C15 a aioe caipipi pepm. ^ ll P I 10 e1 P 1 5 an 5 llla 1ai r an ai ^ e r c 
5-ceDna t)o pioipi .1. 5 ai P <5 arirl > 0CU V a r be P r in c et>na ppi Congal, 


In cuit> pm caiápe a nocu, 

cen uabap, cen miapnocc, 

115 cipce o'n pi£ náppac cap, 

íp 115 ^éoit) Do TTlaelóoap. 
Noca n-pirep nnipi piam, 

ciiTTiao uapal pi£ Oip^iall, 

no co paca in TTlaelobap, 

a C15 oil '5a piaou^at). 
Da m-beiú a^ oen pi^ cen ail, 

Cenel Conaill ip 605am, 

íp Oip^ialla ppi ^niTíi n-^a, 

mp oulca t)ó a c' inao-pa. 


Ere produced a confusion at the banquet, curse, it is to be likened to a wedge with 

and caused a miracle to be wrought which which a woodman is cleaving a piece of 

offered an indignity to Congal, directly wood: if it has room to go, it will go, 

contrary to what the king had intended, and cleave the wood ; but if it has not, it 

According to the present notions among will fly out and strike the woodman him- 

the native Irish about the nature of a self who is driving it, between the eyes. 

3 1 

tonians had perceived this, they did not think it honourable to sit or 
eat after their king, Congal Claen, had met such an indignity. After 
this, a servant of trust of Congal's people, Gair Gann Mac Stuagain v 
by name, rose and said : " It is not an omen of good luck to thee 
this night, Congal, that these great insults have been offered thee 
in the house of the king; namely, that Maelodhar Macha, king of Oir- 
ghiall, should be seated in the place due to thee, and that a goose egg 
is placed on a silver dish before every king in the house except thee 
alone, before whom a hen egg is placed on a wooden dish." But 
Congal did not consider that any thing which he received in the 
house of his own good foster-father could be an indignity to him, until 
the same servant rose again and repeated the same suggestion to him, 
ut dixit: 

" That meal thou hast taken to-night 

Is without pride, without honour ; 

A hen egg from the king who loves thee not, 

And a goose egg to Maelodhar. 
I never had known 

The noble position of the king of Oirghiall, 

Until I beheld Maelodhar, 

Being honoured at the banqueting house. 
Should one king possess, without dispute, 

The race of Conall and Eoghan, 

And the Oirghialla w with deeds of spears, 

He would not occupy thy place. 


In the case under consideration St. Erc's not recorded in the Irish Annals, nor 

curse was, — as the writer of the story mentioned in any of the genealogical ta- 

wishes us to believe, — deserved, and, there- bles relating to the Clanna Rudhraighe, so 

fore, it operated as the saint had intended, that we cannot determine whether he is a 

v Gair Gann Mac Staagain The name real or fictitious character. 

of this servant or minister of Congal is w Oirghialla. — The territories of the 

In cuit) pin go o-ceilgicc gaill, 
rucao t>uic a rig Oomnaill, 

a r <5 ai r 5 anr1 ' ria r ll1 ° r^ an ° uir > 

má t>a coimli cu in t>poch-euit>. In. c. 

l?o ling t>apacu ocup mine menman a Congal ppi h-airepc in 
óclaig pin, ocup no ling in puip t>emnact>a .1. Uepipone, a cum- 
gaipe a cpme, Do cuimniugaó ceca t>poch-comaipli Oo. l?o epig 
Dm ina peapam, ocup po gab a gaipceao paip, ocup po epig a bpun 
milet) ocup a én gaile po polumain uapa, ocup ni rapac aicne pop 
capaic na pop nem-capaiu in ran pin, amail po pa r>ual t>6 n-a 
pean-auaip .1. o Conall Cepnac, mac Qmaipgm. l?o ling íapum 1 
piat>naipi in pig, ocup t>o pala cuici Cap Ciabach, peccaipe m pig, 
Ocup ni piuep Cap Ciabac cumao he Congal no beic ann, ocup 
po paiO ppip puioe a n-irao oile, ocup po gebao biao ocup Oig 
amail puapacap each. Oc cuala umoppa Congal an aiúepc pm, 
t>o pao berm 00 Chap-Chiabac, co n-oepna 01 leir t)e 1 piaOnaipi 
caich. Ocup ba h-uarhan la cec n-oen íp in cig, ocup lap in pig 
pepm Congal ann pin, o po aipigpec pepg paip. Ocup apbepc 
Congal, nap bar uamnac, a pig, ap ci6 ar mopa na h-uilc t>o ponaip 
ppim, ni h-uarhun Duin mipi co leic ; ocup aubeppa a nopa piao 


Kinel Connell and Kinel Owen had been ghialla, or descendants of the three Collas, 
wrested from the ancient Ultonians, or who destroyed the Ultonian Palace of 
Clanna Rudhraighe, in the fifth century. Emania in the year 332, had possession of 
His servant here tells Congal, nominal the district comprising the present conn- 
king of Ulster, that if he had full posses- ties of Louth, Armagh, Monaghan, and 
sion of all the province of his ancestors, Fermanagh ; and the races of Conall and 
king Domhnall would take care to have Eoghan, the sons of the monarch Niall, 
him seated in his legitimate place at the had possession of the remaining part of 
banquet. Congal's territory did not ex- the province, that is, the counties of Ty- 
tend beyond the limits of the present rone, Derry, and Donegal, 
counties of Down and Antrim. The Oir- x Tesiphone — From this it would ap- 


This meal may foreigners reject 

Given tliee in the house of Domhnall, 
Saith Gair Gann, may it not be safe to thee, 
If thou partake of the evil meal." 

Fury and madness of mind were excited in Congal by the exhor- 
tation of this youth, and the demon fury, Tesiphone x , entered the cavity 
of his heart to suggest every evil counsel to him. He then stood up, 
assumed his bravery, his heroic fury rose, and his bird of valour y flut- 
tered over him, and he distinguished not friend from foe at that time, 
as was natural for him as a descendant of his ancestor Conall Cear- 
nach z , the son of Amergin. He afterwards rushed into the presence 
of the king, but Cas Ciabhach a , the king's Kechtaire, came up to him, 
not knowing it was Congal who was there, and told him to sit in 
another place, and that he would get food and drink as well as the 
rest. But when Congal heard this, he dealt Cas Ciabhach a blow, 
and divided him in two parts in the presence of all. Then every 
one in the house, even the king himself, was in dread of Congal, 
when they perceived anger upon him. But Congal said, u Be not 
afraid, O king, for although the injuries thou hast done me are 
great, thou needest not dread me now ; and I will now state before 
all the injuries thou hast done to me. The king who preceded thee 


pear that the writer of this story had some in note C, at the end of the volume, 

acquaintance with the classical writers. a Cas Ciabhach signifies of the curled 

y Bird of valour To what does this hair. No mention is made of him in the 

allude? Irish Annals or pedigrees, and it is pro- 

z Conall Cearnach He was one of the bable that he is a fictitious character. 

heroes of the Red Branch, and is the an- Rechtaire generally signifies, in the an- 
cestor of O'More, O'Lawler, and the seven cient Irish language, a lawgiver, a steward 
tribes of Leix, in the Queen's County, and or chief manager of the affairs of a prince 
many other families in various parts of Ire- or king, but in the modern Irish it is used 
land. Congal's descent from him is given to denote a rich farmer. 



each na h-ulcu Do ponaip ppim. lp é ba pi£ pop Gpinn pemuc-pa 
Suibne TTlenn, mac piacna, mic peapaoai^, mic TTluipeoai^, mic 
Go^am, mic Neill Nai-^iallai^. Nip bo piapac cupa oo'n pi^ pin 
íapum, ocup Oo oecaoaip oo oenum copu p]ii h-Ullcu, ocup r>o 
pat)at> mipi pop alcpom Ouic om' acaip ocup om' cenel ap cena ; 
ocup Oo paoao nnnai Oom' cenel pepin lun Oom' aileamain a^uc-pa, 
ocup o Oo piaccaipiu oo ceac po cuipip in mnai n-Ulcaig Oia cip 
pein, ocup po cuipip ben ooc' cenel pepm Oom' alcpam-pa l lub- 
&opc in lip í pabaoaip baoéin. Do pala laa n-ano mipi am oenap 
ípin lubgopc cen neac a^um coimeo, ocup po ep^ioap beachu beca 
in lub£uipc la reap na spene, co capo beach oib a neim pop mo 
lec-popc-pa, ^upa claen mo full. Con^al Claen mo ainm ap pin. 
l?om aileao lac-pu lap pin ^upa h-inDapba cupa o pi^ Gpenn, o 
Suibne TTIenO, mac piacna, mic pepaoai^, ocup oo oeacaóaip 
co pi£ n-Qlban, ocup mipi lac popp in inoapba pin; ocup po puapaip 
^paou^ao mop aici, ocup oo ponpabaip coOac .i. cupa ocup pi£ 
Qlban, ocup po cappn^aip Ouic nác cicpao a c'a^ai^ cén bep muip 
ím Gpinn. Oo óecaoaip íapum oo cum n-Gpenn ocup Oo oeacupa 
lac (uaip baóup pop inoapba malle ppic). Po ^abpum pope a 
Upai£ Puopai^e, ocup po ^nfpuim comaipli ppi h-acaió m-bic ann. 


b Suibhne Suibhne, surnamed Menn, Ledwich asserts that these forts were built 

was monarch of Ireland from the year 615 by the Ostmen or Danes, but the remains 

to 628, when he was slain at Traigh Brena of them still to be seen at Tara, Taillteann, 

by Congal Claen, as stated in this story. Emania, Aileach, Rath-Croghan, Aillinn, 

c Nine Hostages. — This pedigree of Dinn-Righ, Knockgraffon, and other well 

Suibhne agrees with that given by Keating, known palaces of the ancient Irish kings, 

and all authentic genealogical books. are sufficient to prove that they had been 

d Garden of the fort — The Irish kings built by the ancient Irish long before the 

and chieftains lived at this period in the Danes made any descent upon this island, 

great earthen raths or lisses, the ruins of e Bees of the garden — Solinus says that 

which are still so numerous in Ireland, there were no bees in Ireland ; and it is 


over Erin was Suiblme Menn b , son of Fiachna, son of Feradhach, son 
of Muiredhach, son of Eoghan, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages ; 
thou wert not obedient to that king, and thou didst go to make a 
treaty with the Ultonians, and I was given in fosterage to thee by 
my father and my own tribe ; a woman of my own tribe was sent 
with me to nurse me with thee, but when she reached thy house 
thou didst send the Ultonian woman back to her own country, 
and thou didst place a woman of thine own tribe to nurse me in 
the garden of the fort d in which thou dwelledst. It happened on 
a certain day that I was left alone in the garden without any one 
to take care of me, and the little bees of the garden 6 rose up with 
the heat of the sun, and one of them put its venom in one of my 
eyes, so that my eye became awry, from which I have been named 
Congal Claen f . I was nursed by thee until thou wast expelled by 
the king of Erin, Suibhne Menn, son of Fiacha, son of Feradhach, 
and then thou didst repair to the king of Alba, taking me along 
with thee in that exile ; and thou didst receive great honour from 
him, and you formed a treaty, thou and the king of Alba, and he 
protested to thee that he would not oppose thee as long as the sea 
should surround Erin. Thou didst afterwards return to Erin, and I 
returned along with thee, for I was in exile along with thee. We 
put into port at Traigh Rudhraighe s , and here Ave held a short con- 

mentioned in the Life of St. Modomnoc f Claen clcton or claen, i. e. crooked 

of Lann Beachaire, now Killbarrick, in or wry, and also partial, prejudiced. The 

Fingal, near the city of Dublin, published word is still used, but usually in the latter 

by Colgan, in his Acta, SS. 13. Febr., that sense See Note k , p. 37. 

bees were first introduced into Ireland s Traigh Rudhraighe Traigh Rudh- 

from Menevia by that saint ; but Lanigan raighe was the ancient name of the strand 

has proved that there were bees in Ireland at the mouth of the River Erne, near 

long before the period of St. Modomnoc — Ballyshannon, in the county of Donegal. — 

See his Eccles. Hist. vol. ii. pp. 320, 321. See Leabhar Gabhala of the O'Clerys. 


3 6 

Ocup ip e |io paiDipiu, cipeaD neac po $ebra Do raipcélaD pop pi£ 
Gpenn, cipe can buD pi^ uupa pop Gpinn comaD eicean a Ourai^ 
oo lé^uD Do'n ci no pa^ao ann. Oo oeacupa oin ann, a pi$, ap mo 
Duúai^ do úabaipu Dam co h-implan in ran buD pi$ pop Gpinn 
cupa ; ocup ni po aipipiup co h-Gilec Néic, ap íp ann bui Dom- 
náp in pi£ in uan pin. Uic m pi$ popp in paicn, ocup Dal mop íme 
Do pepaib Gpenn, ocup pe oc imbipc piDcille ícip na plo^u. Ocup 
cia^pu lp in Dail cen ceaDu^aD Do neac, upiap na plo^aib, co cap- 
Dup pop^um Do'n ^ai, JJeapp Con^ail, bui ím laim a n-ucc in pi^, 
^upa ppea^aip in coipa cloiche bui ppia Dpuim alia ciap, ocup 50 
poibe cpu a cpiDe pop pino in ^ai, co m-ba mapb De. In can íapum 
po bui an pi^ oc blaipecc báip Do paD upcup Do'n pip piDcilli bui 
na laim Dam-pa, ^upa bpip in puil claein bui am cmD-pa. Ctm 
claen peme, am caech íapum. Ro ueicpec Din ploi^ ocup muinn- 
cip in pi£, áp ba D015 leo cupa ocup pip Qlpan Do beir imum-pa, o 
po mapbup in pi£, Suibne TTIenD. 

Do Deacapa pop do cenn-pa lapum, ocup po ^abaip pi^i n-Gpenn 


h Ailech Neid, — now Elagh, near Derry, a MS. of the twelfth century, now in the 

in the county of Donegal. The ruins of collection of Messrs. Hodges and Smith 

the palace of Grianan Ailigh are still to of Dublin, will give one an idea of what 

be seen on a hill over Lough Swilly. — the Irish writers meant by piocellor pir- 

See Ordnance Survey of the Parish of cell. 

Templemore, County Londonderry. "'What is thy name?' said Eochaidh. 

5 Chess. — Piócell certainly means chess, 'It is not illustrious,' replied the other, 

which was a favourite game among the ' Midir of Brigh Leth.' ' Why hast thou 

ancient Irish. Piócell is translated tab u- come hither?' said Eochaidh. ' To play 

Ire lusoricB by O'Flaherty, in his Ogygia, Fithchell with thee,' replied he. ' Art 

p. 311 ; and it is described in Cormac's thou good at Fithchell V said Eochaidh. 

Glossary as a quadrangular board with ' Let us have the proof of it,' replied 

straight spots of black and white. The Midir. ' The queen,' said Eochaidh, ' is 

following extract from an ancient Irish asleep, and the house in which the Fith- 

story, preserved in Leabhar na h- Uidhre, chell is belongs to her.' ' There is here,' 


saltation. And what thou didst say was, that whoever thou shouldst 
get to betray the king of Erin, thou wouldst be bound to restore 
his territory to him whenever thou shouldst become king over Erin. 
I went on the enterprise, O king, for a promise that my patrimony 
should be wholly restored to me, whenever thou shouldst become mo- 
narch of Erin; and I delayed not until I reached Ailech Neid h , where 
the king held his residence at that time. The king came out upon 
the green, surrounded by a great concourse of the men of Erin, and he 
was playing chess 1 amidst the hosts. And I came into the assembly, 
passing without the permission of any one through the crowds, and 
made a thrust of my spear, Gearr Congail j , which I held in my hand, 
at the breast of the king, and the stone which was at his back re- 
sponded to the thrust, and his heart's blood was on the head of the 
javelin, so that he fell dead. But as the king was tasting of death lie 
Hung a chess-man which was in his hand at me, so that he broke the 
crooked eye in my head. I was squint-eyed before, I have been 
blind-eyed since\ The hosts and people of the king then fled, think- 
ing that thou and the men of Alba were with me, as I had killed 
Suibhne Menn, the king. 

" I then returned to thee, and thou didst, after this, assume the 

said Midir, ' a no worse FithchelV This j Gearr Congail, — i. e. the short spear 
was true indeed : it was a board of silver of Congal. Many weapons, utensils, &c., 
and pure gold, and every compartment on which belonged to distinguished personages 
the board studded with precious stones; were called after them : the crozier of St. 
and a man-bag of woven brass wire. Mi- Barry of Slieve Bawn, in the county of 
dir then arranges the Fitchell. 'Play,' Roscommon, still preserved, is called Gearr- 
said Midir; ' I will not, but for a wager,' Barry. 

said Eochaidh. ' What wager shall we k Blind-eyed since. — This accounts for 

stake?' said Midir. 'I care not what,' the double surname given to Congal in 
said Eochaidh. ' I shall have for thee,' the Annals of the Four Masters, in which 
said Midir, 'fifty dark-green steeds if thou he is called Congal Caech [blind], or Con- 
win the game.' " gal Claon [squinting]. 


iap pin. TTlajib Din m' araip-pi lap pin .1. Scanned. Sciar-leran, ocup 
cia^pa cu^uu-pa 00m' pi^ao, amail no ^ellaip ppim. Ni po com- 
aillip a ni pn acu maó bee, Dai^ po benaip Dim Cenel Conaill 
ocup 605am, ocup noi o-upioca ceo Oip^iall .1. peapano TTIaelui- 
oip ITiaca, pil pop t>o ^ualaino-piu, ocup 00 paoaip h-é a n-inao pi^ 
pomum-pa a nocc ac C15 pépin, a pi£, ol pe. Ocup 00 paoao u^ 
^eoió pop meip aip^Di^i ina piaDnaipi, ocup 115 cipce pop méip 
cpanoa oam-pa. Ocup do biuppa car ouic-pm int>, ocup 00 pepaib 
Gpenn, map auán ímuc a nocc, ap Congal. Ocup po imui^ uaioib 
amac lapum, ocup po lenpau Ulaio h-e. 

Cfpbepc Oomnall ppi naemu Gpenn baoap lp in C15: leanaiD 
Gonial, ol pe, ocup nceaó lib, co uapoappa a peip pein 00. Uia- 
^aic na naeim ina DiaiD ocup po £ellpac a eapcaine mine uiceao 
leo, ocup a cluic ocup a m-bacla Do bem paip. Oo biuppa pam 
^aipceo, ap Corral, nac pia cleipec uaib ma beuhaio ueac in pi£, 
Dia n-epcaincea mipi na Ulluac eli pop bit lib. l?o ^ab Din omun 
na naeim, co n-DeacaiD Congal 1 cein uaiDib, ocup po epcamper h-e 
ap a h-airle. Ocup po epcampec Dm in ci Suibne, mac Colmain 
Chuaip, mic Cobrai^, pi£ Dal n-QpaiOe, ap íp e puc uaiDib 50 
h-airhoeonac in u-inap lloacac Do paD Domnall 1 laim [pancrup] 


1 Died soon after. — Scannall of the Suibhne Menn, at the instigation of king 

Broad Shield, king ofUlidia, is mentioned Domhnall, he got a promise of being made 

in the authentic annals as the father of prince of all Ulster, a title which his 

Congal, but the year of his death is not ancestors had enjoyed for many centuries, 

mentioned. See his pedigree, and the number of his 

m Oirghiall — The princes of the Clanna ancestors who had been kings of Ulster, 
Rudhraighe race had not been kings of in Note C, at the end of the volume, 
all Ulster since the year 332 or 333, when n See note c , p. 29. 
they were conquered by the three Collas, ° Bells and croziers. — The ancient Irish 
as already noticed. It is probable, how- saints were accustomed to curse the offend- 
ever, that when Congal undertook to kill ing chieftains while sounding their bells 


sovereignty of Erin. My father, Scannall of the Broad Shield, died 
soon after 1 , and I came to thee to be made king [of Ulster], as thou 
hadst promised me. Thou didst not perform thy promise except to a 
small extent, for thou didst deprive me of Cinel Conaill and Cinel 
Eoghain, and also of the nine cantreds of Oirghiall m , the land of 
Maelodhar Macha n , who now sits at thy shoulder, and whom thou 
hast seated in the place of a king, in preference to me, this night, in 
thine own house, king," said he. " And a goose egg was placed be- 
fore him on a silver dish, while a hen egg was placed on a wooden 
dish before me. And I will give battle to thee and the men of Erin 
in consequence, as thou hast them assembled around thee to-night," 
said Congal. And he then went out of the house, and the Ultonians 
followed him. 

Domhnall said to the saints of Erin who were in the house, " Follow 
Congal," said he, " and bring him back, that his own award may be 
given him by me." The saints went after him and threatened to curse 
him with their bells and croziers , unless he would return with them. 
" I swear by my valour," said Congal, " that not one cleric p of you 
shall reach the king's house alive, if I, or any Ultonian, be cursed by 
you." Terror then seized the saints, whereupon Congal went far away 
from them, and they cursed him afterwards. And they also cursed 
Suibhne q , the son of Colman Cuar, son of Cobhthach, king of Dal 
Araidhe 1 ", for it was he that had carried away from them by force the 
many-coloured tunic which [king] Domhnall had given into the hand 


with the tops of their croziers. king of Dal Araidhe, is not mentioned in 

p Cleric The word cléipec, a cleric or the Irish Annals, though he seems to be 

clerk, which is derived from the Latin word a historical character. 

clericiiSy is used throughout this story to r Dal Araidhe, a celebrated territory in 

denote a priest. Ulster, comprising the entire of the pie- 

q Suibhne, the son of Colman Cuar, sent county of Down and that part of 


l?onam pinD, mic bepai^, Dia rabaipr Do Con^al ; ocup ó pó 
pémi^ Con^al in c-inap pin, Do bene Suibne á laim in clepi^ oia 
ainDeoin map in pi^. ConiD Do'n epcaine pin Do ponpau pop Consal 
po paiDeD punn: 

Con^al Claen 

in ^áip cucpumap nip paem, 

cecpap ap picic, ni bpe$, 

ímpioe cét> leip cec naem. 
In mac pot), 

pop a uucpam in ^aip cloj; 

nocap Dulca Do 'p m car, 

cit) peme Do beiú par bo^. 
TTlop in pó, 

^émaD uairi, ^emaD lia, 

in pep, 5a m-bí cecua pi^, 

íp leip co pip cun^nap Oia. 
TTlop in col, 

comann ppi pi£ Daipe Dpol, 

pepann Do cabaipe 'n a laim, 

íp e in cnam a m-bel na con. 

Ctpbepr Domnall lap pin ppi pileDu Gpenn coiDecu 1 n-Diaio 
Con^ail Dia papuuD. Uiagaiu cpa na piliD ma DiaiD : ar ci 
Con^al na piliDu cuici, ocup apbepu, po cailleD eineac Ulao co 
bpár, ol pe, uaip ni rapDpam mnmup Do na pileDaib íp m C15 n-oil, 
ocup a các a^ rocc anopa Diap n-^pipaD in ap n-DiaiD. Uicic na 
piliD co h-aipm a m-bui Congal, ocup pepaiD pium pailci ppiu, 


Antrim lying south of the mountain Sliabh abbot of Druim Ineasclainn, in the territory 

Mis, now Slemmish. of Conaille Muirtheimhne, now Anglicised 

s St. Ronan Finn, the son of Berach, was Drumiskin, in the county of Louth, not 


of St. Konan Finn 5 , the son of Berach, to be presented to Congal; but 
as Congal had refused to accept of the king's tunic, Suibhne took it 
from the cleric's hand in despite of him. It was on this curse, which 
they pronounced on Congal, that the following lines were composed : 

Congal Claen 

Heeded not the curse we gave, 

Four and twenty saints we were — no falsehood, 

Each saint having the intercessory influence of a hundred. 
The daring son, 

Against whom we raised the voice of bells, 

Should not to the battle go, 

Though soft prosperity were before him. 
Great the happiness, 

That, whether few or many be his hosts, 

The man who has the regal right 

Him truly God will aid. 
Great the profaneness, 

To contend with the king of noble Dairé ; 

To give land into his [Congal' s] hand 

Is to give a bone into the dog's mouth. 

After this Domhnall desired the poets of Erin to go after Congal 
to stop him. The poets set out after Congal: Congal perceived the 
poets coming towards him, and exclaimed, "The munificent character 
of Ulster is tarnished for ever, for we gave the poets no presents at 
the banqueting house 1 , and they are following us to upbraid us." The 
poets came on to where Congal was, and he bade them welcome, and 


Drumshallon, as Lanigan thinks. He died * Banqueting house A king always 

in the year 664 See Colgan, Acta SS. considered it his duty to give presents to 

p. 141, and Lanigan, vol. iii. p. 52. poets at public banquets and assemblies. 



ocup Do bepr maíne mopa boib, ocup inDipic a pcéla Do. Qcbepc 
pum na $ebac coma pop bic ó' n pi^ ace car 1 n-Disail a Dimiaóa 
ocup a eaponopa; ocup po eirhi^ Dol leo. pa^bup na pilit) ap a 
h-aicle, ocup ciomnaip celeabpat) Doib, ocup ceiD poirhe íp in cui^et) 
50 pami^ 50 ceac Ceallai^, mic piacna pinn .1. bpaúaip arap 
Con^ail, ocup innipiD a pcela 00 o cup co DeipeaD. ba peanoip cian- 
aopDa an ci Celiac; ocup ni cluineao ace mat) bee, ocup ni ceim- 
ni^eD pop a copaib, ocup C0I5 cpeDuma im a leapaiD, ocup peipium 
innci do spep. ba laec ampa h-e 1 copac a aipi. Cein bui Con^al 
oc innipi peel Do, po nocc pum a cloiDem po bui laip pa coim cen 
pip do neoc $op cpicnui^ Con^al a corhpaó, ocup apbepc, Oo biuppa 
bpécip, Dia n-^abca coma pop bich o'n pi$ ace each, nác péDpaDip 
UlaiD h' eaDpain popm-pa, co clanOdmb in cloiDem pa epic cpioe 
peceaip; uaip ni bep d' Ullcaib coma Do £abail ppi poinD caca no 
co n-Di^laic a n-anpolca. Ocup a cáe pecc macu main ocum-pa 
ocuppa^aic lac ípin car, ocup Dia caempaint)-pi péin Dula ann, no 
paramo, ocup ni moiopeo pop Ullcaib cén no beino-pi im beaeaiD. 
Ocup acbepe ann : 

Q mic, na ^eb-pi cen car, 

ciO pío íappup pi£ Uempac; 

mao pomuc paib, pepp 00 5mm, 

mat) pope, t)o paee Do comlin. 
Na ^eib peoDu na maine, 

ace mat) cmDu De^-Daine, 

co na cuca pi^ ele, 

cap ap clanDaib TCuDpai^e. 


u Cellack, the son ofFiachna See Note bed, by P. Connell, in his MS. Dictionary. 

C, at the end of the volume, where the w The race of Rudhraighe, the ancient 

pedigree of Congal is given. Ultonians, of whom a long line of kings 

v Tolg C0I5 is explained lectbaio, a had dwelt at Emania, were at this period 


gave them great presents, and they told him their embassy. He 
replied, that he would receive no condition from the king but a 
battle, in which to take revenge for the indignity and dishonour 
offered him ; and he refused to return with them. He then left the 
poets, and bade them farewell, and proceeded on his way through the 
province until he arrived at the house of Cellach, the son of Fiachna", 
his own father's brother, to whom he related the news from begin- 
ning to end. Cellach was an extremely aged senior ; he heard but 
a little ; he did not walk on his feet, but had a brazen tolg v as his 
bed, in which he always remained; but he had been a renowned 
hero in the early part of his life. While Congal was telling him the 
news, he exposed his sword, which he held concealed under his 
garment unknown to all until Congal had finished his discourse, and 
said, " I pledge thee my word, that shouldest thou receive any consi- 
derations from the king but a battle, all the Ultonians could not save 
thee from me, because I would thrust this sword through thy heart ; 
for it is not the custom of the Ultonians to accept of considerations 
in place of battle until they take revenge for insults. I have seven 
good sons, and they shall go with thee into the battle, and if I were 
able myself I would go also, and the Ultonians should not be defeated 
while I had life. And he said on the occasion: 

" My son, be not content without a battle, 

Though Tara's king should sue for peace ; 
If thou conquer, the better thy deed, 
If thou be defeated, thou shalt slay an equal number. 
Accept not of jewels or goods, 
Except the heads of good men, 
So that no other king may offer 

Insult to the race of Rudhraighe w . 


scattered over various parts of Ireland, as part of them who remained in their origi- 
in Kerry, Corcomroe, Leix, &c, and that rial province, were shut up within the 

G 2 


tuga pách Scannail na pciac, 

oa cue cac íp Cuan Cliac, 

Dap cuip ceano Cuain ap cluD, 

cpe no paD gup cpm Scannul. 
pip a n-Oeabaig mo pecc mac, 

o nac péDaim-pi oul lac, 

Da m-beOip cinol buo mo, 

Oo pagoaip ac pocpaiDeo. 
Cec car mop cue h' acaip piam, 

peacnón Gpenn, caip íp ciap, 

mipi Do bib pop a Oeip, 

mic mo óepbpacap Dilip ! 
In car mop cue h' acaip caip, 

o'a cue áp pop Ppangcacaib, 

pe pig pa-glan na Ppangc, 

cuig nac ap peabpab mac, a mic. 

Q mic. 

Qpbepc umoppo in penoip ppip, eipg in Qlbain, ol pe, Do paigib 
oo pen-acap, .1. GochaiDh buioe, mac C(et)ain, mic ^ct^pain, íp e íp 
pig pop Qlbain; ap íp mgen Do Do macaip, ocup ingen pig bpecan, 
.1. GochaiD Qmgcep, ben pig Qlban, Do pen-macaip, .1. macaip Do 
macap; ocup cabaip lac pipu Qlban ocup bpecan ap in n-gael pin 
Do cum n-Gpenn Do cabaipe caca Do'n pig. 


present counties of Down and Antrim, garded as poetic fiction. 

Lough Neagh and the Lower Bann sepa- y Eochaidh Buidhe, king of Scotland 

rated them from the Kinel-Owen, and the This king is mentioned by Adamnan in the 

celebrated trench called the Danes' Cast, ninth chapter of the first book of his Life 

formed the boundary between them and of Columba, where he calls him " Eoch- 

the Oirghialla. odius Buidhe." His death is set down in 

x King of France There is no autho- the Annals of Ulster, at the year 628. 

rity for this to be found in the authentic " Mors Echdach Buidhe Regis Pictorum, 

Irish Annals, and it must therefore be re- filii Aedain. Sic in Libro Cuanac inveni" 


Less cause had Scannal of the Shields, 

When he and Cuan of Cliach fought a battle, 

When he fixed Cuan's head upon a wall, 

Because he had said that Scannal had withered. 
Send for my seven sons, 

As I myself cannot go with thee ; 

Were they a greater number 

They should join thy army. 
In every great battle which thy father ever fought 

Throughout Erin, east and west, 

I was at his right hand, 

son of my loyal brother ! 
And in that great battle thy father fought in the east, 

(In which he slaughtered the Franks,) 

Against the very splendid king of France x ; 

Understand that this was no boyish play, my son! 

My son," &c. 

The old man also said, " Go to Alba," said he, " to thy grand- 
father Eochaidh Buidhe y , the son of Aedhan, son of Gabhran, who 
is king of Alba ; thy mother is his daughter, and thy grandmother, 
that is, thy mother's mother, the wife of the king of Alba, is the 
daughter of the king of Britain, that is, of Eochaidh Aingces 2 ; and 
through this relationship bring with thee the men of Alba and Britain 

to Erin, to give battle to the king." 


If this date be correct, which it most writer of the story, not knowing who was 

likely is, this is another anachronism by king of Britain, i. e. of Wales, at this pe- 

the writer of the story. riod, was under the necessity of coining a 

z Eochaidh Aingces, king of Britain. — name to answer his purpose ; unless we 

No such king is to be found in the histo- suppose our extant sources of Welsh his- 

ries of Britain ; and he must therefore be tory to be defective, 
regarded as a fictitious personage. The 

4 6 

6a buioec íapum in ci Con^al Oo'n corhaiple pin; ocup céir i 
n-Cllpain ceD laec a lin, ocup ni po aiyiip pop muip na rip co piacc 
co Oun monaio, aic a m-bui pi^ Qlban, .1. Gocham buioe, ocup 
main Qlban in oen oail íme anO. Do pala t>m Do Con^al alla- 
TIIU15 oo'n t>ail, éicep ocup pilm m pi$ .1. Ouboiao Dpai a ainm- 
pioe ; ba pipi^ ocup ba t)pai ampa in ci DuboiaO; ocup po pep 
pailn ppi Con^al, ocup po íappacc pcela Do, ocup po innip Con^al 
a pcela. ConiO ann apbepu OubtnaD, ocup ppe^pap Con^al he: 
lp mo cen in loin^iup leip, 

Oo connapc a h-ecepcéin; 

can bap cenel, clu cen ail, 

ca cip ap a cancabaip? 
Uancamap a h-Gpmn am, 

á oclai^ uallai^ ínmaip, 

íp t>o cancamup llle 

t>' acallaim Gachach 6ui6e. 


a Dun Monaidh. — A place in Scotland, scription of the Imbas for Osna, as given in 

Avhere the kings of the Dalriedic or Iberno- Cormac's Glossary, will show that it was a 

Scotic race resided. It is now called Dun- humbug not unlike the Magnetic sleep of 

staffnage, and is situated in Lome See modern dreamers. "Imbas for Osna The 

Gough's Camden, vol. iv. p. 129. poet discovers through it whatever he likes 

b Druid. — In the times of Paganism in or desires to reveal. This is the way it is 

Ireland every poet was supposed to possess done : the poet chews a piece of the flesh of 

the gift of prophecy, or rather to possess a red pig, or of a dog or cat, and he brings it 

a spirit capable of being rendered prophe- afterwards on a flag behind the door, and 

tic by a certain process. Whenever he was chants an incantation upon it, and offers it 

desired to deliver a prophecy regarding to idol gods ; and his idol gods are brought 

future events, or to ascertain the truth of to him, but he finds them not on the morrow, 

past events, he threw himself into a rhap- And he pronounces incantations on his 

sody called Imbas for Osna, or Teinm Loegh- two palms; and his idol gods are also 

dha, during which the true images of these brought to him, in order that his sleep 

events were believed to have been por- may not be interrupted; and he lays his 

trayed before his mind. The following de- two palms on his two cheeks, and thus 


Congal was thankful ; he set out for Alba with one hundred he- 
roes, and made no delay upon sea or land, till he arrived at Dun 
Monaidh a , where Eochaidh Buidhe, king of Alba, was with the nobles 
of Alba assembled around him. Congal met, outside the assembly, 
the king's sage and poet, Dubhdiadh, the Druid, by name, who was a 
seer and distinguished Druid b ; he bade Congal welcome, and asked 
news of him, and Congal related all the news to him. And Dubh- 
diadh said, and Congal replied: 

Dubhdiadh. — "My affection is the bright fleet 

Which I have espied at a great distance ; 
Declare your race of stainless fame, 
And what the country whence ye came." 
Congal. — " We have come from noble Erin, 
O proud and noble youth, 
And we have come hither 
To address Eochaidh Buidhe." 


falls asleep ; and he is watched in order for the latter requires no offering to de- 

that no one may disturb or interrupt mons." 

him, until every thing about which he is These practices, about which so little 
engaged is revealed to him, which may be has been said by Irish antiquaries, must 
a minute, or two, or three, or as long as look extraordinary to the philosophic in- 
the ceremony requires : et ideo Imbas did- habitants of the British Isles in the nine- 
tar, i. e. di bois ime, i. e. his two palms teenth century. But it is highly probable 
upon him, i. e. one palm over and the other that some of the more visionary Germans 
across on his cheeks. St. Patrick abolished will think them quite consonant with the 
this, and the Teinm Loeghdha, and he de- nature of the human soul ; for in the year 
clared that whoever should practise them ' 1835, a book was published at Leipsic, 
would enjoy neither heaven nor earth, be- by A. Steinbeck, entitled "Every Poet 
cause it was renouncing baptism. Dicke- a Prophet; a Treatise on the Essential 
dul do chenduibh is what he left as a sub- Connection between the Poetic Spirit 
stitute for it in the Corns Cerda [the Law and the Property of Magnetic Lucid Vi- 
ol' Poetry], and this is a proper substitute, sion." 


TTla peat) cancabaip llle, 

t>' acallaim Gachach buibe, 

ap comecc tub uap cec lep, 

a Oepim pib ip mo cen. lp mo c. 

Do caet) Con^al íp in Oail a paibe pi^ Qlpan lap pin, ocup 
pepam in pig ocup pipu Qlpan pailci ppip, ocup po innip a pcela 
Ooib o chup co 0615. Qpbepc pi£ Qlpan ppi Con^al, m oam cuim- 
^eac-pa pop r>ul leu in abaig pi£ Gpenn 1 ceano caca, ap in can po 
h-int>apbca eipium a h-Gpinn puaip anoip a^um-pa ocup Oo ponpum 
cópu ann pin, ocup po cappn^aipiupa t>o, ocup Do paoup bpeichip 
ppip na pa^aint) 1 ceanD caca ina a^aio co bpac. Qp ai pin cpa, 
m ba lu£aioi oo pocpait)i-piu cen mipi oo Oul leac, ol pe, uaip 
acáo cecpap mac ocum-pa .1. Qeo in eppiD uaine, ocup Suibne, ocup 
Con^al TTleano, ocup Oomnall bpeac, a pinnpep, .1. bpaicpe macap 
Ouic-piu. lp acu-pm acac ampai^ ocup anpaio Qlpan, ocup pa$- 
oaic lac-pu 00 cum n-Gpenn Do cabaipc cam Do Oomnall. Ocup 
eip^piu pein Oia n-a^allaim aipm a pileo ocup main Qlpan impu. 
Ueic íapum Con^al 50 mai£in a m-bacup, ocup pepaic pailci ppip; 
ocup po innip Ooib aicepc m pi£, ocup ba maic leo. 

Qpbepc QeO m eppio uaine pópap na mac, mat) ail ouic-piu, a 
Con^ail, beic ím ci^-p» anoche pop pleiO, cia^pa lac t>o cum 
n-Gpenn, ocup in cecpamao pann o' Qlbam ímum, ocup minub am 
chi£ biapu a nocc, ni ceip lac 00 cum in caca. Qcbepc Con^al 
Tíleno, mac Gachach buiOe, ni pa pip pon, a Qet), ol pe, ace ip 
im 05-pea biap pig UlaO anocc, oai£ t>ia n-oeacappa laip cic- 
pápu lim, áp ip ocum-pa acai. 6a h-e pin, t>m, páó Suibne ocup 


c Domhiall Brec. — This Domhnall Brec, by his cotemporary Adamnan in the fifth 
who was king of Scotland when the Battle chapter of the third book of his Life of 
of Magh-Rath was fought, is mentioned Columba See Trias Thaum, p. 365, col. i. 


Dubhdiadh. — " If ye have come hither 

To confer with Eochaidh Buidhe, 

After your arrival over the sea, 

I say unto you accept my affection." 

After this, Congal went into the assembly in which the king of 
Alba was; and the king and the men of Alba bade him welcome, and 
he told them his story from beginning to end. The king of Alba said 
to Congal, " It is not in my power to go with thee to fight a battle 
against the king of Erin, because when he was banished from Erin 
he received honour from me ; and we made a covenant, and I pro- 
mised him, and pledged my word, that I would never go to oppose 
him in battle. However, thy forces will not be the less numerous 
because I go not along with thee," said he, " for I have four sons, 
viz., Aedh of the Green Dress, Suibhne, Congal Menn, and Domhnall 
Brec c , the eldest, thy maternal uncles ; it is they who have the com- 
mand of the soldiers and heroes d of Alba, and they shall go with 
thee to Erin to give battle to Domhnall. And go thyself to confer 
with them where they are at present surrounded by the men of 
Alba." Congal then went to where they were, and they bade him 
welcome ; and he told them the king's suggestion, and they liked it. 

Aedh of the Green Dress, the youngest of the sons, said, " If thou 
shouldest wish, Congal, to stop this night at a banquet in my house, 
I will go with thee to Erin with the fourth part of the forces of Alba ; 
and if thou wilt not stop at my house to-night, I will not go with 
thee to the battle." Congal Menn, the son of Eochaidh Buidhe, said, 
" This will not be the case, O Aedh, but the king of Ulster shall 
stop this night at my house, for if I go with him thou shalt accom- 
pany me, because thou art under my control." And the sayings of 


d Heroes — Gnnao is explained laoc, a the Leabhar Breac, fol. 40, b ; and chain- 
hero, by O'Clery; jépac, a champion, in pion, hero, by Peter Connell. 



Oomnaill 6picc. Qpbepc, Din, Oomnall bpeac, mat) ím n^-pea 
heap pi£ UlaD anocr, Dia n-Decap lair cicpaiúíp 1 a rpiup lim-pa, 
op in me bap pinnpep, ocup in me Do paD poipb Daib-pi. ba bpo- 
nac rpa an ui Con^al D' impeapan clomDe m pi£ íme peiri ; ocup 
ceiu peacnón na Dala, ocup Do pala OubDiaD Opai Do, ocup mnipiD 
Con^al aiúepc cloinDi in pi£ Do. Qpbepu OubDiaD nap bau bpo- 
nach-pu ap on pm a Chon^ail, ol pe, áp íp mi pi icpap Do Dobpón : 
Gip£ anopa Dia paigió, ol pe, ocup abaip ppiu, cipe uaiDib po ^ebaD 
in caipe plara pil a ui£ m pi^ Dor biaraD a nocu, comaD lap in ci 
po ^ebac in caipe no pa^ra, ocup in ri na pui^beaD in caipe cen a 
DimDa Do beir popu-pu, acr ip popp in pi$ ba copu a airbip Do beic 
imon caipe. Oo Iuid Congal ^up an mai^in 1 m-baDap clann an 
pi£, ocup po can piu peb au pubaipc OubDiaD ppip. 6a maic leo- 
pum pm, ocup apbepuaDap Do ^enDaip amail a Dubaipc pium. 

Gcbepu imoppo QeD, mac Sachach buiDe, ppi a mnai pepm 
Dul pop íappaip in caipe popp in pi^. Ueic íapum ocup mnipiD 
cumaD ina C15 no biaD Con^al co maicib UlaD ocup Qlban an 
oibce, pm, cumaD coip in caipe ainpicean Do úabaipc ppi h-ai£iD a 

CiD Dia pil caipe ampicean Do paDa ppip? Nin .1. Caipe no 
aipiceaD a cuiD coip Do ^ac en, ocup m cei^eaD Dam DimDach 
uaDa, ocup ciD mop no cuipcea ann ni ba bpuirea De ace Daicmna 
Daime pa na miaD ocup pa na n-^paD. Ip e imoppo pamail m caipe 


e Bruighin huaDerga, is often also called H. 2. 1 6. and H. 3. 1 8.), and in Leabhar na 
Bruighin da Berga. A copy of the histo- h- Uidhre, a MS. of the twelfth century, 
rical tale called Toghail Bruigh n e da Berga, now in the collection of Messrs. Hodges 
the Demolition of Bruighin da Berga, in and Smith, Dublin. The destruction of 
which reference is made to a wonderful Bruighin da Berga is thus recorded in the 
magical cauldron of this description, is authentic Annals of Tighernach, twenty- 
preserved in two vellum MSS. in the Li- five years before the birth of Christ: 
brary of Trinity College, Dublin, (Class "Ante Christum 25 Conairé Mor, the 

5 l 

Suibhne and Donihnall Brec were similar. Domhnall Brec saicl, " If 
the king of Ulster remain in my house to-night, and if I go with him 
you three shall accompany me, for I am your senior, and it was I 
who gave you lands." Congal was sorry for the contention among 
the king's sons about himself; and he went through the assembly, 
and Dubhdiadh, the Druid, met him, to whom he mentioned the 
desire of the sons of the king. Dubhdiadh said, " Be not sorry for 
this, Congal, for I will remedy thy sorrow: go now to them, and 
tell them, that thou wilt stop with that one of them who shall obtain 
the regal cauldron which is in the king's house, to prepare food for 
thee, and that the person who will not get the cauldron is not to be 
displeased with thee in consequence, but with the king." Congal went 
to where the sons of the king were, and told them what Dubhdiadh 
had desired him. They liked this, and said that they would do as he 

Then Aeclh, the son of Eochaidh Buidhe, told his wife to go and 
ask the cauldron of the king. She went and said, that " it was in her 
house that Congal and the chiefs of Ulster and Alba would stop, and 
that the Caire Ainsicen ought to be given to prepare food for them." 

Why was it called Caire Ainsicen? It is not difficult to tell. It was 
the " caire," or cauldron, which was used to return his own proper 
share to each, and no party ever went away from it unsatisfied, for what- 
ever quantity was put into it there was never boiled of it but what was 
sufficient for the company according to their grade and rank. It was 
a cauldron of this description that was at Bruighin hua Derga e , where 


son of Edersgeol, was king of Ireland for Khar Mac Nessa, Coirpre Niafer, Tigher- 

80 years. After the first plundering of nach Tedbannach, Deghaidh, son of Sin, 

Bruighin da Berga, the palace of Conairé and Ailill, son of Madach and Meave of 

Mor, the son of Edersgeol, Ireland was Cruachain, in Connaught." See also O'Fla- 

divided into five parts, between Concho- herty's Ogygia, p. 131. 


5 2 

pin bui a m-bpui^m hua Oep^a, in po mapbra Conaipe, mac 
TTlepi buachalla, ocup 1 m-bpui^in 6lai bpu^a, air a m-bui ben 
Celccaip, mic Uichip; ocup 1 m-bpui^in pop^aill TTlonac, 1 caeb 
Lupca; ocup l m-bpui^in mic Cechc, pop Sleib puipi; ocup 1 
m-bpui^in mic Oauó, áiu in po laaft áp Connacc ocup Ulao imon 
muic n-ipt)paic; ocup 1 m-bpui^in t)a Choga, in po mapbra Copmac 
Conlon^uip, ocup áp UlaO íme ; ocup a^ pig Qlban íp in aimpip pin. 
Gcbepu in pi^ ppi mnai a mic, cia mait pil pop oo ceile-piu 
peach pipu Qlpan uile in can t)o bepaint)-pi mo caipe t>o? Qpbepu 
pi, ni po eiuig neac ím m piarii ; moo a eineac oloap bit:. Uc 
cnxir muliep: 

Ni puaip Geo, ni pui^eba 

ni oo ceileo pop ouine, 

íp leinu pop a eineach, 

ina in bit: bleit>ec buit>e. 
Seoit) in ralman caeb uaine, 

a puaip t)ume ocup oaenna, 

pe h-anhaió na h-oen uaipe, 

ni beoip i laim Qet>a. 
Q caiuep pe h-ai^efraib 

'5 á cpiup bpaúap, met) n-uailli, 

cuipci pin ap paen-bepaib, 

a^ QeD in eppio uaim. 



f Bruighin Blai Bruga Copies of a h Sliabh Fuirri, is now corruptly called 

tale in which reference is made to a simi- Sliabh Mhuiri, and is situated near Castle 

lar cauldron at Bruighin Blai Bruga, are Kelly, in the parish of Killeroran, in the 

preserved in the MS. Library of Trinity north-east of the county of Galway. 

College (H. 2. 18. and H. 3. 18.) ' Bruighin Mic Datho. — A copy of a tale, 

g Lusca, now Lusk, in the county of in which the magical cauldron of Bruighin 

Dublin. The name signifies a cave. Mic Datho is introduced, is preserved in 


Conaire, tlie son of Meisi Buachalla, was slain ; and at Bruighin Blai 
Bruga f , where the wife of Celtchair, the son of Uithir, was; and at 
Bruighin Forgaill Monach, alongside Lnsca g ; and at Bruighin Mic 
Cecht, on Sliabh Fuirri h ; and at Bruighin Mic Datho' 1 , where the 
Connacians and Ultonians were slaughtered contending about the 
celebrated pig; and at Bruighin Da Choga j , where Cormac Conlonguis 
was slain and his Ultonians slaughtered around him ; and such also 
the king of Alba had at this time. 

The king said to the wife of his son, " In what is thy husband 
better than all the men of Alba that I should give my cauldron to 
him?" She replied, " He never refused any one any thing; his hos- 
pitality exceeds the world:" ut dixit mulier: 

" Aedh has not received, will not receive 
A thing he would refuse any man ; 
His bounty moreover is more extensive 
Than the vast prolific world. 
The jewels of the green-faced earth, 
Which man or mortal has found, 
For the space of one hour, 
Would not remain in the hand of Aedh. 
What is spent on guests 

By his three brothers of great pride, 
W^ould be placed on small spits 
By Aedh of the Green Apparel. 

Aedh has not," &c. 


the MS. Library of Trinity College (H. 3. have pointed out, lies near Ballyloughloe, in 

1 8.) This place is now unknown. the county of Westmeath, six miles to the 

J Bruighin da Choga. — A copy of the north-east of Athlone. A stone castle was 

story of the cauldron at this place is in here erected by the family of Dillon within 

the same MS. Bruighin-da-Choga, the situ- the primitive Irish Bruighin or fort. The 

ation of which none of our Topographers place is now called Breenmore. 


Gcbepu in pig, ni ribeppa in caipe t>uic-pi coleic. Uic pi Do 
paigiD a pip, ocup innipiD aichepc in pig do. Qcbepc Congal TTienD, 
mac Gachach buiDi, ppi a peitrig pepin Dul pop íappaip in coipe. 
Ueic lap iTYi ocup pipiD in caipe Do biaraD pig UlaD. Qcbepr in 
pi£, cia maiú pil popu cheile piu 6 do bepra in coipe Do rap in mac 
X)\a po pipet) h-é gup cpapca? Qubepu pi nip pil mac pig íp pepp 
oloap Congal. CmniD pop cac comlann, ocup po gniaD a apmu 
Dilep Don anDilep in ran bepap a rip amuil lac ; Uc Dixie muliep: 

Con^al THeno, 

nip paca mac pig but) pepp, 

map cpomaio each íp in cleir, 

ap pear a pceiú, caegaD ceanD. 
In uaip bepap aipm Corrgail 

a rip aniúl, par n-eiDig, 

Do nirep rip Dilep oi, 

t>o'n uip amuil ap eicm. 
In uaip pillep ben Congail 

ap o^lac n-alamt) n-oll-blao, 

ni anann aga cogaipm, 

in pep Dan comainm Congal! 

Congal. m. 

l?o ép an pi£ imon 5-coipe an bean, ocup rig piDe amach ocup 
inDipio D'á céile a n-Debaipc in pi ppia. Qubepc Domnall bpeac 
ppi a mnai Dol D'iappaiD in coipe gup m pig. Uainic piDe co 
h-aipm a m-bui in pig, ocup pipit) in coipe. Po íappacc pin t)i cia 
maiú pil pope ceili piu peac na macu ele t)ia po cuinDgeD in coipe? 
Ppip^aipc pi, ni cuille buióe ppi nách pig m ci Oomnall bpeacc; 


k Unlawful property, — i. e. he conquers law of the sword, which could not other- 
territories, and makes that his own, by the wise have become his own. 


The king said, " I will not give tliee the cauldron as yet," She 
then returned to her husband, and told him what the king had said. 
Con gal Menu, the son of Eochaidh Buidhe, told his wife to go and 
ask the cauldron. She went accordingly, and asked the cauldron to 
prepare food for the king of Ulster. The king said, " What good- 
ness is in thy husband that he should obtain the cauldron in pre- 
ference to the son for whom it was just now sought?" She replied, 
" There is no king's son better than Congal. He obtains the victory 
in every battle, and his arms, when they are brought into a foreign 
country, make lawful what was unlawful property 1 " ;" ut dixit mulier : 

" Than Congal Menn 

I have not seen a better king's son, 

As all stoop in the battle 

Under the shelter of his shield, even a hundred heads. 
When the arms of Congal are brought 

To a foreign country, — cause of jealousy, — 

A lawful country is made of it, 

Of the foreign country by force. 
When the wife of Congal glances 

At a beauteous youth of renown, 

The man whose name is Congal 

Cares not to accuse her 1 ! 

Than Congal," &c. 

The king refused to give her the cauldron, and she came away 

and related all the king had told her. Domhnall Brec told his wife 

to go and ask the cauldron from the king, and she went to where the 

king was, and asked the cauldron. He asked her, " What good is 

in thy husband beyond the other sons for whom the cauldron was 

asked?" She replied, " Domhnall Brec has not earned thanks from 


1 By these words the wife of Congal son Congal was not of a jealous disposition, 
wishes kingEochaidh to understand that his — a very strange qualification of a chieftain. 


^émat* óji Sliab TTIonaiD nop po^ailpet) ppi h-oen uaip ; m po ^ab 
aipm mac pi^ íp t>each oloap Oomnall 6pec. Uc Dixie muliep: 
O on wall 6pec, 

Oomnall mac Gchach buióe, 

pe pi^, o' peabup a menma, 

ni oepna cuillmm buióe. 
lp pip caca n-abpaim-pi, 

poclaiDic pilit> pinnió, 

t)a mao óp Sliab mop TTIonait), 

pop po^ail, íp nip puipi^. 
lp pip cac a n-abpaim-pi, 

a pi£, cepu m t>a comlant), 

nac ap gab Qlbam cen peall, 

pig but) pepp ina Domnall. 

O. 6. 
Uic in mnai pin co h-aipm 1 m-oui a ceile, ocup írmipio aicepc 
in pig, ocup a h-épa ímmon 5-coipe. Cícbepr Suibne ppi a mnai 
pepm, eipg, ol pe, ocup cuinOi^ in coipe. Uic pi lapum ocup 
cumogip w coipe. l?o piappaig in pig, cia buait» pil popu ceili-piu, 
a w^en, ol pe, uap na macu ele, o uanguip t)' íappait) in coipe. 
Ppip^aipc pi t)o, bit> cerpap ím lepait) in oen pip, ocup in u-oen-pep 
ím CU1D15 w cecpaip a U15 Suibne, ocup in lin bice ina peapam arw 
ni úallac 'na puiDiu ocup in lin uallau 'na puit)iu ni rallac 'na 
I151U ; ceo coprm ocup ceo eapcpa n-aip^ic ppi Oail learma arm t)0 
"S]\tf] Uc Oixic muliep: 

Ueach Suibne, 

Suibne mic Gachach 6uit>e 

a coill wo ina peapam, 

w úoilbc íria puioe. 


m Sliabh Monaidh was the ancient name far from the palace of Dun Monaidh — See 
of a mountain in Lome, in Scotland, not Note a , p. 46. 


any king; were Sliabh Monaidh" 1 of gold lie would distribute it in 
one hour; no king ever ruled Alba better than Donihnall Brec:" ut 
dixit mulier: 

" Domhnall Brec, 

Domhnall, son of Eochaidh Buidhe, 
From any king, through the goodness of his mind, 
He has earned no thanks. 
All that I say is true, O king ! 

The poets of the west proclaim it, 
If the great Sliabh Monaidh were gold 
He would distribute it ; he would not hoard it. 
All that I say is true, 

king, just in thy battle, 

Alba has not been legitimately obtained 

By a better king than Domhnall. 

Domhnall Brec," &c. 
The king refused, and the woman came to where her husband 
was, and told what the king had said, and how she was refused the 
cauldron. Suibhne told his wife to go and ask the cauldron. She 
then went, and asked the cauldron. The king asked, " What qua- 
lification does thy husband possess, O daughter, beyond the other 
sons, that thou shouldst come to ask the cauldron?" She replied, 
" Four be around the bed of one man, and one man gets the supper 
of four in the house of Suibhne ; and the number which fit in it 
standing would not fit sitting, and the number which fit in it sitting 
would not fit in it lying; there are in it constantly one hundred 
cups and one hundred vessels of silver to distribute ale ;" ut dixit 

mulier : 

" The house of Suibhne, 

Suibhne, son of Eochaidh Buidhe, 

The number which fit in it standing 

Would not if sitting, 



Q coill ino ma puioe, 

rii eoillic ina lai^e. 

oen pep mi cuio in ceacpaip, 

ceepap mi lepait) Duine. 
CeO copnn ocup ceo copan, 

ceo rope, ocup ceo einoe, 

íp ceo eapcpa aip^oioe 

bip rail ap lap a ci^e. 


lp ann apbepc in pi^, nap bar Oimoach-pu, a m^en, ol pe, ap 
aebepc Duboiao Dpai ppim-pa cen mo caipe Oo cabaipe Oo neac 
ele a nocc, ace a beic ocum pern ocup pi£ Ulao, .1. mac m'in^ine, 
ocup pipu Qlban 00 biachao a^um-pa app anocc. Ocup pop 
acbepc in Duboiao ceona, Oia m-bao coipe oip no beic ann, cumaO 
coip a cabaipe Oo Domnall, Oo pinnpep mo mac; ocup Oia m-bao 
coipe ap^aio, a cabaipe Oo'n c-popap, .1. o' QeO; ocup Oia m-bao 
coipe 00 lie lo^maip, a cabaipe Oo Chon^al TTlenO. Ocup in caipe 
pil ano Oin, ap ipe íp oeach Oib pin uile, Oia capocai ooneach ele 
h-é, íp 00 Suibne no pa^ao, ap íp e in pen-pocal cein maip, .1. in 
coipe Oo'n c-pocaiOe, ap íp aoba pocaióe ceac Suibne, ap ni Oecaio 
oám oimoach app. Conao ann apbepc in pi^: 
bepeao mo opai Oeal^nai^i 

bpeac Oo mnaib mac TTlo^aipe 

ca bean cneip-^eal ceann-buioe, 

Oib O'a cibép mo caipe. 

Dia m-baO coipe opoai^i, 

co n-opolaib oip o'a po^nann, 


n Joints. — The word einoe, tinne, is ex- any animal — See Life of St. Bridget, by- 
plained a sheep by Vallancey, Collectanea Brogan, where Colgan loosely translates 
de rebus Hibernicis, vol. hi. p. 514, but its the word by lardum. 
proper meaning, is a joint of the flesh of 


And those who find room sitting 

Would not if tying. 

One man with the share of four, 

Four around the bed of each man. 
One hundred goblets, one hundred cups, 

One hundred hogs, and one hundred joints 11 , 

And one hundred silver vessels, 

Are yonder in the middle of his house. 

The house," &c. 

It was then the king said, " Be not displeased, O daughter, for 
Dubhdiadh, the Druid, told me not to give my cauldron to any one 
to-night, but to keep it myself and to entertain my daughter's son, the 
king of Ulster, and the men of Alba out of it to-night. And, more- 
over, the same Dubhdiadh told me, if it were a cauldron of gold, to give 
it to Domhnall, the eldest of my sons ; if a cauldron of silver, to give 
it to Aedh, the youngest ; and if it were a cauldron of precious stones, 
to give it to Congal Menn. And the cauldron which I have is the best 
of all these, and if it were to be given to any one, it is to Suibhne it 
should go, for it has been a proverb from a remote period, Let the 
cauldron be given to the multitude, for the house of Suibhne is the 
resort of the multitude, and no company ever returned displeased 
from it." And then the king said: 

The King. — " Let my austere Druid decide 

Between the wives of Mogaire's sons , 
To what fair-skinned yellow-haired woman 
Of them my cauldron shall be given." 

Dubhdiadh. — " If it were a golden cauldron, 

With golden hooks to move it, 

° Mogaire's sons. — It would appear from or a cognomen of king Eochaidh, but no 
the context, that Mogaire was an alias name, other authority for it has been found. 



a Gochaió, a plog ouine, 

coip a rabaipc oo Oomnall. 
Oia m-baO coipe aiji^Oi^i, 

oo ná cic oé na oearach, 

a rabaipc o' Qeo aip^n^i, 

oo pópap clainOi Gachach. 
Dm m-bao coipe comaobal, 

oo Corral co meo leann-maip, 

o'on pip pochla pon-aobal, 

oo ni mop n-Oilep O'ainolep. 
In coipe co clotaigi, 

a Gochaio, a pig-puipe, 

a rabaipc Oo'n c-pocaibe, 

oo Suibne a]i lap a uhige. 
Opa lim Qlbain cen peitl, 

oa mao am pi£ pop Gpinn, 

oo bepaino pop mnaib mo mac, 

mo beannacc, ocup bepeac. 


Uiagac ploig Qlban uile, ocup pig UlaO, Oo rig pi$ Qlban in 

aóaig pin, ocup ba mair ooib ann íuip biao ocup lino ; ocup po gniao 

oál oenaig ap na bápac, oia pip m uicpaoip la Congal Claen Oocum 

n-Gpenn, oo rabaipc cara oo Domnall, mac Qeoa, Oo pig Gpenn, 

ocup po paiopec ppi Duboiao ocup ppi a n-opairib olcena paic- 

pme Oo oenam Ooib oup in buo popaio a péo ocup a cupup, ocup 

po gabpac na opaire ag micelmaine Ooib, ocup oca roipmepc. 

ConaO ann apbepc Ouboiao na painn-pi: 

ITIaich pm a pipu Qlban, 

ca caingen uil bap o-capglam 


p To know t)up is used in the Annals of MSS., for the modern o'piop, i. e. to know, 

the Four Masters, and in the best ancient of which it is evidently an abbreviation. 


O Eochy of the hosts of men ! 

it should be given to Domhnall. 

If it were a cauldron of silver 

From which would issue neither steam nor smoke, 

It should be given to the plundering Aedh, 

The youngest of the sons of Eochaidh. 

If it were a cauldron very great, 

It should be given to Congal of the beauteous tunic, 

That renowned man of great prosperity, 

Who makes lawful of unlawful property. 

The cauldron with ornament, 

Eochaidh, O great king ! 
Should be given to the host, 

To Suibhne in the middle of his house." 
The King. — " As I am the ruler of Alba without treachery, 

Should I be king over Erin, 

1 would pronounce on the wives of my sons 
A blessing, which I will pronounce. 

Let my," &c. 

All the host of Alba, and the king of Ulster, came that night to 
to the house of the king, and were well entertained there both with 
food and drink; and on the morrow they convened an assembly of 
the people, to know whether they should go with Congal Claen to 
Erin, to give battle to Domhnall, the son of Aedh, king of Erin ; and 
they told Dubhdiadh and their other Druids to prophesy unto them 
to know p whether their journey and expedition would be prosperous, 
and the Druids predicted evil to them, and forbade them to go. On 
which occasion Dubhdiadh repeated these verses: 

" That is good, ye men of Alba ! 

What cause has brought you together ? 



cio do pala ap bap n-aipe, 

an lo a úaúai a n-oen-baile? 
O nach h-i bap b-pleapc larha 

Gpiu co n-imaO n-oála, 

Tíiaip^ ceic, cpia claeclóo ui$e, 

t)o cpoio pe pi£ Uempai 51. 
^o pia pep pino-liac peca, 

íp ba h-oipOepc a ecca; 

ni ^ebrap ppip nap na caip, 

cuijipit) áp ap Qlbancaib. 
Q plua^ co Im 05 íp eac ! 

mac Get>a, mic Qinmipeac, 

cpia pipmne a bpear, ni bpe^, 

ana Cpipc ica coimét). 
lp maip5 na peacam in ma£, 

a rea^ap o'a bap pcapao; 

J5aet>il 'n-a cuipe pá'n clao 

pib-pi a$ Dul, pobp pepp anao. 
lp maip5 na peachain m ^leanO, 

^ebcap oipb a 0-cip n-GipeanD; 

ni ribpe neac uab a ceano, 

$an a cpeic pe pi$ epeanO. 
Oeic ceo cenn copac bap n-aip, 

cimcell pi^ Ulao oll-bain, 

tT pepaib Qlban pm 'p an áp, 

ocup pice céc comlán. 


q Native land. — pleapc lama is a tech- Trinity College, Dublin, (Class H. 3. 1 8. 
nical term signifying land reclaimed by fol. 52), as follows: pieapc .1. peapano, 
one's own hand, and which is one's own ur epe, opba laime na manac ocup na 
peculiar property. It is satisfactorily ex- naerh paoéipin .1. pleapc laime na munuc 
plained in a vellum MS. in the Library of ocup na naem. i.e. u Fleasc,\. e. land, utest, 


AY hat object occupies your attention, 

As ye are all this day in one place ? 
As Erin of many adventures 

Is not your native land q , 

Alas for those who go, by change of journey, 

To flight with the king of Tara. 
A fair grey man 1 " of fame will meet them, 

Whose deeds are celebrated ; 

He cannot be avoided, east or west, 

He will bring slaughter on the Albanachs. 
O host of many a youth and steed ! 

The son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, 

Through the truth of his judgment, — no falsehood, — 

Is protected by Christ. 
Alas for those who shun not the plain, 

To which ye go only to be dispersed ; 

The Gaels shall be in groups beneath the mound ; 

Ye are going, but better it were to stay. 
Alas for those who shun not the vale, 

Ye shall be defeated in the land of Erin 8 ; 

Not one of you shall carry his head, 

But shall sell it to the king of Erin. 
Ten hundred heads shall be the beginning of your slaughter, 

Around the great fair king of Ulster, 

This number shall be slaughtered of the men of Alba, 

And ten hundred fully. 


the land, reclaimed by the hand of the monks s Erin In the vellum copy the reading 

and the saints themselves, is called the is, írcip caebrenj, i.e. in the slender-sided 

Fleasc laimhe of the monks and the saints." country ; but a o-cip n-Gipeano, which is 

T A fair grey man King Domhnall was in the paper copy corrected by Peter Con- 

an old man when this battle was fought. nell, is much better. 


Cuiprip ocup buitme bpan, 

cpmopiucio cinn bup 5-cupaó. 
co pimrap ^aineam ^pino £lan, 
ni h-aipemfap cmo UlaO. 
Qcc nac bpi£ paipnne t>e 

pe h-ucc rpoc 00 cimóibe 
pceprap bap pip pe plaichep, 
beio bap mna cen biú-mairep. 1TI. 

lp ano pin acbepc pi$ Qltan ppi Congal, íp e íp coip ouic, ol pe, 
x>u\ a m-bpeacnaib co h-GocaiO Qin^ceap, co pi£ bpeacan, ap lp 
m^en 00 pil 00 mnai ocum-pa, ocup íp i-pioe maraip Do marap-pa, 
ocup po^eba cobaip pl.015 uaoa, ocup 00 biuppa eolup ouic conice 
reach pi£ bpecan 01a reip ann. 

ba bumech upa in ui Con^al oe pin, ocup ueic luce cpica 
lon$ co bpecnu, co piachc oun in pi£. lnnipic m oic pcela oo'n 
pi^ ocup 00 íTiaiúib bpecan conm h-e pi$ Ulat> 00 piacu ann. 
ba pailm pipu bpeuan ocup in pi^ ppip, ocup pepaic pailci ppip, 
ocup ínppa^ir pcela oe. Ocup innpit) Con^al a pcela co leip, ocup 
a ímchupa imp Qlbain ocup Gpinn. 

Oo^nifip íapum oail oenai^ leo 1m Congal ocup ím Ullcaib ol- 
ceana, ppi oenam comaipli imon cain^in pin. Gmail po baoap 
ann lpin Dailco n pacaoap oen laec mop cucu; caeime Do laecaib 
in Domain ; moo ocup aipOiu óloap cec pep ; ^uipmiúep oigpeao a 
pope; oep^ir p nua-paprain^i a bel; gilirip ppapa nemanO a t>eo ; 
aillirip pnecua n-oen aioce a cop p. Sciar cobpaoac cona cimac- 


£ The text of this quatrain is corrected event had occurred, rather judiciously in- 

from Mac Morissy's paper copy, which was troduced. Adamnan, the learned Abbot 

corrected by P. Connell, evidently from an of Iona, in whose time this battle was 

old vellum MS., not now to be found. fought, states, that St. Columbkille had 

u This is the poet's prophecy after the delivered a similar prophecy to Aidan, 

Wolves and flocks of ravens 

Shall devour the heads of your heroes. 
Until the fine clean sand is reckoned 
The heads of the Ultonians shall not be reckoned 1 . 
But prophecy is of no avail indeed 

When the obstinate are on the brink of destruction ! 
Your men shall be separated from sovereignty," 
Your women shall be without constant goodness." 
The king of Alba then said to Congal, " It is right for thee," said 
he, " to go into Britain to Eochaidh Aingces, king of Britain, for one 
of his daughters is my wife, and she is the mother of thy mother, 
and thou shalt receive aid in forces from him, and I shall guide thee 
to the house of the king of Britain, if thou wilt go." 

Congal was thankful to him, and set out accompanied by thirty 
ships for Britain, until he reached the king's palace. His youths 
announced to the king and the chiefs of Britain that the king of 
Ulster had arrived, and the men of Britain and the king were re- 
joiced at it, bade him welcome, and asked him his news. And he 
told him his news fully, and his adventures between Alba and Erin. 
An assembly was afterwards convened by them around Congal 
and the rest of the Ultonians, to hold a consultation on this project. 
When they were assembled at the meeting, they saw one great hero 
approaching them ; fairest of the heroes of the world ; larger and 
taller than any man ; bluer than ice his eye ; redder than the fresh 
rowan berries his lips; whiter than showers of pearls his teeth; fairer 
than the snow of one night his skin; a protecting shield with a golden 


king of Scotland, the grandfather of Domh- sine causa vastante provinciam Domnill ne- 

nall Brec, which was actually fulfilled in potis Ainmirech : et á die ilia usque hodie 

Adamnan's own time : "Hoc autem vatici- adhuc in proclivo sunt ab extraneis, quod 

nium temporibus nostris completum est in suspiria doloris pectori incutit. — Vita Co- 

BeUoRath, DomnalloBrecconepoteAidani, lumbce, Lib. III. c. 5. Trias Thau. p. 365. 



mac oiji paip ; oácpaipi^ cara 'n alaim ; cloioem co n-alcaib Deo, 
ocup co n-imoenum oip pop a caeb; ocup cen upealam laic laip 
oloapin; pole op-buioi pop a cino, ocup ^nuip caem copcupoa laip. 

Oa ceacam^ cucu lp in oail, ocup apbepn in pi^ cen a piaou^ao, 
co pepaO in anpaó peccaip na oala, no in picpao aipm a m-baoap 
na pi£ ocup na cac-milio oleena. 

lap pocuain Do porn a n-imel na Oala, ni po aipip 50 paini^ co 
h-aipm l pacaio ecopc in pi^, ocup po puio pop a laim oeip, eioip 
e ocup pi^ Ulao. CiO ím ap puioip pamlaio? ol each. Nip 
h-epbao ppim anao a n-mao eli, ol peipium. Ocup o'p me pein 00 
pi^ne mat) Oam, 01a m-beiú ann maO buo pepp oloapeo íp ann no 
aipippino. Uibip in pi^ íme, ocup apbepr, bo cóip Oo a n-Oepnai. 
lappai^ic na pip pcela 00, ocup innipio 001b pcela in beúa ppec- 
naipc; moapleo ni bui pa mm pcela naO m-bui aici; po gpaoai^per 
co mop h-e ícip pipu ocup mna, pop pebup a ecoipe ocup a iplabpa. 
Qipm mopa laip ; ni bui íp m oenac oen laech no peopao a 
n-imluao a lachaip caúa, ap a meo ocup ap a n-aioble. lappaigiu 
Oo can a cenel, ocup cia a plonnuO. Qpbepc pum nácha ploinneaO 
ooneac ele, ocup ni innippeO Ooib-pium can a cenel nách a plonnuo. 

Uiagaic na ploi^ lp in oun lap pin, ocup pagabap eipium a 
oenap a mui^ peachnon na uealcha popp a m-bui in e-oenach. 
Q m-bui nann conup paca oen ouine cuice íp in uulai^, aicnio 
pop a eppeao co m-ba piliO in ci cainic ann, ocup pepaio pailei 
ppip, amail buo aicnio 00 h-e; ocup puiDip in pilioaici pop uaeb na 


v Knobs of ivory. — Co n-alcaib oeo, i. e. Oloap is an ancient conjunction, now en- 
literally, with knobs of teeth. Thenorthern tirely obsolete, the modern inci being sub- 
nations were accustomed to ornament their stituted in its place ; but it is explained in 
swords with the teeth of the sea-horse. Cormac's Glossary by the Latin qaam, and 

w Besides these Oloapin should be in the printed Dictionaries, by the English 

properly written oloap pin, i. e. than that above, more than. 

6 7 

border was upon him ; two battle lances in his hand ; a sword with 
knobs of ivory\ and ornamented with gold, at his side ; he had no 
other accoutrements of a hero besides these w ; he had golden hair on 
his head, and had a fair, ruddy countenance. 

He advanced to them to the assembly, and the king ordered that 
he should not be saluted, until it should be known whether he would 
remain outside the meeting, or advance to where the king and all 
the warriors were seated. 

When he had arrived at the border of the assembly, he stopped not 
till he came to the place where he saw the countenance of the king, 
and he sat at his right hand, between him and the king of Ulster. 
" Why hast thou sat thus ?" said all. "I was not ordered to remain any 
where else," said he, " and because it was I myself that selected the 
place, if there had been a better place than this, it is there I would stay." 
The king smiled at this, and said, " He is right in all he has done." 
The men then asked him the news, and he told them all the news in 
the present world, for there was not, they thought, a story under 
heaven which he had not; and they loved him very much, both men 
and women, for the goodness of his countenance and his eloquence. 
He had very large weapons, so large and massive that there was not 
a hero at the assembly x who could wield them in the field of battle. 
And they asked of what race he was, and what his surname was. He 
replied, that he was not accustomed to tell his name to any one, and 
that he would not tell them his tribe or surname. 

The hosts then repaired into the palace, and left him alone out- 
side, on the hill on which the meeting was held. When he had been 
here for some time, he perceived a man coming towards him to the 
hill, and he knew him by his dress to be a poet, and he bade him 


x Assembly. — Oenac, now always writ- bly of the people ; but now it is applied 
ten aonac, anciently signified any assem- to a cattle fair only. 

K 2 


relca, ocup íappaipp pcela t>o. lnnipio pium t>ó na h-uile peel ba 
laint) laip, ace nama ni po ploint) a cenel t)ó. Cia rupa anopa, 
ol in c-o^lac anaicnit), ocup can Oo cenel, ap au^eonpa ípau pilio. 
6icep ocup pilio in pi^ aDum comnaicpi, ol pe, ocup do pai^m t>uine 
in pi^ t>o oeacatnip anopa. peapam íapum pleochuo mop ocup 
palec anbail Doib, ocup ba pneacua cech pe pecc po pepao ann. 
CuipiO pium tun a pciaú iuip in éicep ocup in pleochuo, ocup lecio 
a apmu ocup a éitnut) cara peipin ppip in pneachca. CiO pin? ol 
m pilio. Qcbep ppic, ol pe, tna m-beaó aipmiciu but) mo oloap po 
a^um po^ebcha-pa 1 ap uh' e^pi, ocup o na pil, íp am cuibtnpi ppi 
pleochut) map m ci oca m-biat) ecpi. ba bumec in pilit) t>e pin, 
ocup appepc ppip, oiamat> miat) lac-pa uiacuain lim-pa a nocc t)o'm 
cl o"> F° 5 e ^ainn biat) ocup pép aioci Duic. TTlaiú lim, ol pe. Uia^aiu 
t)o Ú15 in ecip ocup po $ebic a n-t>ainn bio ocup leanna ant). 

Ip ant) pm uainic ueccaipe in pi^ ap cenn in ecip. Qppepu pum 
na pa^ao ace mm but) coil t>'on o^lac anaichnio bui malli ppip 
oulann, appepu pein, ba coip oulann, ap 1 pe piuo m upeap mat) ip 
móo 1 pa^baiu pilit» achuin^io .1. m oenach, ocup pop banaip, ocup 
pop pleit); ocupni ncpaoím-pa ploi^ bpenan m oen mai^in, ocup a 
n-oul uaic-piu cen ni o' pa^bail uait)ib ap mo pon-pa. Uia^aiu 
t)o'n t)ún, ocup puíói^cep iac ann, .1. m pilit) 1 piatmaipi in pi^, ocup 
eipium 1 mai^m eli. Do bepap biao Ooib, ocup cocairit) a m-biao 


y I perceive. — Gp ac^eonpa ipac pilio printed Irish Grammars, it is still corn- 
would not be now understood in any part monly in use in the south of Ireland, 
of Ireland; the modern form of the sen- "Racpao is the form given in the printed 
tence is, oip airnijim-pe jup pilió cu. Grammars. 

1 Would not go "Ragao, or more cor- a Unless it were TTlin buo would be 

rectly "Ra^aó, is the ancient Subjunctive written mun baó in the modern Irish; it 

mood of eéi^im, or céióim, I go ; and means nisi esset. 

though this form is not given in any of the b Gncnchnio, — i. e. unknown, is written 

6 9 

welcome as if he were known to him. The poet sat down with him 
on the side of the hill, and asked him the news. The other told all 
the news he was desirous to hear, excepting only that he did not tell 
him the name of his tribe. " Who art thou thyself, now," said the 
unknown youth, " and what is thy race, for I perceive 7 that thou art a 
poet." " The Eges [i. e. sage] and poet of the king do I happen to 
be," said he, " and to the king's palace am I now repairing." A heavy 
shower then fell, consisting of intermingled rain and snow, and he put 
his shield between the poet and the shower, and left his own arms and 
battle dress exposed to the snow. " What is this for ?" said the poet, 
" I say unto thee," replied he, " that if I could show thee a greater 
token of veneration than this, thou shouldst receive it for thy learn- 
ing, but as I cannot, I can only say, that I am more fit to bear rain 
than one who has learning." The poet was thankful for this, and 
said to him, " If thou wouldst think proper to come with me this 
night to my house, I shall procure food and a night's entertainment 
for thee." " I think well of it," replied the other. They repaired to 
the poet's house, and got a sufficiency of meat and drink there. 

Then it was that the king's messenger came for the poet, but the 
poet said that he would not go z unless it were a the wish of the un- 
known 5 youth that he should go; and the latter replied, that it was meet 
to go to the assembly, " for," said he, " there are three places at which 
a poet obtains the greatest request, namely, at a meeting, at a wedding, 
and at a banquet ; and I shall not be the cause that the host of Britain 
should be assembled together in one place, and go away from thee 
without thy getting anything from them." They repaired to the 
palace, and they were seated there, the poet in the presence of the 
king, and the other elsewhere. Food was distributed to them, and 


according to the modern mode of ortho- a negative particle, which is equivalent 
graphy ancnrmo ; it is compounded of an, to the English un, and ctiénió, known. 


co m-ba paiúeach iac. Qppepc in pilio ppipium pia n-oul ij? in 
oún, oia rucra cnáim pmeapa pop méip ina piaonaipi, cen a blaoao 
co bpách, ap auá a celiac in pi£ o^lach Diana oli^eaó cec cnáim 
ím a uéic pmip, ocup Oiam-bpipcep Oapa amoeoin-pium h-e, íp eicen 
a comcpom De Dep^ op Do cabaipc oo-pum mo, no compac pop 
^alaib oen-pip, ocup pep comlainO ceo eipium. TTIairh pin, ol pe, 
co o-capo pom Do ^en-pa mo oail pecha. Ni po an pum Din co 
rapoao cnaim pop méip oo, ocup oobep láim pop cec cinO Oe, ocup 
bpipio íuip a oí mép hé, ocup roimlio a pmip ocup a peoil ap a 
airli. Gcciaocach pin, ocup ba h-ingnao leo. lnnipcep o'on laech 
ucuo, Oiap ba oli£eO an pmiap, a ni pm. Qcpai^ pein puap co peip^ 
moip, ocup co m-bpur mileo Oa oi^ail popp in ci po mill a ^epi, 
ocup po romail a oli^eab. Oc conaipc pium pin oo pa la epcup 
oo'n cnaim oo, co m-bui cpi n-a ceann piap ap o-cpea£ao a incinne 
ím eoan a cloiginn. Qcpai^peu mumncip in pi^ ocup a celiac Oia 
aiplec-pum 'n a Oi^ail pin. Ueic pium púinb amail ueic pé^ pa 
minocu, ocup oo 5m aiplech popaib, co m-ba lia a maipb oloair a 
m-bi. Ocuppo reicpecin Opon^po pabeo Oib. Uic pium oo pioipi, 
ocuppuioi^ pop ^ualaino in pileo ceona, ocup po ^ab omun mop in 
pi$ ocup in pi^an peme, ou conncaOap a ^al cupao, ocup a luinoe 
laic, ocup a bpuú mileO ap n-ep^i. Qppepc-pum ppiu nap ba h-ecail, 
ooib h-e ace mine úiceo in celiac íp in reach oo piOipi. l?o paiO 
in pi£ na cicpaoip. l?o bean pum a carbapp n-oip Oia cino annpin, 
ocup ba caem a ^nuip ocup a oelb, lap n-ép^i a puiOig ppi peipg in 


c Was brought Uapoao is an ancient part of Ireland. 

form of the modern cujaó, i. e. was given, d He flung — 6pcup is now always writ- 

the past tense Indie, mood of cujaim or ten upcup; it signifies a cast, throw, or 

cabpaim. It often occurs in ancient MSS., shot. 

but is not understood at present in any e He came again — t)o pmip is gene- 

7 1 

they took of the food till they were satisfied. Before entering the 
palace the poet had told him [the unknown youth] if a bone should 
be brought on a dish in his presence, not to attempt breaking it, fur- 
there was a youth in the king's household to whom every marrow- 
bone was due, and that if one should be broken against his will, its 
weight in red gold should be given him, or battle in single combat, and 
that he was the fighter of a hundred. " That is good," said the other, 
" when this will be given I shall do my duty." Pie stopped not till a 
bone was brought 6 on a dish to him, and he put a hand on each end of 
it, and broke it between his two fingers, and afterwards ate its marrow 
and flesh. All beheld this and wondered at it. The hero to whom 
the marrow was due was told of this occurrence, and he rose up in 
great anger, and his heroic fury was stirred up to be revenged of the 
person who had violated his privilege, and ate what to him was due. 
When the other had perceived this he flung d the bone at him, and it 
passed through his forehead and pierced his brain, even to the centre 
of his head. The king's people and his household rose up to slay 
him in revenge for it ; but he attacked them, as attacks the hawk a 
flock of small birds, and made a great slaughter of them, so that their 
dead were more numerous than their living, and the living among 
them fled. He came again 6 , and sat at the same poet's shoulder, and 
the king and queen were seized with awe of him, when they had seen 
his warlike feats, and his heroic rage and champion fury roused. But 
he told them that they had no cause to fear him unless the household 
should again return into the house. The king said that they should 
not return. He then took his golden helmet off his head, and fair 
were his visage and countenance, after his blood had been excited 
by the fury of the battle. 


rally written and pronounced apip in the it is pronounced a \\\yz. It is probable 
modern Irish, but in some parts of Munster that the ancients pronounced it oo pióipi, 


Qc ci ben pi£ bpecan ^lac ocup lam in o^lái^, ocup bui '5 a 
peicem co paoa, ap ba macrnu^ao mop le in painne ópDa ac con- 
naipc pá rheóp in mileo, ap ni cainic pop calmain painne a mac- 
pamla, na cloc ba pepp olDap in cloc t>o pala arm. Ocup po 
íappacc in pi^an pcela in painne Do'n laech anaicniD. Gcbepc 
pum ppip in pi^ain, ip a^um acaip pepin 00 pala in painne .1. ag mac 
Obéio 05 pi5 * * * * . Conao ann appepc pi. 
Canap can^aip a laich loip, 
ce cue Duic in painne oip, 
no ca rip ap a cap^a ? 
mo chin each pa comapóa. 
'<5 0TTI accnp pein 00 bi pin, 
a$ mac ObéiD w^ancai^; 
ip amlaiD ppich painDe in pip, 
aj; laec a comlann oenpip. 
Q Depim-pi piucpa De, 

ip t)epb lem 'p ip aipice, 
pceich mo cpaiDe co bpách m-ban, 
a^uD Dechpain a macan. Can. 
Ocup po pagaib in painne a^um-pa in can ac bac pepin. Oc 
cuala umoppo in pi^an pm, ]iobuail a bapa, ocup po cuaipe a h-ucc, 
ocup po pcpib a h-a^aiD, ocup Do pat) a callaD pi^naiDe popp m 
ceinit) 1 piaDnaipi caich, ocup Do paD a paíó ^uil epci lap pin. CiD 
pin a p'gan? ol each. Y\m. ol pi, mac po n-ucup Do'n pi$, ocup Do 
Decaio uaim acá picic m-bliaDain ann anopa, Do po^laim ^aipceD 
peacnón in Domain, ocup ip aici po bui in painne pil im laim in 
óclái^ ucuD. Oai£ Do biuppa aicne paip, ap ip ocum pein po bui 1 
copac, co puc in mac laip h-é in can po ímcig uaim. 


f Obeid. — This is evidently a fictitious g Callad, — callao This word is now 

character, and introduced as such by the obsolete in the modern Irish language, but 
writer. it is preserved in the Erse, and is explain- 


The wife of the king of Britain saw the palm and hand of the 
youth, and viewed them for a long time, and she much admired the 
golden ring which she saw on his hand, for there came not on earth 
such a ring, or a stone better than the stone it contained. And the 
queen asked the unknown hero the history of the ring. The hero 
answered the queen: " This ring belonged to my own father, the son 
of Obeid f , king ****>" And she said : 

Queen. — " Whence hast thou come, great hero ! 

Who has given thee the golden ring ? 

Or what is the country from which thou hast come ? 

My love is upon every one who bears thy mark." 
Hero. — " My own father had this ring, 

The son of the wonderful Obeid ; 

Andthe source whence the champion s ring was obtained 

Was from a hero in single combat," 
Queen. — " I say unto thee of it, 

It is certain, it is positive, 

My heart is wearied for ever, 

From viewing thee, O youth." 

" And he left me the ring after his death," said the hero. When 
the queen heard this she wrung her hands, and struck her breast, and 
tore her face, and cast her royal " callad g " into the fire in the presence 
of all, and she then screamed aloud. " What means this, queen?" 
said all. " It is plain," said she, " a son whom I brought forth 11 for the 
king, and who went away from me twenty years ago, to learn feats of 
arms throughout the world, had the ring which is on the hand [finger] 
of yonder youth, for I recognize it, as it was I myself that had it first, 
until the son took it with him, when he went away from me." 


ed by Shaw as signifying a cap, a wig, &c. h Brought forth. — Tllac po n-ucup oo'n 

It is not unlike the Irish caille, a cowl, pi£ would be written in the modern Irish 
(cucuttus), or the English cawl. mac oo pu^apoo'n pi£. 



Ocup po ^ab pop lam-comaipu moip ap a aicle pin, cumaoepb 
leo co n-eibelaD, Tiiirie pa^bao pupcacc po ceooip. Ueic pium 
íapum l compocup oo'n pi^am, ocup acbepu ppia, Dia n-oepnnca 
pun popm-pa, a pi^an, ol pe, po inoepaino pcela Do mic ouic. l?o 
Sell pi co n-a lu^a, co n-om^neao. lTlipi t>o mac, ol pe, a pi^an, 
ocup ip me Oeacaio uaic Do po^laim gaipceo cimcell in beara. 
Ni po cpeio pi pin, 511 pa oéch a plmnen t>eap. Cit) pin, a pi^an, 
ol pe. Niri, ol pi, in can po ímcig mo mac uaim, 00 paoup ^páinne 
oip po bapp a plinoein Oeip, 00 pen uaipe ocup Oo comapua paip. 
TTlapa rupa mo mac, po ^ebpa pin int>ac. pécaio íapum, ocup 
puaip an comajiOa amail po paio, ocup po buail a bapa 00 pioipi, 
rpi a mac eolchaipe 00 recu ocup appepu, ip cpua$ in 5mm po 
b'ail ouib 00 Oenam a pi^; .1. ap n-oen mac a n-oip 00 mapbao cen 
cinait) t>on muinncip, ocup po aipneio amail pop puaip an comapóa 
pempait>ce paip. Ni po cpeit» in pig cup bao h-e a mac no beirh 
ant). CiD na cpeifte a n-abaip in pi^nn, a pi£ bpeuan ? ol Con^al. 
Qcbeppa ppic a aobop, ol in pi^. baoupa pechuup ocup t>ail 
mop ímum ip in oun pa lap n-imrecc mo mic uaim, conup paca 
bumin moip cu^am: ceo laec a Im; oen o^lach pempu ocup pole 
puao paip ; ip é ba uoipec noib. lappai^cep pcela tub, appepu 
in c-o^lac puao ucuo gup ba mac Oam-pa h-e, ocup ^up ba cu^am 
rainic. lappacr each oim-pa in ba pip pm, ocup m capoup nach 
ppe^pa poppo, ace po paemup a beiu 'na mac Dam, ap na eip^a 
ppim plainup o anpaoaib bpeuan. Ocup íappai^im a ainm oe. 


1 / will tell thee — "Ro inoepaino would ing, prosperit}% success, or happiness ;" 

be written in the modern Irish oo but it appears from the application of the 

ínneópcnnn. It is the subjunctive form term in the text, and from other examples 

of the verb ínnipm, I tell, or relate. of its use, to be found in the best Irish 

•* As an amulet. — Sean uaipe, which MSS., that it also means an amulet, or any- 

literally means, the luck of an hour, is ex- thing which was believed to insure luck 

plained by P. Connell, in his MS. Die- or success, or bring about a lucky hour, 
tionary, "transitory or temporal bless- k If thou be. — HI ú pa is used in the best 


And she proceeded after tins to wring her hands so violently, that 
they thought she would die, unless she should get immediate relief. 1 h 
[the unknown youth] afterwards went over near the queen, and said 
to her, " If thou wilt keep my secret, O queen, I will tell thee 1 news of 
thy son." She promised on her oath that she would keep the secret. 
" I am thy son," said he, " O queen ! and it is T that went away from 
thee to learn feats of arms around the world." She believed him 
not, until she looked at his right shoulder. " What is that for, 
queen?" said he. " It is not difficult," said she. " When my son 
went away from me, I put a grain of gold under the top of his right 
shoulder as an amulet j and a mark upon him. If thou be k my son, I will 
find this in thee." She then looked, and found the mark as she had said; 
and she wrung her hands again, for the return of her lamented son, 
and she said, " Pitiful is the deed thou hast desired to do, O king, 
namely, to have the only son of us both killed without any crime by 
thy people," and she told how she had found the mark above men- 
tioned upon him. The king did not believe that it was his son who 
was present. " Why dost thou not believe all that the queen says, 
king of Britain ?" said Congal. " I will tell thee the reason," replied the 
king. " After the departure of my son from me, I was on one occasion 
in this palace with a large assembly about me, and I saw a large troop 
approaching me : one hundred heroes was their number, and one youth 
was before them with red hair ; he was their chieftain. They were 
asked the news, and the red-haired youth said that he was a son of 
mine, and that it was to me he came. All asked me if this were true, 
but I made them no answer, but agreed that he was my son, in order 
that the warriors of Britain might not oppose my reign. And I asked 
him his name. He replied that his name was Conan (for that was the 


and most ancient Irish MSS., for the mo- if, and the assertive verb if, and signifies 
dern má'r-, which is compounded of mo, literally, si esses or si esset. 

L 2 

7 6 

Qcbepc pum gup ba Conán a ainm; uaip ba Concm ainm in ceD 
mic bui ocum-pa, ocup po paioiupa ppip, cuaipu bpecan oo úabaipc, 
ocup cecc a cino bliaona Oom' paigio. lap nabapach Ouin Oin ip 
in oail ceona, ac ciam buioin moip ele cugainn; ceo laec a lin 
rein, oglac pempu, ocup pole pint) paip. lappaigiu in pip pcela 
oe, acbepc pum in ceona, gup ba mac Oam-pa h-e, ocup ba Conan a 
ainm. Ocup appepepa ppip, cuaipu bpeuan t>o cup, map in ceona. 
lp in rpep laa umoppo ac ciam buioin n-Oímoip aile cugaino, móo 
oloap cac buiOen oile; upi cet) laec a Im. Oglac cpurach pempu, 
ailli Oo laecaib in Domain; pole OonO paip. Uic cugaino lap pm, 
ocup appepu cumaO mac oam-pa, ocup cumao Conan a comainm. 
Qppepupa in ceona ppip; ocup íp aipe pm, a Congail, ol in pig, nac 
cpeiOim-pi cumao h-e m laec ucuo mo mac, ap in upiup pm oo páó 
go im agaio. lp eao ip coip ann, ol Congal, Oia uipau in upiap 
pm Oo'n oun, compac Ooib ocup Oo'n laec ucuu ap galaib oen-pip, 
ocup cipe Oib ci app, a beiú 'n-a mac aguu-pa. lp ceao lim, ol 
in pig. 

Gnaiu ano in aoaig pin, ocup epgip Conan l?oo co moch 
lap na bápach, ap ip e ba mac oilep oo'n pig, ocup ueiu oo 
oecpin m u-ppoua, boi 1 compocup Oo'n Oun, ocup bui ag paipcpin 
pop nellaib aeoip, ocup appepu au cim nél pola op cmo Conain 
ftuaiO, ocup nel pola op cmo Conain pi no, ocup nip pil op cmo 
Conain DuinO; ocup a oee nime, ol pe, cpeo beipiup Conan Donn 
app cen uuiuim lim-pa? ap íplim úuiuiu in 01 Chonan aile. Conao 
ann appepu: 

Qu ciu upiap mileo 'pa mag, 
co n-eippeo n-alamo n-ingnao, 


1 The men In pip, now always writ- singular form of the article, is found join- 
ten na pip. It is curious that in very an- ed to nouns in the plural number, 
cient and correct MSS., in, which is the m Greater than TTloo oloap, would be 


name of the first son I had), and I then told him to make a circuit 
of Britain, and to come to me at the end of a year. On the next day, 
as we were at the same assembly, we saw another large troop ap- 
proaching us ; their number was one hundred, and there was a youth 
before them having fair hair. The men 1 asked the news of him, and 
he replied that he was my son, and that his name was Conan. And 
I told him in like manner to make the circuit of Britain. On the 
third day we saw a very large troop, greater than either of the pre- 
ceding" 1 ; three hundred heroes their number. There was a fair-formed 
youth before them, the fairest of the heroes of the world, with brown 
hair. He came on to us, and said that he was a son of mine, and 
that his name was Conan. I told him the same; and it is for this reason, 
O Congal," said the king, " that I do not believe that yon hero is my 
son, for the other three had told me a falsehood to my face." " The 
most proper thing to be done," said Congal, " would be, should the 
other three come to the palace, to get them and this hero to fight 
in single combat, and whichever of them should come off victorious 
to adopt him as thy son." " I am willing to do so," said the king. 

They remained so for that night, and early in the morning Conan 
Rod, — who was the king's real son, — rose and went out to view the 
stream which was near the palace, and he viewed the clouds on the 
sky, and said, " I see a cloud of blood over Conan the Red, and a 
cloud of blood over Conan the Fair, but none over Conan the Brown- 
haired, and Gods of heaven, said he, what will save Conan the 
Brown -haired from falling by me ? For the other two Conans shall fall 
by me ;" and he said: 

" I see three heroes in the plain, 

With suits beautiful, wonderful, 


written, in the modern Irish, mo ina. In though it is stated by the modern Gram- 
ancient MSS. long vowels, especially those marians that this is contrary to the genius 
of the broad class, are often doubled, of the Irish language. 


pil uaipcib, ppi h-uaip pepp, 

nel ria pola pop-Depp. 
Nel pola op cinO Conain l?uaio, 

ip Do ben a óimbuaiD; 

in ceona op cino Conain pint> 

in eppiD alamo ímpino. 
Nip ^ab claiOem, nip ^ab pciar, 

nip £ab eippet) cpaeca cpiac, 

nip ^ab ^aipceó ip 5mm ^lann, 

laec ná ppei^epaino comlonn. 
Ni uil op cmo Conain Oumo 

nel na pola pop pe^aim, 

Dep^pac-pa mo lainn 1 n-t>iu, 

pop na Conanaib ac ciu. Qc ciu. 
Ctr ci lap pm buioin moip cuici ip in Opocac, bui capp in ppuc, 
ocup ac ci oen laech puao mop pempu, ocup aicnip h-e. Oeup 
appepc ppip, cia lán buo pepp lac a$ut> Do ni no callao popp in 
Dpochac pa ? Qppepc pum, ba h-e a Ian oip ocup ap^aic. pip, 
ol pe, niDac mac-pa oo'n pi$, ache mac cepDai, no pip po ^ní nach 
aicoi éicm t)i op, no t>i ap^ao, ocup po ^ebapa báp mo. pepaic 
comlann íapum, ocup mapbeap Conan l?uao ann. Qppepc mac 
in pip .1. Conan T?ot>, ppi muinncip m pip pop mapb, Oia n-innipeo 
neac uaib oam, in pip in aichne no paoup popp in laech, po amic- 
pino pib. pip, ol piac, ni capo neac pop bic aicne bápa pepp má 
in aicne t>o paoaip pop áp ci^epna, ap ba mac cept>ai a cuaipcepc 
bpecan h-e, ocup cainic epia bopppao n-aicenca, co n-ebaipe co 

m-bao mac t>'on pi^ h-e, o po cualai a beic cen mac oca. 


n Over the bridge t)pocuc is now ge- given as such in Cormac's Glossary. It was 

nerally written Opoiceao, and the word is probably applied by the ancient Irish to a 

usually applied to a stone bridge. It is un- wooden bridge, as we have no evidence that 

questionably a primitive Irish word, and is they built any bridges with stone arches ; 


There is over them, for an angry hour, 

A cloud of deep red blood. 
A cloud of blood over Conan the Red, 

Which to him forebodes defeat ; 

The same over Conan the Fair 

Of the beautiful battle dress. 
There has not taken sword, there has not taken shield, 

There has not taken battle dress to defeat a chief, 

There has not followed chivalry and valorous deeds, 

A hero whose challenge I would not accept. 
There is not over Conan the Brown-haired 

A cloud of blood that I can see : 

I shall redden my blades to-day 

Upon the Conans whom I see." 
After this he beheld a large troop coming towards him over the 
bridge" which was across the stream, and he saw one large red-haired 
hero before them, whom he recognized. And [ Conan Ro(t\ said to him , 
" Of what wouldst thou wish to have this bridge full ?" The other re- 
plied, " of gold and silver." " It is true," said the other, " that thou art 
not a son of the king, but the son of some artisan who constructs 
something of gold or silver ; and thou shalt die here." They engaged 
in single combat, and Conan the Red was slain. And the king's son, 
Conan Rod, said to the people of the man whom he had slain : " If 
any of you will tell whether I have judged truly of the hero, I will 
spare you." " Truly," said they, " no one ever judged another better 
than thou hast judged our lord; for he was the son of an artisan from 
North Britain, and hearing that the king had no son, he came, through 
pride of mind, and said that he was the kings son." 


but they built wooden bridges at a very the Library of the R. I. A.] p. 508, where 
early period. See Duald Mac Firbis's Pedi- he mentions the erection of Droichead na 
grees of the ancient Irish families, [MS. in Feirsi, and Droichead Mona Daimh. 


Uic íapom in t>apa pep tub gup in opochac, ocup po íappaig 
pium be in cet>na. Gppepu pum gup ba h-e a Ian oe buaib, ocup 
gpoigib, ocup cáincib. pip, ol pe, nioac mac-pa oo'n pig ícip, ace 
mac bpugat), ocup pip rocaio ocup conaich. Scucaió cuici íapum 
ocup ben a ceann De ; ocup íappaigip t)ia muinncip, m ba pip in 
aicne. pip ol lac. 

Qc ciac umoppo in upep m-buioin cucai; oen laec mop 1 copac 
na buione pin, co upi ceo laec ina pappao. Ueic Conan ina 
coinne popp in t>pocac ceona, ocup íappaigip t>e, cia Ian ba t>each 
laip aici Do ni no úallat) popp m opochac ceona. Qppepu pum 
gup ba h-e a Ian t>o laecaib, ocup cupaoaib, pa oen 5mm, ocup 
oen gaipcet) ppip pein. pip pm, ol Conan, ac mac pig-pa, ocup 
nioac mac Do pig bpecan. pip, ol peipium, nioam mac-pa Do pig 
bpecan, ace am mac 00 pig Lochlant): ocup m'aéaip po mapbfa 
1 pill, la bpacaip 00 buoein, upia rangnacc, ocup po inoappupcap 
mipi lap mapbao m'arap. Ocup oc cualai pig bpecan cen mac 
oca, ranag pop a amup o'pagbail cutanea ploig ocup pocpaioe 
lim, 00 oigail m' arap. Ocup íp e pin íp pip ann, ocup ni coimpec 
ppic-pa imon plainup nac Duraig Dam. Do gniac a n-oip pit> 
ocup cópu ant) pin, ocup cecaic lp in t>un 50 h-aipm a m-bui pig 
bpeuan ocup Congal, ocup mnipic a pcela ann lech pop leic. ba 
mair la each uile in peel pm; ocup appepu t)in in pig, t>o beppa 
uuilleo oepbca popp in mac pa. Cia Depbao? ap Congal Claen. 
Nin. ol pe; oun pil agum-pa a n-imel bpecan, .1. Dun oa lacha a 


Same valour and prowess with myself. — are very frequently put in old Irish legends 

This was the true test of royal descent, to different persons, to test their disposi- 

O'Dea, chief of Kinel-Fearmaic, in Tho- tions, of which see remarkable instances 

mond, was wont to say that he would ra- in the Life of St. Caimin of Inis Cealtra, 

ther have the full of a castle of men of the Colgan Acta SS. ad Mart. 25, p. 746. 

family of O'Hiomhair, now Ivers, than a p King of Lochlann The ancient Irish 

castle full of gold. Questions of this kind writers always called Denmark and Nor- 


The second man came on to the bridge, and he asked him the 
same: he said he would rather have the bridge full of cows, horso, 
and flocks, than of anything else. " True," observed the other, " thou 
art not the son of the king, but the son of a brughaidh [farmer], or 
of a man of riches and wealth." He then sprang upon him, and cut 
off his head, and asked his people if he had judged truly. " Truly," 
they replied. 

They soon saw a third troop coming towards them: there was 
one great hero in the front of this troop, having three hundred along 
with him. Conan went to meet him at the same bridge, and asked, 
" of what wouldst thou wish this bridge full ?" He answered, " / 
would wish it full of heroes and champions of the same valour and 
prowess with myself ." " True," observed Conan, " thou art the son 
of a king, but not of the king of Britain." " True," said the other, " I 
am not a son of the king of Britain, but I am a son of the king of 
Lochlann p : and my father having been treacherously killed by his own 
brother, they banished me immediately after killing my father ; and 
having heard that the king of Britain had no son, I came to him to 
solicit aid in hosts and forces from him, to take revenge for my father. 
This is the truth, and I will not contend with thee about a kingdom 
which is not due to me." Both then made peace and a treaty with 
each other, and they repaired to the palace where the king of Britain 
and Congal were, and there told their stories on both sides. All 
were pleased at this news ; but the king said, " I will impose more 
proof on this son." "What proof?" asked Congal Claen. "It is 
not difficult," said he: "I have a fort on the borders of Britain called 


way by this name. Duald Mac Firbis, the inhabitants of Norwegia, by Pionn-6oc- 
last of the hereditary antiquaries of Lecan, lcmncn^, i. e. white or fair Lochlanns. See 
says, that the ancient Irish writers call Mac Firbis 1 s Pedigrees (Marquis of Drogh- 
the inhabitants ofDania by the name Oub- eda's copy), p. 364; also O'Flaherty's 
6oclunnui£, i. e. Black Lochlanns, and the Ogygia, part iii. c. $6, and O'Brien's Irish 


cnrrni; a rá t)in cloc ampa ip in t>un pm, ocup ni ^luaipeann ppi 

bpéi$, ocup m péoann pep pw^aile a co^luapacc nách a co^bail ; 

ocup a rac t)a each oen t)aúa ocum-pa íp in t>un cetma, ocup ni 

piraic pa neac po 5m 501 co bpách; ocup cia^pa ^up in oun pin 

t)ia oepbat) popu-pa in pip aubepi ppim. Oo ^nichep pamlaiD 

uile: uó^baió Conán in cloch, ocup piúaio na h-eocu poi; uu OiXiu 

in pig: 

Cloch a uain-Oun t>a laca, 

íp piu a comcpom t)'op oara, 

ni gluaipenn le bpeig cen bpauh, 

íp ní gluaipeno pingalach. 
1TV eich-pi pem ip peppt)i a n-^nai, 

co bpac ni gluaipic le gai, 

gluaipiu le pipmoe pint), 

ip luaú agapca a n-épim. 
Dia pip in but) uu mo mac, 

a cum^it) calma comnapu, 

pacao 1 n-Diu amac 50 moch, 

gup in t)un a puil mo cloch. 


Uinolait) Conga I lap pin ploig Saxan ocup a pig, .1. <5 a pk' VÍ]Clc 

l?ogaipb, ocup ploig na Ppamgce ocup a pig, .1. Daipbpe, mac 

Oopnnmaip, ocup ploig bperan pa Conan Pot), mac Gachach 

Clmgcip, ocup pipu Qlban pa ceirpe macaib Gachach 6uit)e, .1. 


Dictionary in ^oc^Lochlannach, where the it is not easy now to determine. 

name Lochlann is explained land of lakes. p A noble stone. — This stone was some- 

The Fort of the Two Lakes Dun oa what similar to the Lia Fail and other ma- 

lacha. The editor has not been able to gical stones of the Irish Kings. 

find any name like this, or synonymous q Garbh, the son ofRogarbh, — i. e. Rough, 

with it, in any part of Wales. Whether the son of Very Rough ; he is evidently a 

it is a mere fictitious name invented by fictitious personage. 

the writer, or a real name then existing, r Dairbhre, the son of Dornmhar — Must 


the Fort of the two Lakes . In this fort is a noble stone p , which 
does not move at falsehood, and a murderer cannot move or raise it; 
and I have in the same fort two steeds of one colour, which would 
never run under one who tells a falsehood. Do thou come to this 
fort to prove on thee whether what thou tellest me be true." This 
was accordingly done : Conan raised the stone, and the steeds ran 
under him. And the king said: 

" A stone which is at Dun-da-lacha 

Is worth its weight of bright gold, 

It moves not at falsehood without betraying it, 

And a murderer cannot move it. 
My steeds, too, of beautiful appearance, 

Never will move at falsehood, 

But they move with fair truth, 

Their motion is quick and agile. 
To prove whether thou art my son, 

brave puissant champion! 

1 will go forth early this day 

To the fort in which my stone is. 

A stone," &c. 

After this Congal assembled the forces of Saxonland with their 

king Garbh, the son of Rogarbh q , and the forces of France, with 

their king Dairbhre, the son of Dornmhar 1 ", and the forces of Britain 

under Conan Rod s , and the men of Alba under the four sons of 


be also considered as a fictitious personage, s Conan Rod. — Conan appears to have 
as there was no king of France of this been very common among the ancient Bri- 
name, or of any name of which it could be tons, as the proper name of a man, but no 
a translation, at this period. Dagobert, son prince Conan is recorded as having lived 
of Clotaire II., was king of France in the exactly at this period, and we must there- 
year 638, when the Battle of Magh Eath fore conclude, that this Conan was an ideal 
was fought. personage. 

M 2 


Get) in eppiO name, ocup Con^al merit), ocup Suibne, ocup Oom- 
nall bpeac, a pinnpep. Oo bepu laip uile in lin pló£ pin, co 
rapopac car Oo Oomnall co pepaib Gpenn íme, pop TTI1115 ftach, 
co uapaO áp cenn ecuppu, ocup co uopchaip Coital Claen ann. 
dp ice pin cpi buaoa in cacha, .1. maiom pia n-Oomnall ma 
pipinne pop Congal ina 501, ocnp Suibne 00 oul ppi ^ealuacc ap a 
méo Oo laiOib 00 lepai^, ocup in pep 01 pepaib Qlban t>o oul 01a 
úip pepin cen lum^, cen baipc, ocup laec aile 1 leanmain Oe. 

l?o mapb Oin Cellach, mac TTlailcaba, Conan l?oO, .1. mac pi^ 
bpeuan pop ^alaib oen-pip, ocup po mapbúa tun na pi^u ocup na 
coipig olceana cpi nepu comlamo, ocup upia pipint)i plaéa in pi£, 
.1. Oomnaill, mic Qeoa, mic Qinmipech ; ocup cpia nepu in cac- 
mileO ampa, .1. Celiac, mac TTlailcaba, .1. mac bparhap Domnaill: 
ap ni po mapbat) laech na car-mileo t)o clannaib Neill lp in cauh 
nach Oi^elao Cellach cpia nepc comlamo ocup imbuailci. Co ná 
cepna o' Ullcaib app ace pe céo laec namá, po élaoap ap in 
apmui^ pa pepoomun, mac lmomain, .1. laec ampa o' Ulluaib in 
ci pepoomun. Ni uepna oin o' allmapacaib app ace DuboiaO 
Opm, Oo OeacaiO ppi poluamain ap in car, ocup ni po aipip co 


c Three Buadha. — These three remark- story was written on the madness of this 
able occurrences, which took place at the Suibhne, giving an account of his eccen- 
Battle of Magh Rath, are also mentioned tricities and misfortunes, from the period 
in an ancient MS. in the Stowe Library, of at which he fled, panic-stricken, from the 
which Dr. O'Conor gives a full description Battle of Magh Eath, till he was killed by 
in the Stowe Catalogue, and which was pub- a clown at Tigh Moling, now St. Mullms, 
lished by Mr. Petrie, in his History and in the county of Carlow. A copy of this 
Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. 16, et sequent, story, which is entitled Buile Shuibhne, 
But Dr. O'Conor has entirely mistaken the i. e. Suibhne's Madness, is preserved, post- 
meaning of the passage, as I shall prove fixed to the Battle of Magh Rath, in No. 
in the notes to the Battle of Magh Rath. 60 of the collection of Messrs. Hodges and 

u The going mad of Suibhne. — A distinct Smith, Dublin. It is a very wild and ro- 


Eochaidh Buidhe, namely, Aedh of the Green Dress, Congal Menu, 
Suibhne, and their senior [i. e. eldest brother] Domhnall Bree. And 
he brought all these forces with him, and gave battle to Domhnall 
and the men of Erin around him, on Magli Rath, where there was a 
slaughter of heads between them, and where Congal Claen was slain. 
These were the three "Buadha" 1 [i. e. remarkable events], which took 
place at the battle, viz., i . The victory gained by Domhnall in his 
truth over Congal in his falsehood. 2. The going mad of Suibhne, 
in consequence of the number of poems written upon him u ; and, 
3. The return home of a man of the men of Alba to his own country, 
without a boat or barque, with another hero clinging to him. 

Cellach, the son of Maelcobha, slew Conan Rod, the son of the 
king of Britain, in single combat, and all the other kings and chieftains 
[who had assisted Congal] were slain by dint of fighting, and through 
the truth of the prince, Domhnall, the son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, 
and through the puissance of the illustrious warrior, Cellach v , the 
son of Maelcobha, that is, the son of king Domhnall's brother : for 
there was not a hero or champion of the race of Niall slain in the 
battle, whose death was not revenged by Cellach by dint of battle and 
fighting. So that there escaped not of the Ultonians from the battle 
but six hundred heroes only, who fled from the field of slaughter 
under the conduct of Ferdoman w , the son of Imoman, a renowned 
hero of the Ultonians. There escaped not one of the foreigners 
save Dubhdiadh, the Druid, who fled panic-stricken from the battle, 


mantic story, but is valuable, as preserving for twelve years, as monarchs of Ireland, 

the ancient names of many remarkable that is, from the year 642 to 654. 
places in Ireland, and as throwing curious w Ferdoman, son of Imoman, is not 

light upon ancient superstitions and cus- mentioned in the Irish Annals, nor is his 

toms. name to be found in the genealogies of the 

v Cellach. — This Cellach afterwards Clanna Rudhraighe, though he seems to 

reigned conjointly with his brother Conall be a real historical character. 


h-Cllbain, cen luin^, cen baipc, ocup laech mapb 1 lenmam Oia 
leach-coip; fcai^ po cuip Con^al ^lap 1 cental ícip cec n-Oip t>ia 
muinnuip, as cup in caúa, co ná ceicheao neach tub o cell, amail 
t>o clanoa Conaill ocup 605am, cpia popcon^aip Conaill, mic 
6aet>aw, mic NinOeoa, in pi^-milet) ampa. Conit> amlait) pin po 
cuippeu in cauh. 

Conao pleat) Oúin na n-^éo, ocup rucaic caúa TTlui^e l?ach 
conice pin lap pip. 

x So far the true account. — This is such remarks, to show where one ended and 

the usual manner of terminating ancient another commenced — See the conclusion 

Irish stories. The reason evidently is to of the tale of Deirdre, in the Transactions 

prevent mistake, as the old MSS. are so of the Gaelic Society of Dublin, vol. i. p. 

closely written that it would not be easy 1 34, where Mr. Theophilus O'Flanagan has 

to distinguish their several tracts without written the following note on this subject: 


and who made no delay till he reached Alba with a dead hero tied 
to one of his feet ; for Congal had tied every two of his people to- 
gether in the battle with a fetter, that the one might not flee from 
the other; and the races of Conall and Eoghan did the same by 
order of Conall, the son of Baodan, son of Ninnidh, the renowned 
royal champion. And thus they fought the battle. 

So far the true account x of the Banquet of Dun na n-gedh, and the 
cause of the Battle of Magh Rath. 

"Suck is the sorrowful tale of the children are so closely written, that it is not easy 

of Usnach." — " This is a manner of termi- to distinguish their several tracts without 

nating our stories in old manuscripts. The such marks ; and next, it is suggested, 

obvious cause is to prevent mistake, as that one reading is not sufficient to appre- 

well as to call attention back to the poetic ciate the value of a composition." 
or historical detail. The old manuscripts 

each mui5he reach. 


caoi muishe &azh. 

Q1D pe piliD puppunnuio ; licep pe each comap- 
bup; reibeaó pe cupcint>pcet>ail; puapaic pe peap 
pupo^pa. Conaó iac pin na ceirpe corhpoccnl 
cuib6i,cuTiiai6i,chiallcapcreacha,po opt)ai£eat)ap 
u^Daip i n-up-rup ^acha h-elat>na, ocup i cwnpceabal cacha 
rpeapa. Qcu cena íp e paú poillpi^ri na pocal peicearhanca 


The initial letter L is taken from the quote the proverbs and dark sayings of 

vellum MS. in the Library of Trinity Col- their poets as arguments of wisdom, but 

lege, Dublin, from which the text of this many of these sayings are so obscure to us 

tale has been transcribed. The Society of the present day, that we cannot see the 

are indebted to Dr. Aquilla Smith for the wisdom which they are said to have so 

drawing from which the wood-cut was en- happily communicated to our ancestors, 

a A poem This introduction to the 

battle of Magh Rath is very obscure, and 
seems rather irrelevant, like the proems 
to many other ancient productions. The 
ancient Irish writers were accustomed to 

* Animating bard. — The word puprunnuó 
is explained in O'Clery's Glossary, by the 
modern words lapaó no poitlpiugat), i. e. 
to light or explain, and in a vellum MS. 
in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, 
(H. 2. 1 6.) p. 552, by poillpiujaó only. 

flflC*- vív^ r'~.- ' 


Poem a for the animating 5 bard. A letter for every 
succession. Consideration before commencing. De- 

ij*55 ve l°P m ent c for a proclaimer: — These are the four fit, 
9 meet, and expressive maxims which authors have 


=pS ordered to be placed at the beginning of every com- 

sN position, and in the proem of every battle-narrative. 

And the reason that these scientific words of the poets are exhibited 


It is used by Duald Mac Firbis in the is modernized puapaio and puccpaoio, is 
sense of lighting, igniting, kindling, as Gn not given in any Irish Dictionary except 
íp é no bioó aj puppannaó cainole ap Peter Connell's, in which it is explained 
béulaiB Qeóa, mic Qipc Ui Ruaipc, " the divulging of a secret;" and puapaio- 
an can no bió 0:5 picciollacc, " for it was eac, an adjective formed from it, is ex- 
he was used to light the candle before Aedh, plained " exposing, divulging." However, 
the son of Art O'Eourke, when he was from the many examples of its use which 
playing at chess." — Lib. Geneal. p. 218. occur throughout this tale, and in other 
c Development. — Puctpaie pe peap pu- ancient tracts, it is clear that it means more 
pojpa: The word puapaic, which in Mac properly, "developing, unfolding, eluci- 
Morissy's copy of this tale (made in 1722), dating, or setting forth." 


9 2 

pileaó pin, o'aipneip ocup ft'piaónu^aó ai^nió ocup íllpuine na 
n-05-bpiachap n-arhnap, n-imcubaió, n-n^oapba pin. 

Laió pe piliD puppunnuio, po paiopinnap pomamo, ínann pon 
ocup laió, no popcuó, no pichleap^, íp oip ocup íp ob^eaó o'éicpib 
ocup o'pileaoaib o'aipneip in aipbib oipeaccaip, ocup 1 locaib 
línmapa, ocup 1 comoalaib coicceanna, o'uapaiu ocup o'iaónu^ub 
a popaip ocup a pilioeachca ap na pilebaib. 

Licep pe each comapbup, Do pcnopeamap pomamo, ínano pon 
ocupin céoliueap D'a^-comlanai^reapcomapbuple cupcbail gacha 
nnnpcet)ail,ocup up-éup cacha h-abit>pech; bah-eaó ah-ainm-piDe 
Q cogait>e, cpe-uillech, cpép a cuicreap in UpmomUpe-peappan- 
ach; ocup íp uime po h-oipt>neó í n-up-rup ^acha h-aibmpech, áp in 
ceo Duil po cpuchai£eapuap Dia t>'á Ouilib, ip o Q po h-ainmni- 
£eaó .1. ain^el a ainm; ocup in ceo ouine po cpuchai^eao t)no ip 
o Q po h-ainmm^eaD, .1. Qóarh a amm pern; ocup t>no ba up-eup 
uplabpa Qoaimh, map poip^leap in u-u^oap. 

Qopainn, aDpaim úu-pa a Oe, 
ceo ^uc Cfoaim, ^lan a gné; 
ag aicpm Gba aille, 
ann 00 pinne a cet> gaipe. 


d Rhapsody "Ricleapj: this word is modernized in Mac Morissy's copy to 

not given in any published Dictionary, 1 n-ctpoaib oipeaccaip, i. e. on heights or 
but it is explained by Peter Connell, " a hills of assembly. The word oipeaccap 
kind of extemporaneous verse." It ap- is still used in the North of Ireland to de- 
pears from various specimens of it given note an assembly or crowd of people. This 
in Irish romantic tales, that it was a short alludes to the meetings which the Irish 
rhapsody in some kind of metre, gene- held on hills in the open air, to which re- 
rally put into the mouths of poets and ference is frequently made in the old Eng- 
Druids while under the influence of the lish Statutes. — See an extract from the 
Teinm Loeghdha or poetical inspiration. Privy Council Book (of 25 Eliz.), quoted 

e Assemblage. — In cnpoib oipeacccnp, in Mr. Hardiman's Irish Minstrelsy, vol. 


to view is, that the nature and various mysterious meanings of such 
clear, pointed, and classical words might be stated and elucidated. 

" A poem for the animating bard," which we said above, means a 
poem, or ode, or rhapsody d , which is meet and lawful for bards and 
poets to recite on hills of assemblage 6 , and places of meeting, and at 
general convocations, to exhibit and display* their knowledge and 

a A letter for every succession," which we said above, means 
the first letter, by which succession is completed for raising every pro- 
ject, and the beginning of every alphabet; its name is the excellent, 
triangular A g , by which is understood [i. e. symbolized] the Trinity of 
Three Persons ; and it was ordained that it should be placed at the 
beginning of every alphabet, because the name of the first creature of 
all the creatures which God created was written by this letter, viz., 
Angel; and the name of the first man that was created was represented 
by this letter A, viz., Adam; and it was the first of Adam's speech, as 
the author sets forth: 

" I adore, I adore thee, God, 

Was the first speech of Adam of fair aspect. 
On seeing the beautiful Eva 
He laughed his first laugh." 

" Consideration 

ii. p. 159: "Item, he shall not assemble as it disguises the radix or original form 

the Queen's people upon kills, or use any of the word. This omission of the radical 

Iraghtes or paries upon hills" letter is called oicneó copcug, i. e. initial 

f Display O'uapaicocupo'iaónu^aó, decapitation, in Cormac's Glossary, and 

in Mac Morissy's copy more correctly other ancient philological Irish works, 
o'puapaoio agup o'piaónujaó. In ancient s A. — It would appear from this, that 

MSS. the initial p, when aspirated, is often the author did not regard the Beluisnion 

entirely omitted, as in the present in- alphabet as original or authentic, as it be- 

stances ; but this is not to be recommended, gins with the letter B. 


Uebeaó pe cup nnt>pceat>ail, po paiópeamaip pomamo, ínant) 
pon ocup cet> pmuainiuo cmOci caca ecu 115111 pe cupgbail caca 
cinDf^eDcul, 00 peip map 00 pmuam in pip-Ohia pop-opóa pein na 
peachc paip nime, ocup na nae naem-£paóa, pép in n-oibpe£uo 
poineamail pé laiche. 

puapaic pe peap pupo^pa, t>a pampeamaip ponnaint), .1. cac 
pellparhanuacu rniap bail ocup map Ooipueapcaip Dia a popop a 
pip-eolaip, o'aipneip ocup t>'poillpiu£aó t>o each 50 coicceann. 

55uma6 iau-pew na ceicpe corh-pocail po h-opoai£eab in up-rup 
caca h-elabna, ocup 1 ceo uapam caca ecu 115111, ocup 1 umnpceoal 
caca cpepa. Uaip ni ^nauh cpeap $an cinnpcet>al, na impeapan 
gan uapaíu, na op^ain 5cm uppogpa, na uapal-upep $an aipi^iu; 
ocup t)in íp oipi^óa, ai^eanua, ímcubaió, t>o'n ealaóam pi, ocup lp 
t>ilep, om^bala, ]\ty in rpep uuipmech upén-poclac uo£aiói pea, 
laió o' uapaiu ocup t>a uppannub, O' poillpiu^uó ocup o' pupo^pa; 
oip DI151Ó Oan bup^aó, 0I151Ó piop poillpiu^aó, t)lí£ió pai paep 
plonnat), 0I1516 rpep cmnp^eoal. C16 cpa acr, ap eaó lp co^bail 
ocup ap cnnnpcebal t)o'n rpep arhnup, micubaió, u^bapóa, ollarn- 
anOa pa, ímapbaió einij; ocup en^narha ocup oipbeapca na h-Gpenn 
o'innpaó, ocup b'miluaó, ocup b'aórholaó o pin amach bo óeapca. 


h Consideration before commencing. — battle without a project." The word cinn- 

Cebeaó pe cup cinopcectocul. The word pceaoal is explained "design, project," in 

cebeao, consideration, is not given in this Peter Connell's Dictionary. For a list of 

sense in any Irish Dictionary, but it is the different kinds of stories among the 

explained here by the modern word pmu- ancient Irish the reader is referred to a 

enmuo, to think or conceive. vellum MS. in the Library of Trinity Col- 

' x Setting forth Ceo-uctpaio, more cor- lege, Dublin, (H. 3. 17.) p. 797, where it 

rectly written ceo-punr-aoio in Mac Mor- is stated that the Irish poets had three 

issy's copy. — See Note f , supra. hundred and fifty stories which they re- 

j Exordium Ucup ni jnáé cpeap 5cm peated before kings and chieftains. 

cinnpeeoal, " for it is not usual to have a k Prophesied. — Uaippnjepcac rocbala 


" Consideration before commencing 11 ," which we said above, means 
the first conception of forming every rnle for raising every project, 
even as the true and glorious God himself conceived the seven bright 
heavens, and the nine holy orders of angels, before he entered upon 
the prosperous work of six days. 

" Development for a proclaimer," which we said above, means 
every kind of knowledge which God distributed and poured out from 
the fountain of his true knowledge, for stating and explaining every 
thing to all in general. 

And these are the four maxims which were ordered to be placed 
at the commencement of every composition, and in the first setting 
forth 1 of every covenant, and in the beginning of every account of a 
battle ; for it is not usual to have a battle described without an ex- 
ordium J , a hosting without a preamble, or a noble battle without a 
proem; and it is just, natural, and proper in this scientific composi- 
tion, and it is meet and becoming in this excellent, mighty-worded 
battle, that poetry should set it off and animate it, that knowledge 
should explain and proclaim it ; for it is the province of poetry to 
excite, of knowledge, to explain ; a noble ought to be nobly reported, 
and a battle ought to have a design. Wherefore the design and 
project of this lively, proper, classical, and poetical battle is to publish, 
celebrate, and laud from henceforward the supporter of the hospita- 
lity, valour, and noble deeds of Erin; for he was the prophesied 1 " ele- 

Cempctc: caippnjeprac, signifies one were regarded as the greatest of their pro- 
whose greatness, &c., had been predicted, phets, but their Druids and poets were 
The Irish seem to have had prophecies also believed to have had the gift of pro- 
of this description among them from phecy before the introduction of Christi- 
the earliest dawn of their history, and anity ; for the Druids are said to have pre- 
it appears that they were often influ- dieted the coming of Saint Patrick, Finn 
enced by them in their public movements. Mac Cumhaill was believed to have foretold 
The saints of the primitive Irish Church the birth and great sanctity of Columbkill, 

9 6 

Oip ba h-e pein caippn^eprac uocbala Uempac, ocup lloanac 
llcleapac Uipnig, ocup blaiu-bile bopppaoac bpea£, cenn copnarha 
ocup cabapúa mnpi íac-glome Gpenn, ap uaill ocup ap a^pa, ocup 
ap ecualarrg eccpann, ocup ainpmi ocup allmupac. 6a h-e a co- 
rhainm-piunt ocup a complonnaó annpo, oip 0I1516 peancaib yew 
eolup ocup poiceneol ua n-oipeac ocup na n-aipt>-pi£ o'aipneip, 
ocup o'piaónu^aó, 00 óeapbaó, ocup 00 óeirhniu^aó, le pinnpepaib 
puaiceanua, paep-clanDa ; oip aca 6a abbap o ua h-oipcep oumn 
paep ploinnui poiceneoil na n-oipeac ocup na n-aipD-pi^ o'aipneip 
ITU an inoup pin, .1. Do compa^ cerup, ocup Do corhblucu^ab a 
5-caipDeapa pe peirheap na pi^paioe pempa, ocup Do cunnniu^aó 
a 5-capaDpa D'a 5-clann-buiónib ceneoil, pe h-aipneip a n-up-pcel 
Oia n-eip. 

and a Druid is introduced in the Book of their deceased ancestors and becoming ac- 

Fenagh as foretelling the celebrity of Saint quainted with their virtues and honour- 

Caillin and his church of Fenagh, in the able transactions." — Preface to the Pedigree 

reign of Eochaidh Feidhlech, several cen- of 'General Richard 0' 'Donovan of Bawnla- 

turies before the saint was born. han, by John Collins of Myross. MS. 

1 Two reasons. — Oip oxá oá ctóBap. — ™ Friendship. — t)o cuirhniujao a 5-ca- 
A modern Irish antiquary has given better pctopcc, to commemorate their friendship. 
reasons, for the utility of preserving fami- Though both copies agree in this, it is 
ly history, in somewhat clearer language, nevertheless most likely that the text has 
though much in the same style, in the been corrupted, and that the original read- 
following words: — "That a genealogical ing was 00 cuimniujao a n-oipbeapca, 
history of families has its peculiar use is i. e. to commemorate their noble deeds. This 
plain and obvious; it stimulates and ex- story seems to have been written for the 
cites the brave to imitate the generous ac- O'Canannans or O'Muldorys, the direct 
tions of their ancestors, and it shames the descendants of the monarch Domhnall, and 
reprobates both in the eyes of others and who were chiefs of the territory of Tir- 
themselves, when they consider how they connell till the beginning of the twelfth 
have degenerated. Besides, the pedigrees century, when they were put down by the 
of ancient families, historically deduced, O'Donnells, who had been up to that time, 
recal past ages, and afford a way to those with few exceptions, only petty chiefs of 
immediately concerned of conversing with the territory of Cinel Lughach. Another 


vator of Tara ; the scientific, expert warrior of Uisnech, the proud- 
blossomed tree of Bregia ; the head of the defence and support of the 
fair-landed island of Erin, for his pride and bravery, and for his in- 
tolerance of adventurers, strange tribes, and foreigners. His name 
and surname [as also his genealogy\ shall be given here; for the 
antiquary ought to declare and testify, prove and certify the ancient 
history and family nobility of the princes and monarchs, by specifying 
their august and noble ancestors ; for there are two reasons 1 for 
which it is necessary for us to recount the noble surnames of the good 
families of the chieftains and monarchs in this manner, namely, in 
the first place, to unite and connect these families by their veneration 
for the reigns of the kings who preceded them, and [secondly'], to 
remind the tribes sprung from those kings of their friendship 111 , by 
rehearsing their noble stories after them. 


family of great celebrity, Mac Gillafinnen, " Our journey is a journey of prosperity, 

was also descended from this monarch, Let us leave the lively host of great Macha; 

and, till the fifteenth century, were chiefs Let us not refuse to wish good prosperity 

of Mumtir Pheodachain, in the county of to that people, 

Fermanagh, where they are still numerous, Let us make for the Cinel Conaill. 

but their name is Anglicised into Leonard, They will come, — a journey of prosperity, 

which disguises not only their royal de- The inhabitants of that rugged land will 

scent, but even their Irish origin. That come 

the O'Canannans and O'Muldorys were To meet us at the Cataract of Aedh(Easroe) 

the chief lords of Tirconnell up to the year Which will be good luck to that people of 

1 197, when Eachmarcach O'Doherty as- fiery aspect. 

sumed the chief sway, is proved by the The O'Muldorys — if they were alive, 

concurrent testimony of all the Irish An- Would come ; but they will not come ! 

nals, in which the battles, deaths, and Without delay or slow assembly, 

successions of the different princes of these To meet us, as would the O'Canannans. 

families are recorded ; and by the Topogra- But these other will come — proud their lord, 

phical Poem of O'Dugan, chief poet of Hy- The Clann Dalaigh of brown shields ; 

Many, who died in the year 1372, where To them by a sway which has not decayed 

he speaks of those families as follows : Now belongs the hereditary chieftainship." 


9 8 

^a cpaeb coibneapa ap cuibóe oo ceapnnu^aó, no ap oipceapa 
tVpuapaíc, ná paep £emealac poiceneoil an laic-rmleaó o'ap lab- 
pamap cup^bail ocup cwnpceual ap o-upeapa maó 50 t>-upapca, 
.i. an pinen uapal, oipt>ni£e, a pocaip na pmearhna, ocupalub^opr 
na laecpame, ocup a pperh-^é^ ^aca plaiúiupa, íma n-oiponean 
oipeacap Gpenn ocup Qlban in aen inat>, .1. Domnall, mac Qeoa, 
mic Cbnmipec, mic Seona, nnc pep^upae CennpoDa, mic Conaill 
^ulban, mic Neill Nai-^iallaig, inn nac aipnrno u^oaip acu aipi£ 
no aip*>pi£a 50 h-Góarn n-oipt>epc ? n-il-clannac r o n-ainmni^úep 
^ac aen. Qp e an c-Qóarh pin cennnacc cint>ce, coiuceann, com- 
oluúaó caca cpaibe coibneapa, ocup ^naú-bile £apt>a, ^e^-lebuip, 
^ablanai^úi ^aca ^enealai^, ocup pprni-iopoat) poipbciu, pip-tnleap, 
pocai^úi ^acha pogalua pine, ocup carhan co^aióe, caeb-pemac, 
cinni^ni, pa uacpaio, ocup pa uimpai^io cpaeb-po^la coicceanna 
caibniupa cuaú, ocup ceallach, ocnp cpeb-aicmeo m caiman, t>o- 
neoch po ^ein ocup ^einpep, o cec-cpuúu^aó na cpumne ocup t>enma 
na n-Dul, ocup noi n-^paó nirhe, anuap ^ur m laiche lan-opt)paic 
luan-aúcopanach, 1 pe^úap pipinne bpumnci, bpeúearhanOa, bperr- 
puaplaicreach bpaúa ap poóain. 

Qcu aua ni cena, íp e in u-apt>-plaiuh h-Ua Qinmipec cliúap 
Dana cpaeb coibneapa po pampiumap pomamt), ípa ^apc, ocup 
^nim, ocup ^aipceó, ípa blaó, ocup baió, ocnp beoóacc, ípa cloú, 


This shows that the O'Muldorys and of Westmeath. The O'Donnells do not 

O'Canannans had been dispossessed before descend from this monarch Domhnall, nor 

the period of O'Dugan. There is not one can they boast of descent from any of the 

(if either name in Tirconnell at present, ten monarchs of Ireland who sprung from 

unless the latter be that which is now Conall Gulban, nor indeed from any later 

shortened to Cannon, but this the O'Don- than Niall of the Nine Hostages, who died 

nells deny. A few of the O'Muldorys, or in the year 404 ; and hence it is obvious, 

Muldarrys, as the name is now written, are that in point of royalty of descent they are 

still extant near Rathowen, in the county far inferior to 0' Gallagher, who descends 


What genealogical branch is fitter to be inquired after, or more 
becoming to be set forth, than the noble genealogy of the heroic 
soldier to whom we have just now referred the design and project of 
our battle, namely, the noble and illustrious just man of the grove of 
the vines, and of the garden of heroism, and of the root-branch of 
every royal sway, in whom the splendour of Erin and Alba was con- 
centred, that is, Domhnair, the son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, son of 
Sedna, son of Fergus Cennfoda, son of Conall Gulban, son of Niall 
of the Nine Hostages, from whom authors recount none (i. e. no ge- 
neration) but princes or monarchs, up to Adam, the illustrious father 
of the various tribes from whom every one is named (sprmig). This 
Adam is the certain universal head which connects every genealogical 
branch, and the only beautiful wide-branching trunk in every genea- 
logy, and the genuine ancient founder and basis of every ramifying 
tribe, and the excellent solid stock of branching sides, in which unite 
and meet all the genealogical ramifications of the peoples, families, 
and tribes of the earth which have been, or will be born, from the 
first creation of the universe and formation of the elements, and of the 
nine orders of heaven, down to that notable day of the general judg- 
ment, when the truth of the sentence of the redeeming Judge, passed 
upon them all, shall be seen proved. 

Howbeit, the monarch, the grandson of Ainmire, whose genealogy 
we have given above, is the prince whose renown and achievements, 
and feats, whose fame, valour, and vigour, whose celebrity, profession, 


from the monarch Cellach, the son of Mael- 704, who was grandson of the monarch 

cobha, as well as to O'Canannan, O'Mul- Domhnall, the hero of this tale See 

dory, and Mac Gillafinnen, who descend Notes E and F, at the end of this volume, 

from Flahertach, who was monarch of Ire- n Domhnall. — See pedigree of king 

land so late as 734, whose father, Loing- Domhnall, at the end of this volume, Note 

sech, was monarch from the year 695 to A. 



ocup ceipt>, ocup compac, ipa h-aj, ocup ecu, ocup aipo-^niompaó, 
moipcep ann po bo oeapua, ic ueapap^am a cuar, ic oip^ao a 
Ourcupa, ic ímOe^ail Gpenn ap po£ail ocup ap ecupann, ap co^a*) 
eaccpann ocu] 1 ainpme, ocup allmupach. Oip íp e aiprrno u£t>aip 
in abai£ po h-upmaipet) ap Oomnall Oo oip^ut) ocup oo oiponeó i 
n-oipechup Gpenn, ap 1 pin aoai£ po h-aencai^io na h-oipecca, 
ocup po caúai£it) na cuacha, ocup cinniu no coiccpicha, po ceann- 
pai^ic na cechepna, po oicuipcea na tnbeap^ai^, po bai£ic na 
bióbanaip, po h-aucuipio na h-ainpeapa, po ceiliD na claen-bpeara; 
conat) í pm aóai£ accup caca h-uilc, ocup mopra caca maiúiupa. 
Qcc cena, po pailcni^ tma in c-aep, ocup po pernai^epuaip na 
peanna, ^up óailpec na t)uile pocpai^ecu íp na pianaib, $up raiD- 
leaó, ocup ^up ueapalaó poillpe ^peme, t>o £opaó ocup t>o £lar;aó 
^aca spian pope; conaó t>e pin po bpo^pau na bpui^e bopppaba 
ambipi^, po poipbpeauap na h-eara ocup na h-apbana, map ba 
lacc-^enup cuini^úi popmna caca pumn; po ropimai£euap na uoipre 
co nac puiln^inp popmnaoa pop^ablanna pioóbaió poraifc, pe met) 
caca mop-mepa ^up ub Do bápp a boipe no ímameaó each ae^aipe 
peip caca piobaiDi, pe mallacu caca muicúpeoiu; po meuaó blicc 
cacha bo-ceacpa, pe popleehni po pap popmna pep-ulaccmapa, 


° The sky then became cheering. — í?o 
paílcnij ona in c-aep. — It was a belief 
among the ancient Irish that when their 
monarch was worthy of his high dignity 
their seasons were favourable, and that the 
land, seas, and rivers yielded rich produce. 
This is alluded to by TeigeMac Dary, chief 
poet of Thomond, in the Inauguration Ode 
of Donogh O'Brien, fourth Earl of Tho- 
mond, in the following lines : 
" Q5 lenrhuin pij oo'n pecc coup 
Cicc apíp, pijóa an eoail, 

Sjeié gac lan-copaió pe a linn 
'Sjac leic o'pán-colaij Pheiólim. 

Ic 1 o-calrhum, copcuip cuan, 
Gipc a ppocaib, pin nerh-puap, 
Qtje a cá acap caipce peó; 
6e'p b-plaic-ne cpa 50 o-cuillcep. 

^ínpaió f óp, maó peippoe leip, 
Speca lucerhapa loingeip, 
Upace inbeipce an rhapa vh'n; 
TCaga íp ínbepée o' apo-pij." 

^uteof Mocf/ae,, 


and combat, whose prowess, activity, and high deeds of arms, in pro- 
tecting his territories, ruling his patrimonial inheritance, and defend- 
ing Erin against the inroads of adventurers, and against the attacks 
of adventurers, strange tribes, and foreigners, are narrated hencefor- 
ward. For authors relate, that the night on which it was resolved 
that Domhnall should rule and be elected to the sovereignty of Erin, 
was the night on which the assemblies were united, the tribes were 
cemented, the boundaries were fixed, the kernes became tame, the 
insurgents were expelled, the thieves were suppressed, ignorance was 
exploded, and partial judgments were discontinued ; so that that was 
the night of suppressing every evil and of exalting every good. In 
short, the sky then became cheering and the planets benign, so that 
the elements communicated mildness to the seasons, and the rays of 
the sun became bright and genial, to warm and purify every sunny 
bank ; hence it happened that the rough, unprofitable farms became 
productive, the crops and corn increased as if the bosom of each land 
were a lactiferous udder. The fruits so increased that they could 
not be propped up by forked supporters of wood, in consequence of 
the size of each fruit ; so that with the palms of his hands the 
swineherd was used to drive the swine of each forest, in consequence 
of their unwieldiness. The milk of every cow became rich on ac- 

Thus faithfully translated by Theophi- A nostro principe quód tempestivé mere- 

lus O'Flanigan: antur. 

" Assequens regem recti regiminis Implebunt adhuc, si melius illi videatur, 

Venit iterum, (regium est lucrum), oeries densae navium 

Diffusio cujuscunque copiosi-productus, ^ ra P or tuum placidi maris ; 

illius tempore, Optio quod optanda est supremo-regi." 

In unaquaque parte declivis collis Feilimii. Trans. Gaelic Soc. vol. i. pp. 1 2, 1 3. 

Ubertas gleba?, proventus portuum, This belief also prevails among the eas- 

Pisces in fluminibus, tempestates serenae, tern nations, whence, no doubt, it found its 

Apud eum sunt, et fructus arborum, way into Ireland at a very early period. 


blatmai^e caca bpuige ; po bpuccpacap eappa, ocu] 1 aibne, ocup 
inbepa na h-Gpenn mup-bpucca meapa, maigpeaca, Tnipslemanaca, 
cacha moip eipc, co nac uuilleaó ocup nac uacmam^eaó 1 n-iccap 
aibeipi na abann, 1 locaib no 1 linnuib, no 1 loc-cippauaib lan-Doim- 
nib, co m-bioip na t>-uaipeant)aib uapcai^e, uaeb-ciopma, ap £apb- 
at>aib glan-poillpi, ocup ap paiccib paen-upacc, ocup ap bopt>aib 
bpuac-poillpi blauh-inobep. Ocup Do bai o'peabup aimpipe an 
apo-plara h-ui Gmmipech, 50 puabpaoaip po^narhai^ na peapann 
^an peióui, ^an obaip, ^an apachap, ^an cpealarh, $an racap, gan 
upebaipecc t>o rpiall, no t)o cwt>pceOal, man bat) poipéicean a 
n-aipeac ocup a n-aipt)pi£ '5a popcon^pab oppo, pe ppepcal a pleó, 
ocup a puipec plata, ppi pipinne a b-plaireapa. 

Uchan ! po b' upupa o'á h-aicnió ocup t>'á h-anaiúnió Gpe t)'im- 
luaó ocup o'airigio íp in annpip pm, pe pia£aluacc a pecu, pe 
piearnlacc a plua^, ocup pe parhpacacc a pion, pe h-oipnióecc a 
h-oippi£, pe bpeiú-ceipu a bpeirearhan, pe pocoipciúe a poiccepn, 
pe h-i!óanai£i a h-ollarhan, pe perearhlacc a pileaó, pe h-il-^lep 
a h-oippit)eac, pe lop-bpi£nnaipe a lea£a, pe comt)ipcli£e a cept>a6, 
pe 5pep-uapbai£e a ^obann, pe peol-^nirhai^e a paep, pe bo^- 
malloacu abancuipe, pe upeipi ocup pe uaippi^e a cpiac, pe peile 
ocup pe pailxi£e a píp-bpu£aó ; uaip pobpau bo$a, biaómapa, bo- 
ceaoaca a bpu^aóa; pobpau piala, paippm^e a poip£nearha, pop- 


p The labourers of the soil, $c The writer Arbuteos foetus, montanaque fraga lege- 

seems to have had Ovid's description of bant, 

the golden age in view when he wrote this Cornaque, et in duris hserentia mora ru- 

description of the prosperity and happi- betis, 

ness of Ireland in the reign of king Donih- Et quae deciderat patula Jovis arbore glan- 

nall : des. 

" Ipsa quoque immunis, rostroque intacta Ver erat aeternum; placidique tepentibus 

nee ullis auris 

Saucia voraeribus, per se dabat omnia tellus. Mulcebant Zephyri natos sine semine flores. 
Contentique cibis nullo cogente creatis, Mox etiam fruges tellus inarata ferebat. 

io 3 

count of the degree to which the grassy and flowery surface of every 
farm grew. The cataracts, rivers, and harbours of Erin poured forth 
such shoals of every kind of lively, salmon-like, slippery great fish, 
that they could not fit or get room on the bottoms of the seas and 
rivers, lakes, ponds, and deep pools, but were to be seen in dried and 
shrivelled multitudes on the bright shores, sloping strands and mar- 
gins of the bright and beautiful harbours. And it happened, from 
the goodness of the weather in the reign of the monarch, the grand- 
son of Ainmire, that the labourers of the soiP would not have deemed 
it necessary to attend to labour, work, ploughing, utensils, gathering, 
or tillage, were it not that their chieftains and kings commanded and 
compelled them to do so, for supplying their own banquets and royal 
feasts to prove the worthiness of their reigns. 

Ah me ! it were easy for one acquainted or unacquainted with 
Erin to travel and frequent her at this period, in consequence of the 
goodness of her laws, the tranquility of her hosts, the serenity of her 
seasons, the splendour of her chieftains q , the justice of her Brehons, 
the regularity of her troops, the talents of her Olaves, the genius of 
her poets, the various musical powers of her minstrels, the botanical 
skill of her physicians, the art of her braziers, the useful workman- 
ship of her smiths, and the handicraft of her carpenters ; in conse- 
quence of the mild bashfulness of her maidens, the strength and 
prowess of her lords, the generosity and hospitality of her good 
Brughaidhs [victuallers] ; for her Brughaidhs were generous and 


Nee renovatus ager gravidis canebat aristis stantly used by O'Dugan, in his Topogra- 

Flumina jam lactis, jam numina nectaris phical poem, and by others, in the sense of 

ibant : P e tty chief; that is, a chief who was sub- 

Flavaque de viridi stillabant ilice mella." ject and tributary to another. It is also 

q Splendour of her chieftains Oippi j, used in this sense by some of the early 

sub-chiefs — This word is not given in any English writers of the History of Ireland, 

printed Irish Dictionary, but it is con- by whom it is written urriagh. 


plaicúe ap cinn cliap ocuy 1 coinnearh, speap ocup ^larh ocup ^puam 
cnóeaó; ^up ab eaó cnprhit) u£oaip, co n-imeocaó em-bean 6pe 'na 
h-aenap, 5cm e^la puoxhaó, nu popecin pwppe, ^en 50 m-beiú 
piaóa a^a popcoimet), men ba ea^la é^na, no luimpaib, o cha Op- 
jleann íar-aicenua Urhaill, 1 n-iapúap coi^eaó Connacc, co Cap- 
paic n-oipt)eipc n-iont>comaprai£ n-Go^cnn lap n-aipueap, ocup o 
Imp poo-^loin poirpearnai£, pepuaine pail, pip-t>eipcepcai£ banba 
bopo-^loine, ^up an Tíi-buint)e m-bopb-úm^, rn-bpaenpaoach, m-bpec- 
linnceach m-buaDa, muno pon ocup ^npp m ppeib ppur-glam, 
pnecccn^i, pip-^cnpecccn^, puaicni^, peapfrancn^, plua^-bpaoanai^, 
pomernail, pein-oileant>a,t>anao cnnm cnpDpcnc,cncenua, GQSS apt>- 
mop íach-^lan, ímpeapnach, uuicmech, caipm-rpen umDeapnach, 
meppoa, mai^pech, ímip-biapuach, upt>paic, aipupech, íapc-peirnip, 
l?UQlDh ; ocup uctipip pem bo uuait), nnapa Uemne bic in bpo^uó, 

q One woman. — Keating has the same On this anecdote Moore composed his 

anecdote in his account of the reign of his celebrated ballad, 

favourite monarch Brian Boru, as autho- " Rich and rare were the gems she wore." 

rity for which he quotes the following r Osgleann in Umhall, the name of a 

quatrain from an old Irish poem : valley in the west of the county of Mayo. 

" O Uhopcuj 50 Cboona caip, Umhall, the ancient principality of the 

lp fail oip aici pe a h-mp, O'Mailleys, was co-extensive with the ba- 

Q b-plcnr óhpicun caoib-jil nap rim, ronies of Burrishoole and Murresk, in the 

t)o rimcill aen bean Bipinn." west of the county of Mayo. 

Gratianus Lucius, in his Latin transla- s Carraic Eogkain. — Situation not 

tion of Keating (MS. penes Edit), has the known to the Editor. 

following words : — " Adeo accuratá regni c Inis Fail. — Inch, in the barony of 

administratione ac severá discipliná Bri- Shelmaliere, in the county of Wexford, 
anus usus est, ut foeminam unam ab aqui- was anciently called by this name, 
lonari Hibernise plagá ad australem pro- u Eas Ruaidh. — This wordy description 

gressam annulum aureum in propatulo of the cataract of Eas Ruaidh affords a 
gestantem nemo attingere vel minima vio- good example of what was considered the 
latione afficere ausus fuerit." sublime by the writers of Irish romantic 

io 5 

had abundance of food and kine ; her habitations were hospitable, 
spacious, and open for company and entertainment to remove the 
hunger and gloom of guests ; so that authors record that one woman q 
might travel Erin alone without fear of being violated or molested, 
though there should be no witnesses to guard her (if she were not 
afraid of the imputations of slander) from the well-known Osgleann 1 ", 
in Umhall, in the west of the province of Connaught, to the cele- 
brated remarkable rock of Carraic Eoghain, s in the east [of Eriri], 
and from the fair-surfaced, woody, grassy-green island of Inis Fail 1 , ex- 
actly in the south of Banba [Ireland] of the fair margin, to the furious, 
headlong, foaming, boisterous cascade of Buadh, which is the same 
as the clear-watered, snowy-foamed, ever-roaring, particoloured, bel- 
lowing, in-salmon-abounding, beautiful old torrent, whose celebrated, 
well-known name is the lofty-great, clear-landed, contentious, preci- 
pitate, loud-roaring, headstrong, rapid, salmon-ful, sea-monster-ful, vary- 
ing, in-large-fish-abounding, rapid-flooded, furious-streamed, whirling, 
in-seal-abounding, royal, and prosperous cataract of EasKuaidh", and 


tales ; the reader may compare it with Vir- very loud, vehement, and grand, especially 

gil's description of Charybdis ; and with when the tide is out, in consequence of 

Mac Pherson's wild imagery, throughout the great volume of water rolled down the 

his poems of Ossian, that he may perceive rock, the river being the outlet of the 

how the latter, while he adopted the great chain of lakes called Lough Gowna, 

images, chastened the language of the old Lough-Oughter, and the Upper and Lower 

Gaelic bards. The cataract of Eas Ruaidh Lough Erne. It is described as follows, 

is mentioned in the Irish Triads as one of in O'Donnell's Life of St. Columbkille, as 

the three great waterfalls of Ireland, and translated by Colgan : 
one would be apt to infer from this exag- " Ad Erniae marginem pervenit (Co- 

gerated description, that it was as stupen- lumba) celebrem illam spectaturus seu 

dous as the falls of Niagara. It is on the cataractam seu rupem vulgo Eas Ruaidh 

River Erne, in the town of Ballyshannon, appellatam: de cujus prserupta crepidine 

in the south-west of the county of Donegal, totus is vastusque fluvius sese in subjectum 

and though not a high fall of water, is alveum prascipiti casu magnoque fragore 


no t>a TTlaD uill lnninnpi£e, co cpachu popcaib capm-cpuaiOe 
uaepc-tnbpaicúeca Uopai£e ap uuaipcepr. 

^up ob t>o úeapmolcaib ci^epnaip ocup t)'int>comapca aim pipe 
^an elnet), ocup oipeacaip gan ainpmne, in apo-plaúa h-uí Qinmi- 
pech anuap coni^e pein. 

Nip b'in^nao aimpeap 1 n-inoapein a$ h-ua Qmmipech, op t>o 
h-upmaipeo pen paepi^oa, poineamail, oo'n apt>-plaich ocup t>' 
Gpmn l corhpac pe ceile: uaip íp e ant) po uaip ocup aimpeap, 
ocup aip eapcai, ocup paep-laichi peacumame, in po h-oipt)net> in 
c-apt>-plaiuh, h-ua Ginmipech, 1 n-oipecup na h-Gpeann, .1. 1 nnn- 
p^eaoal in cpeap cat>aip comlame t>o'n 05-laiuhi ai^eanua, 1 
popbúa in Oapnah-uaip t)éa^ Deappp^naiuhi in caem-laiehi cetma, 
ocup 1 meaóon míp TTlai, ocup ba Dia Domnai^ t>apaici ap ai 
laiche pecumame, ocup in oll-cui^eD t>ea£-aip eip^i ap pm. 


ingurgitat." — Trias Thau. p. 404. Ac- is first referred to as the stronghold of the 

cording to the Four Masters (ad A. M. Fomorians, or African pirates, who made 

45 1 8) this cataract was called Eas Aodha many descents on the coasts of Ireland, at 

Ruaidh, i. e. the cataract of Aodh Ruadh a period so far back in the night of time, 

Mac Badhuirn, who was drowned under that it is now impossible to bring chrono- 

it in the year of the world 4518. See logy to bear upon it. In the accounts of 

also O'Flaherty's Ogygia, Part iii. c. 36. these pirates it is called Tor-inis, or the 

v Teinne Bic in Brogha, was in the pre- island of the tower; but in the lives of St. 

sent county of Donegal, but the name is Columbkille, and other tracts, it is always 

now forgotten. called Torach, i. e. towery, as in this tale, 

w Madh Ininnrighe. — This name is also and the inhabitants of the opposite coasts 

forgotten. of Donegal believe that it has derived this 

x Water-shooting. — popraib caepc-oiub- name from the tower-like cliffs by Avhich 

pcncrecha Uopai^e, water-shooting cliffs it is guarded against the angry attacks of 

of Tory. This island is situated in the the mighty element. This seems to be the 

sea, about nine miles from the nearest coast correct explanation of this latter name, for 

of the barony of Kilmacrenan, in the county there are many lofty, isolated rocks on the 

of Donegal. It is one of the earliest places opposite coast, called by the natives tors, 

mentioned in the Bardic Irish history, and or towers, and a remarkably lofty one on 


thence northwards by Teinne Bee an Broghadh v , or by the great plain 
of Madhlninnrighe w , to the lond-roaring, water-shooting x cliffs of Tory. 

Thus far the ardent praises of the reign of the monarch, the 
grandson of Ainmire, and the signs of the seasons which were with- 
out foulness, and his splendour without a storm. 

It was no wonder that the times were thus in the reign of the 
grandson of Ainmire, for the noble, happy prosperity of this monarch 
and of Erin were ordained together. For this was the hour, time, age 
of the moon, and day of the week, on which the grandson of Ainmire, 
the monarch, was inaugurated into the sovereignty of Erin, viz., in the 
beginning of the third quarter of the bright day, at the expiration of the 
twelfth hour of the same day, in the middle of the month of May, and 
as to the day of the week, it was on Sunday, and the great fifth was 
the auspicious age of the moon y . 


the east side of the island itself, called Tor- often heard at the Giant's Causeway, in the 

mor, or the great tower. But though this county of Antrim. From all which it is 

is the true interpretation of its more mo- evident that the writer of the Battle of 

dern name, Torack, still I am convinced Magh Rath was well acquainted with this 

that it was also called Tor-inis, i. e. Tower coast, and it is highly probable that he was 

Island, from a Cyclopean tower or fort a native of Tirconnell ; and that he wrote 

erected on it at a very remote period, of the story to natter the pride of the ancient 

which no vestige is now traceable, and not, chiefs of that principality, the O'Muldorys 

as some have supposed, from St. Columb- and O'Canannans, the direct descendants 

kille's Cloigtheach, or ecclesiastical round of the monarch Domhnall, its hero. 

tower which still remains. y Age of the moon t)eaj-aip eipji. 

The epithet eaepc-oiubpaiccecha, above The word oeaj is here evidently an adjec- 

applied to the cliffs on the opposite coasts tive qualifying the noun aip, age, and signi- 

of this island, is truly descriptive, as there fies good, happy, or auspicious ; it is evi- 

are many hollow rocks amongst them which dently purely expletive. The month of 

shoot up the water to an amazing height. May having thirty-one days, " the middle 

There is one in particular called Mac of the month" will be the 15 th day, "at the 

Swyne's Gun, which shoots the water with expiration of the twelfth hour of the day." 

so much force, and roars so loudly, that it is And since this day, as our author tells us, 



Oip ip amlaiO po poóailcep in amipeap o at)ani co hamipep: 
.1. o at>am in opnnc, a h-opnnc 1 m-bpaca, a bpara 1 papp, a 
papp i minuic, a minuiu 1 pon^c, a pon^c in uaip, a h-uaip 1 caoap, 
a caoap 1 llaici, a lain 1 pecnnain, a peccmain 1 mip, a mip 1 
cpemipi, a cpeimpi i nvbliaoain, a bliaóain 1 pae^ul, a paegul 1 

lp amlaiD cuipcep each ana cell o'po£lacaib na h-aimpipe, .1. 
pe h-aOairn Ixx. ap epi ceaoaib in opnnu, opnnc co leiú 1 m-bpáéa, 
bpaúa ocup Da upian bpaúa 1 papp, papp 50 leiuh 1 minuic, oa 
minuic 50 leiú 1 pone, ceicpi puinc 1 n-uaip, ui. huaipe 1 caoap, 
ceicpi caOaip 1 llaici, un. lain 1 peacmnam, cpica lain, no lain ap 
cpicaiD, in each mi, ace ^minora ocu-piccech peabpa nama. 

ConaO e pin ecepceapu na h-aimpipe. C10 paoa paiceillcaca 
pellpuim, ocup mpi^i ^aca h-u^oaip, ic poillpiu^uo ^aca pip, ocup 
1C plonnuo ^aca pencaip, íp ea6 mopaigeap ^up in inao cmnn, 
coicceann, cpuú-poclac céaona. lp e in c-apo-plaich o h-Qinmi- 
pech, om, íp mat» ocup lp mneoin pocai^n onpa a ce^laig pein 
inpi^e ^ach eolaip, ocup báipe bpeac-poluip ^aca bpéirpe $ap 
pa^pam ocup ^ap poúai^pem pnau-peim puioi£n ^aca pencaip Oap 
uup^bamap maO ^up epapca. 

Qcc cena, po boi Gpi $an lmpnim ai^i-pein, ocup Uemaip ^an 
co-cpaD, ocup Uaillce^an cupbpoO, ocup Uipnec gan éllnet), ocup 


was Sunday, and the 5th of the moon, the for this subdivision of the hour have been 

Dominical letter of the year must have been collected and discussed. 

B., and the new moon must have fallen on a Without sadness. — Cemaip 3cm co- 

the tenth of the month. These criteria cnao. By Teamhair is here meant the chief 

indicate A. D. 628, the date assigned by seat of the monarch, for the place called 

all our chroniclers to the commencement Teamhair or Tara, had been deserted from 

of the reign of king Domhnall. the time of the monarch Dermot, A. D. 563, 

z Division of time. — See note D at the as we have already seen, 

end of the volume, in which the authorities b Taillte, now Tel town, (from the geni- 


Time is thus divided, from an atom to an age, viz., from an atom 
to an ostent, from an ostent to a bratha, from a bratha to a part, from 
a part to a minute, from a minute to a point, from a point to an hour, 
from an hour to a quarter, from a quarter to a day, from a day to a 
week, from a week to a month, from a month to a season, from a 
season to a year, from a year to a seculum, from a seculum to an 

And thus are the different divisions of time proportioned to each 
other, viz., three hundred and seventy-six atoms in an ostent, one 
ostent and a-half in a bratha, one bratha and two-thirds in a part, one 
part and a-half in a minute, two minutes and a-half in a point, four 
points in an hour, six hours in a quarter, four quarters in a day, seven 
days in a week, thirty or thirty-one days in a month, except Febru- 
ary alone, which has only twenty-eight. 

Such is the proper division of time 2 . Though long may be the 
moralizing of every philosopher, and the digression of every histo- 
rian, in elucidating every kind of knowledge, and relating every 
history, they aim at one fixed, general, definite point. The grandson 
of Ainmire, the monarch, then, is the theme and principal subject 
of all the knowledge, and the bright scope of every word which we 
have written and formed in the series of narrating each anecdote 
which we have hitherto set down. 

To proceed. Erin was without sadness a , Tara was without afflic- 
tion, Taillte b without misfortune, Uisnech without corruption, and 


tive caillcen) ; it is situated on the River August, which is supposed to be a kind of 

Sele, or Blackwater, midway between Kells continuation of the ancient sports of Taill- 

and Navan, in the county of East Meath. tenn. 

Public fairs and games were anciently cele- c Uisnech, now Usnagh Hill, in the 

brated here on the first of August, in the parish of Killare, barony of Rathconrath, 

presence of the monarch, and a patron is and county of Westmeath, where public 

still annually held here on the fifteenth of fairs were annually held, in ancient times 


apti-cui^m Gpeann $an epuppan, o'n aióci pa h-aúcupeao Gpiu ap 
h-ua Qinmipec, ^up in aioci po í^epcup Con^al Claen, mac 
Scannlain Sciauh-lerain, a Oalca ppi Oorhnall t)óiu-lebaip Oaipe, 
imb t>eiubeip na Oa n-u£ n-upcoit>ech n-ampacmap n-aio^ill, .1. 115 
cipci ceipi, clum-puaiói, concpacua, ocup coimpeipc geoió $lan- 
pop^aiOi^, upép ap' aómillet) Gpi ; op 56 t>o bamip aobal cuipi ell 
ic Con^al 'man comep^i pin, .1. 1m tnbao a Oeipci, ocup 1m cpic- 
eapbaio a cui^it), vp é ímunút) in ui£e pin ba t>eapa t>o-pum Gpi 
o'pá^báil, ^up úinoil ocup 511 p uocapuail ó^-pio^paió Qlban, ocup 
baer-buitmi bpeuan, ocup plua^-neapu Saxan, ocup pop^la ppan^c 
ocup pint>-J5 a ^> o"° n-Gpmn, t)'á h-aómillet>, o'aiuhe a epanopa, 
ocup Do tn^ail a Oeipci, ocup a Dimiaoa ap Oomnall; ^up ob 'man 
aóbup pm po mnpai^pet) a cell co cpunn-lTia^ Comaip pipi paiuep 
lTIa^ puaiO-lmOuec Pauh; ^u pabaOap pé paep-laichi na pecc- 
maini 15 imguin, ocup 15 ímbualaó ann, $up po comrpomai^úea a 
cneat>a; op ba h-inmeapca a n-eapbaoa ^up m TTlaipu mipcni^, 
mallacrai^, mi-banai^, inapmapbaO Gonial Claen, mac Scanolam 

lmchupa in apo-plara h-ui Gwmipech, aoaig TTlaipci pia 
mait>m caú TTIhui^i puaó-lmnui^e T?auh, cm cia po cot)ail co 
paoail, ocup co puan-cpom, pe cliaúaib cpirpe, cuiboi, compaiceca 
ciuil, ocup pe péipib iple, acupua^a, ail^eana oippiOec, nip b'e in 


on the first of May — See O'Flaherty's Domhnall, resided before he presented the 

Ogygia, p. iii. cap. 56, reign of Tuathal. place to St. Columbkille ; but this cannot 

See also Ordnance Map of the parish of Kil- be true, for that saint had founded a 

lare, where the ancient remains on Usnagh monastery at Derry, in the year 546, be- 

Hill are shown. fore the monarch Aedh was of age. It 

d Domhnall of Derry. — Daire, now Der- is not to be presumed that king Domhnall 

ry, or Londonderry, where, according to had a residence at Derry, because he is 

O'Donnell, in his Life of St. Columbkille, called " of Derry ^ in this story, for he is 

the monarch Aedh, the father of this also called of Tara, of Uisnech, of Dun 


the great provinces of Erin without disturbance, from the night on 
which Erin was placed under the guidance of the grandson of Ain- 
mire, until the night on which his foster-son, Congal Claen, the son 
of Scannlan of the Broad Shield, quarrelled with the same long- 
palmed Domhnall of Derry d , about the difference of the two ominous, 
unlucky, evil-boding eggs, namely, the egg of a blackish red-feathered 
hen of malediction, and the egg of a fine-feathered goose, through 
which the destruction of Erin was wrought : for although Congal 
had other great causes for that rebellion, such as the loss of his eye, 
and the circumscribing of his province, still it was the spite for that 
egg that induced him to quit Erin, so that he assembled and mus- 
tered the young princes of Alba, the vain troops of Britain, the forces 
of Saxonland, and the greater part of the forces of France and Fin- 
gall 6 , and brought them into Erin to destroy it, to revenge the loss of 
his eye, and the dishonour which he had received, on Domhnall. So 
that it was for this reason they met each other on the plain of Magh 
Comair, which is now called Magh Rath of the Red Pools ; where 
they remained for the six full days of the week striking and wound- 
ing, during which their wounds were equal, for their wants were 
not considerable, until the unfortunate, cursed, unlucky Tuesday on 
which Congal Claen, the son of Scannlan of the Broad Shield, was 

As to the monarch grandson of Ainmire, on the night of Tues- 
day before the battle of the red-pooled plain of Magh Rath was won, 
though some may have slept agreeably and soundly, being lulled to 
rest by the thrilling, agreeable, and symphonious musical strings, 
and by the low, mournful, soft strains of minstrels, the monarch 


Baloir, &c, where he never resided — See Fingall the Irish at this period meant 

Pedigree of king Domhnall, at the end of Finland, but this is far from being certain, 

this volume. — See O'Flaherty's Ogygia, Part iii. c. 

e Fine/all. — O'Flaherty thinks that by $6. 

I 12 

r-apt>-plaic h-ua h-Qinmipec po cobail, pe ceipu in cara, ocup pe 
himpnirh na h-ip^aile ; uaip ba h-aipire lep in aipo-pi^ a bpun-tmlca 
baióe t>o bpon-ciu^-báóús báip ap na bápach. Conat) aipe pin po 
epi$ co h-arlarh a moch-Deaóoil na maione TTlaipui moipe mamm- 
i£e, íc bpeacab, ocup íc ban-poillpiu^ao an aip oo'n la lán-poluip, 
comat) he céo ní ac cichpeaO spip-caiunem na ^éwe íc ^lan-poill- 
piu^aó op bopO-imlib in beaúa, cpe Oei^-ipip ocup cpe De^-cpemem, 
Opec-pollpi^n na Oiaóacua cui^cep upia eolup, ocup upia ea^nai- 
becc, a ^lan-puiúnib na ^péne. 

lp ann pm po epi£ in ^pian ^lan-apo, spip-cairneamac, oppep- 
lannaib popc-^lana ppim-peói in ppepip caeb-^lain, calmanca, ic 
ap^narh pe peol-uccachaib pai^niáp puap Oo compoillpiu^aó na 
cechapaipOi, íuip na t>a cpip apoa, ambceanaca, oi^peca, uapt>a, 
Dap h-opOai^eaO na ponnpaoaib popcengail t>ap caeb-imlib in 
bera, t>o upaeuat* cpen-bpi^i ceapai^ecca in cpeapa caiblij; 
remnui^e, po cumat) ocup po cumOai^et) Dap ceapu-meat)on na 
cpuinne, ocup íp amlaió acaie pein ocup t>a cpip mw-^lana, mep- 
pai^a, na mop -rim cell pe poluccugab na ym ícip ím-ai^béli na 
h-uapt>acna ocup cpom-neirhni^i na ceinnci^ecca. Qcu ceanna, íp 
ap in poc apt), aibmo, paippin^, poplearan, inmeOonac, peichep 
gpian ap ^píp-peannaib ^apb-loipcúeca, ^epúeccea ^ealain, ocup 
Oa Oe^-pino oéc Ooib-pem, ocup XXX. papc, no papc ap XXX. in cac 
pmt>, acc cenmora aen pint), ocup aquaip a ainm-pein, ocup occ- 
pichcech é, muna bipex in bliaóam, ocup mat) bliaóam bipex íp 


f Radiant countenance of the Divinity, — some acquaintance with the ancient Roman 

i. e. religion and philosophy lead us to in- or Ptolomean system of Astronomy : he 

fer the existence of God from the splendour may possibly have had before him the lines 

of the sun. of Ovid : 

g Frigid zones — loip na oá cpipápoa. — " Utque duae dextrá coelum, totidemque 
From this it appears that the writer had sinistra 


grandson of Ainmire slept not, in consequence of the weight of the 
battle and the anxiety of the conflict pressing on his mind; for 
he was certain that his own beloved foster-son would, on the mor- 
row, meet his last fate. Wherefore he went forth vigorously, early 
on the great Tuesday of the defeat, when the morning was streak- 
ing and illuminating the eastern sky, and the first object he beheld 
was the glowing bright face of the sun shining over the borders of 
the world, in whose rays, through good faith and good religion, 
through knowledge and wisdom, the more radiant countenance of 
the Divinity f is understood. 

Then the bright-lofty, fiery-disked sun rose over the fair-banked, 
unobstructed horizon of the earth, moving with foresails, and up- 
rising to illuminate the four quarters of the world, between the two 
high, stormy, frozen, frigid zones g , which were fixed as fastening 
hoops around the extremities of the world, to moderate the great 
torrid force of the bright fiery circle which was fastened about the 
middle of the world. Next to these are two fine temperate zones, to 
moderate the seasons between the intensity of the cold, and the ex- 
treme sultriness of the heat ; but the sun moves on the high, beau- 
tiful, wide, broad, middle circle, through fiery divisions of scorching 
lightning, which are twelve in number, each consisting of thirty or 
thirty-one parts, except one called Aquarius, which consists only of 
twenty-eight, unless the year be a bissextile one ; but if the year be 
a bissextile one, then it consists of twenty-nine. The sign, through 
which the sun was travelling the day on which the Ultonians were 


Parte secant zonae, quinta est ardentior illis : lis sestu ; 

Sic onus inciusum numero distinxit eodem Nix tegit alta duas : totidem inter utram- 

Cura Dei: totidemque plagae tellure pre- que locavit 

muntur. Temperiemque dedit, mista cum frigore 

Quarum quse media est, non est habitabi- flamma." 



nai-piccech; ocup íp é pint) ap a peglaim ^pian in laire pin pino 
caein-polaip Chairigcjiech. Uaip in a. an lain a pair pampaio oo 
punpao pin, ocup occ cal. lull Oo pain, ocup TTlaipc ap paep lain 
peccrhume, ocup coigeab picecu aip epci. 

lp l pin uaip ocup aunpeap poeip^icap t)a comapra caitn, coic- 
cent>a, cpurai^n, cumoacca, íp cuibtn, ocup íp copmaili, ocup íp 
comlaine puapaoap u^Oaip pe h-inncamlú^a6 pe a céile, ocup oelb- 
comapca oilep, Oin^narach, Dpech-pollpi^n na Oiaóacua, munO pon 
ocup ^píp-ai^et) ^puao-polup, ^lan-eDpochc, ^píp-caimemac ^pene, 
íc ep^i í n-uillinD íngancai^, eXamail, oippnp-Oepcipc na h-lnrna, 
D'opplu^ao imoopaip a poipc, ocup a paóaipc, ocup a pi^-poillpi, 
Do leguo a loipi, ocup a lappac, ocup a lomnpi^i pa rpeabaib, 
ocup pa úuaúaib, ocup pa rlacc-cpichaib in caiman. Ocup om 
ai^eo aobal, opcapoa, popleran in aipO-pi^, h-ui Qmmipec co n-$pip, 
ocup co n-^lame, ocup co n-a ^puao-poillpi. Co n-a peioi ocup co n-a 
puinn, ocup co n-a popcaipoi, co n-a cpuch, ocup co n-a caíme, ocup 
co n-a comlaine, co n-a pnuat), ocup co n-a paipe, ocup co n-a 
pomaipi. Co n-a h-aíb, ocup co n-a háilli, ocup co n-a h-opcap- 
t>acu, co n-a oeiúbepeaó, co n-a Oellpat), ocup co n-a Oeappcnu^aO 
t»o opechaib Oi^paipi, Daramla, t>elb-comapracha oaenoacua in 
Domain, ap n-ep^i ap in uillmo íau-^lam, ai^eapra, íapuap-úuaip- 
cepcai^ na h-Goppa, í comoail ocup í comaippi ^nuipi ^puaó-poillpi 
^péne, t>o cpemium co couilan, ocup Oo compe^at) a cupaile. 

Nip pupailani Oo'n apt>-plaiút>'ua Qinmipec, 50 po óeappcnai^e 
a óelb oa cac oelb, ocup 50 po cinnet) a cpun, ocup a ciall, ocup 
a cac-oipbepu, a emec, ocup a ean^num, ocup a popuamlacu, a 

11 Cancer — 1 pino Cainjcpech — These June, fell on Tuesday. The Golden num- 

eharacteristics of the year indicate A. D. ber also being 1 1, and the oldepact 20, the 

637, of which the Sunday letter was E., 29th June was the day of new moon, and 

and therefore the 8 Kal. Jul., or the 24th consequently the moon's age, on the 24th, 

ll 5 

defeated, was the bright-lighted sign of Cancer 11 , it being the ninth 
day of the Summer quarter, the eighth of the calends of July, Tuesday 
being the day of the week, and the moon's age twenty-five. 

This was the time and hour that two general certain protecting 
signs arose, the most similar, like, and complete that authors ever 
found to compare with each other, and with the most glorious, radiant 
countenance of the Divinity, namely, the radiant, brilliant, effulgent, 
and delightfully glowing face of the sun, rising in the wonderful 
south-east corner of India, to open the door of its eyesight and royal 
brightness, to shed its rays, flame, and radiance upon the tribes, na- 
tions, and countries of the earth 1 ; and the great, magnificent, hero-like, 
broad, bright countenance of the monarch grandson of Ainmire, 
with a glow and brightness, with light and tranquillity, with radiance, 
comeliness, and beauty, with perfection and form, with nobility and 
dignity, with serenity and grace, with augustness, splendour, and 
effulgence, exceeding all the dignified, fair, and beautiful human 
countenances in the world, rising in the fair-landed, chilly, north- 
western corner of Europe, before and opposite the bright face of the 
sun, to believe entirely in, and to view its indications 3 . 

It was not to be wondered at in the monarch grandson of Ain- 
mire, that his countenance excelled every countenance, that his 
personal form, wisdom, and valour in battle, his hospitality, prowess, 


was, in accordance with our author's state- cle is here, and in some of the best MSS., 

ment, 25. It appears, also, that according connected with caiman, the genitive case 

to our author's calculation, the summer of calam, the earth, which is a noun of the 

quarter of the year began on the 16th of feminine gender. The same is observable 

June. The sun enters the sign Cancer, of the word cip, a country, Lat. terra. 
according to the old calendars, on the ides J To view its indications. — i. e. king 

[i. e. the 13th] of June. Domhnall rose to view the sun rising, to 

1 Of the earth. In caiman. — It is cu- see whether its aspect boded success in the 

rious that the masculine form of the arti- battle which he was to fight on that day. 


LI 6 

£aíp, ocup a ^aipceó ocup a gnimpaoa, a rhuipnn, ocup a rheipnec, 
ocup a rhóp-meanma, a par, ocup a pi^oact), ocup a puicheanoacu, 
t>ap cpiach-bumnib uo^aioi in caiman ; áp nip laOpac ocup nip 
compaicpeau pa aen ouine peme piam, ppem a pobla pmechaip 
map t)o labpac pá'n apO-plaic h-ua n-Qinmipech, uaip ip íac po 
na t)ual-£nimapca ouchupa pip ap tnallupuap Oomnall a cuipib 
caipoiupa, ocup a copmailecc ceneoil na n-oipec ocup na n-uapal- 
airpec aipmicep ocup ammm^cep ime, o Chonn Ceo-cacac, mac 
peolimio TCeacemaip, mic Uuaúail Ueaccmaip, mic piachaió 
pmnola, mic peapat>ai£ pinnpechcnai£, mic Cpimuhamn Nia- 
náip anuap co Oomnall, mac QeDa, mic Qmmipec, mic Secna 
pomemail, pocal-^nimai^, ap pin puap .1. copcup Chuint) laip a 
lacaip caua, ocup a cpooacc 1 cach-comlann ; einech Cdpc Gen- 
pip, ocup a aebóacc pe h-ainnpib; ciall-^aip Chopmaic hui Cuint), 
ocup a poióici aipo-pig; copnumaigi Caipppi Cipechaip, ocup a 
luaú-upcaip lamai£; pichoacc na plaúa piachach, ocup a íap- 
maipc o'a aicmeoaib; mepnech Tíluipeaóaig "Uipi^, ocup a cep- 
molca ui^eapnaip ; echcmaipe Gchach TTluiftmeboin, ocup a 
menmanpao mileo ; nop ocup marh-cpoúa Neill Nai-^iallai^, 'ma 
po^laiu ocup 'ma ppémai^iu neapc-clanna Neill ueap ocup cuaiD, 
caip ocup uiap; cpaeb-Oeapca Conaill ^ulban 1 n^lenn-popuaib 
a £nuipi; Cach-beim col^-Ouaibpech claioim m Chonaill ceaona 
pin 1 n-fropnn-^lacaib Ooic-lebpa Oomnaill; polu po-cap pop-opt>a 
peap^upa, mic Conaill, a ^-comruige a cmo ; pió-mail^i pe- 
miOi, pich-^opma Seacna, mic peap^upa 1 n-imchumt)ac a ai^ri. 


k Con of the Hundred Battles This gia, Part III. c. 57, p. 306, and Fethlerni- 

name is Latinized Quintus Centimachus dins legifer by Colgan, in Trias Thanm. 

by O'Flaherty, in Ogygia, Part III. c. 60, p. 447. 

p. 313. m Tuathal the Legitimate, in Irish Cu- 

1 Fedhlimidh the Lawgiver, is rendered aral Uechcrhap, is Latinized Tnathalins 
Fedlimius Legifer by O'Flaherty, in Ogy- Bonaventura by O'Flaherty, in Ogygia, 

ii 7 

and puissance, his sagacity, feats of arms, and achievements, his spirit, 
courage, and magnanimity, his prosperity, royalty, and splendour ex- 
ceeded those of the most princely and distinguished tribes in the 
world ; for there met not, and there united not in any one person be- 
fore, such distinguished genealogical branches as met in the monarch 
grandson of Ainmire ; for the following were the ancestorial heredi- 
tary characteristics which he derived from his consanguinity with, 
and descent from the chiefs and noble fathers, who are enumerated 
and named in the pedigree from Con of the Hundred Battles k , the 
son of Fedhlimidh the Law-giver 1 , son of Tuathal the Legitimate" 1 , 
son of Fiacha Finnola, son of Feradhach the Just", son of Crimthann 
Nianar, down to Domhnall himself; son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, 
son of the prosperous and proud-deeded Sedna. Namely, he had the 
triumph of Con in the field, and his valour in battle; the hospitality of 
Art the Solitary, and his courteousness to women ; the wisdom of 
Cormac, the grandson of Con, and his royal forbearance ; the skill in 
the art of defence of Cairbre Lifeachair, and his dexterity at arms; 
the fierceness of prince Fiacha, and his munificence to his tribes ; the 
courage of Muiredhach Tirech, and his laudability of reign; the chi- 
valrousness of Eochaidh Muighmhedhoin, and his heroic magnanimity; 
the polished manners and beauty of form of Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
from whom the Ui-Neill, south and north, east and west, branch off and 
ramify; the bright eyes of Conall Gulban in the hollows of his coun- 
tenance, and the terrific sword-blow of the same Conall was in the 
long-palmed arm of Domhnall ; the curling golden hair of Fergus, 
the son of Conall, covered his head ; the mild, graceful, black eye- 
brows of Sedna, the son of Fergus, ornamented his face. The prince 


Part III. c. 56; but the cognomen Techt- n Feradhach the Just, is rendered Fera- 

mar is more correctly explained lawful, dachus Justus by O'Flaherty, in Ogygia, 
legitimate in the Book of Lecan, fol. 221. Part III. c. 54, p. 300. 


Oooipppe éipcecuaQmmipe, mic Scarna, a pean-arap pop 1 pooail 
na plaúa;5uú, ocup ^peann, ocup ^n^p-Dep^i Qeoa, mic Qmmipech, 
a t>e£-auhap boOem, 1 cumt>ach ocup 1 comea^ap Dpeice oelbnaioe 

Conio íau pin na neice puaicmue, punnpabaca, pip ap oiall, 
ocup pip ap t)elb-copinaili "iupcap Oomnall 1 peamcup na pi^paioe 
peme. Qcc cena, nip pupail t>no aen t)uine páp íaopac ocup páp 
imcochai 'peac na h-epnaile pin uile, 50 mat) cenn cotmai^ci co- 
maiple t>o each, ocup 50 mat) ci^eapna uitmaiccech cuapupcail 
o'uaiplib ocup o'ápo-maitnb, cen co beich popachc na ppeapabpa 
pip 1m aipo-pi^i. Uaip ba he pm aen Duine oap Dpech-t>ep^-oelb- 
ai^et) oéppcnu^uO Oeilbi 00 Oamib m Oomain, .1. Oomnall, mac 
CteOa, mic Qinmipech, mic Seacna, mic peap^upa Cerm-paua, 
mic Conaill 5 u ^ 3an > m]C Neill Nai-giallaig, mic Gchach Hluit)- 
meaoom, mic TTluipeoai^ cipi^, mic piachach Spapcine, mic 
Caipppe dpeacaip, mic Copmaic cupaca, mic Qipu Qenpip, mic 
Cumo Ceo-caúai^, pa compaiciu clanna came, copmaile, copp- 
peoi, cialloa, coiucenna, cpaeb-^apca, cach-aipbeapuacha, CuinO 

lap pm mnpai^ip in r-aipO-pi^ co Uulcan na o-uail^eann, ap 
lap in lon^puipc, baile 1 m-biDip apo-nairh Gpeann ic cnpcbail a 
cpach, ocup a cancain a n-upnai^ci ; ^up paíópiuap ^ 011 ] 1 (5 ariri > 


Lively face. — For the periods at which many of them, which have been since lost, 

these different ancestors of Domhnal flou- in which allusions were made to their per- 

rished see his pedigree at the end of this sonal forms, and to the attributes of their 

volume. minds; and it is not unlikely that he drew 

If these characteristic distinctions of the also on his own imagination, which, we have 

royal ancestors of king Domhnall were not every reason to believe, was sufficiently ex- 

imagined by the writer, he must have had travagant, for the qualifications of others 

more copious accounts of them than we are for which he had no authority. There 

able to discover at present. It is probable, are documents still remaining which would 

that he had ancient poems addressed to bear him out in many of the qualifications 

11 9 

had also the acute ness of hearing which distinguished his grandfather 
Ainmire, the son of Sedna; and he had the voice, hilarity, and rud- 
diness of countenance of Aedh, the son of Ainmire, his own good 
father, well expressed in his lively face . 

Such were the particular distinguishing attributes derived by 
Domhnall from the kings, his ancestors ; and it was inevitable that 
any one in whom all these characteristics were united and concentred, 
should not be the head of counsel to all, and the bountiful payer of 
stipend to nobles and arch-chieftains, even though there should be 
resistance or opposition to him regarding the monarchy ; for he was 
the only man whose countenance excelled in form and majesty all 
the countenances of the men of the world, namely, Domhnall, son of 
Aedh, son of Ainmire, son of Setna, son of Fergus Cennfada, son of 
Conall Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, son of Eochaidh 
Muigmhedhoin, son of Muiredhach Tirech, son of Fiacha Sraibhtine, 
son of Cairbre Lifeachair, son of Cormac the Heroic, son of Art the 
Solitary, son of Con of the Hundred Battles, in whom all the pow- 
erful, fair-bodied, wise, wide-branching, warlike race of Con of the 
Hundred Battles, meet. 

After this the monarch advanced to Tulchan na d-Tailgenn p , in 
the middle of the camp, where the distinguished saints of Erin were 
used to chant their vespers and say their prayers ; and he sent Gair 
Gann, the son of Feradhach q , to request the arch-chieftains of Erin to 


he ascribes to some of those kings, such as 123), was afterwards employed to denote 

the wisdom of Cormac, the dexterity at any distinguished saint who became the 

arms of Cairbre Lifeachair, &c. patron of a diocese or parish. 

p Tulchan na d-Tailgean, — i. e. the hil- q Gair Gann Mac Feradaigh, is not men- 
lock of the saints. The name is now tioned in any of the Irish Annals or genea- 
forgotten at Magh Rath. Tailgean, which logical books, accessible to the Editor, so 
was first applied by the Druids to St. Pa- that he cannot determine whether he was 
trick, and signifies of the shorn head, il cir- a real or fictitious character. 
ado tonsus in capite" (Trias Thaum. p. 


mac pepaDai£, D'popcon^ap pop apD-mairib Gpeann ap co cinnDip 
a comaipli im each no ím comaDaib Do Chongal. lp De pern po 
ep^iDap uaipli ocup apD-rhain Gpeann, ocup íaDpac co h-anbail, 
opcapt>a, mDpi^, pa Dpeich n-Delb-comapuai^ n-Oomnaill, ocup 
Delbaip Oomnall na bpiacpa beca pa t)o cepcnu^aD na comaipli 
pe each, ocup o'puapaiu a h-aóbaip ocup a h-aiceanca: 
CiD Do ^én pe Con^al Claen, 

a puipe nime na naem? 

ni uil Dam beiú im becaiD, 

ic mac Scannlaw Sciaú-leacham. 
Da upéi^eap mo pi^i peill 

Do Chon^al in £aipceó ^éip, 

canpaiúep '^um cuacaib cpell, 

nac am pi^ puanaiD, po úenn. 
Da uu^ap caú íp Con^al, 

raer pi^ Cuailn^i na 5-compam; 

Duppan Dal 1 uia^ap ann, 

caeú a Dalua le Oomnall. 
pop 501 ^nair ppamueap ^ala: 

íbiD bpam ooipbi, Duba, 

pópiD paep-clann ap each rí, 

biaiD ó^án Dana haichí. 

Cit> Do 5. 

Ip anD pm po cwnpeu na cui^eoai^ a comaipli, ocup níp eap- 
aenuai^ m c-apD-plair h-ua Qmmipech na n-a^aiD-pein ; ocup ba 
h 1 comaipli po cinDpeu, ^an beiú pa comaoaib claena, cenncpoma, 
coDappnaca Chon^ail, acc caú 00 cmneD ina comaip, ocup a 
foiccpaci Do rpaechao ^an uepap^ain, ap laúaip m lairhe pin. 
lp De pm po epig m t>áipDpí£, ocup po upúo^aib a oll-^uú ínDpi^ 
op aipD, Do ^pépacu ^appaiDi ^puaD-poillpi ^aiDeal ; ocup íp eó 
po paiDepcap piu: 



hold a consultation about whether battle or conditions should be 
given to Congal. Wherefore the nobles and arch-chieftains rose up, 
and proudly, nobly and majestically closed around the well-known 
remarkable countenance of Domhnall ; and Domhnall composed the 
few words following to interrogate all as to the counsel, and to set 
forth its cause and nature : 

" What shall we do with Congal Claen, 

Lord of heaven of saints ? 

1 cannot remain in life 

With the son of Scannlann of the Broad Shield. 
If I resign my noble kingdom 

To Congal of fierce valour, 

It will be said among my tribes awhile 

That I am not a mighty or firm king. 
If I give battle to Congal, 

That king of Cuailgne renowned for feats shall fall ; 

Mournful the event which will happen there, 

His foster-son shall fall by Domhnall. 
Against the false ones battles are ever gained: 

Ravenous black ravens shall drink of blood, 

Some nobles from every house shall perish, 

There is a youth on whom it will be a stain. 

What shall," &c. 

Then the provincialists held a council, and the monarch grandson 
of Ainmire did not dissent from them ; and the resolution to which 
they came was, not to submit to unjust, exorbitant, and unreasonable 
conditions from Congal, but to give him battle, and put down his 
ambition without mercy on that very day. Wherefore, the monarch 
rose and raised his powerful regal voice on high, to exhort the bright- 
cheeked youths of the Gaels, and spake to them in this wise : 
irish arch. soc. 6. R " Arise, 


Gp^it), ep^m, a 05U, ap in u-aipo-pi^, co hepcam, ocup co 
haencaóac, co cobpaió, ocup co cellióe, co neaprriiap, nearh-pcac- 
ach, pe ppepcal na popécni pea Ulat> ocup allmapach ; ace 
cena 5-upa pepcap plaiciupa, ocup $upa h-auhcup aipecaip b'Ull- 
raib ocup o'allrhapcaib a combaig ocup a comep^i pe claen-bm^aib 
Chon^ail in bap cenn-pi Oo'n cup pa; ocup Din ^upa cacap uiu^-ba 
^an ceapapgain t>o Chon^al each caú-choma come^ni cuiu^eap; 
uaip ni 0I15 capb unuc-meap, cpot>ac a úepap^ain, na t>uine co 
n-oll-^niniaib Oiabail Dil^uO, muna camli^reao upom-cpaioe, uaip 
buo écpumaiOi a íap^nó ocup a oipcipechu a^um-pa, ocup but) 
ciuinibe a cpiuh-£allpa cúrhaó ím cpioe, £it> ^eo^amuep mo cpiúip- 
t>alra cpaioe Con^al. Ocup a luce in caeib pi reap am ale, bap 
aipo-pi^ Gpenn, .1. a apo-clanna Oilella Uluim, ocup a óeg-clanna 
t>éola Omppine, ocup a clann-maicne cpooa Conaipe, ocup a 


r Olioll Olum. — Q apo clanna Oilella 
Uluim. — Olioll Olum was king of Mini- 
ster about the year 237. He is the an- 
cestor of the O'Briens, Mac Carthys, 
O'Donovans, O'Sullivans, O'Donohoes, and 
of almost all the distinguished families of 
Munster, of Milesian descent. Of all his 
descendants the O'Donovans are the senior, 
being descended from Daire Cearb, the 
second son of Olioll Flannbeg, king of 
Munster, and senior representative of 

c. 8 1 . See also Note G, at the end of this 

s Bace o/Dairfhine t)e j-clanna oeola 

tDaippme. These were a powerful people 
in Munster in the second, third, and fourth 
centuries, not considered to be of Milesian 
descent, but their power was much crip- 
pled by the race of Olioll Olum in later 
times. After the establishment of sur- 
names in Ireland the principal families of 
this race were the following : O'Driscol, 

Olioll Olum, while the Mac Carthys, and O'Coffey, O'Curnin, O'Flyn Arda, O'Baire 

all the other families of the Eugenian line, 
are descended from Lughaidh, the third 
son of the same king. The descendants of 
Eochaidh, his eldest son, became extinct 
in Crimthann Mor Mac Fidaigh, one of the 
most celebrated of the Irish Monarchs, who 
began his reign about the year of our Lord 
366 See O'Flaherty's Ogygia, Part III. 

of Munter-Bhaire, O'Leary of Rosscarbery, 
O'Trevor of Kilfergus, all in Munster, and 
Mac Clancy of Dartry, in the county of 
Leitrim in Connaught See Keating, Pe- 
digree of O'Driscol. 

c Conaire. — Clann-riiaicne cpoóa Co- 
naipe. — These were the descendants of 
Conairé II., who was monarch of Ireland 

12 3 

" Arise, arise, youths," said the monarch, " quickly and unani- 
mously, firmly and prudently, vigorously and fearlessly, to meet this 
attack of the Ultonians and foreigners ; so that the evening of the 
reign and the destruction of the dominion of the Ultonians and 
foreigners shall be brought about, who are on this occasion joined 
and implicated in this iniquitous insurrection of Congal against you ; 
and so that the battle reparations, which Congal so loudly demands, 
may be the battle in which his own final destruction shall be 
wrought; for a furious, enraged bull is not entitled to protection, 
nor a man with the daring deeds of a demon to forgiveness, unless, 
indeed, he is purified by repentance ; (for even though the beloved 
nursling of my heart, Congal, should be slain, his sorrow and regret 
for his crimes would make me lighter, and his anguish for past 
offences would render my wounded heart calmer). And you, men 
of the south," said the monarch of Erin, " you high descendants of 
Olioll 01um r , you good and valiant race of Dairfhine 5 , you brave 
progeny of Conaire\ you fair, protecting offspring of Cathair", and 


about the year 212. A very distinguished monarch, Conairé, were then settled. The 

branch of them passed over into Scotland, families then settled in these territories 

where, as venerable Bede informs us, "they were a few centuries afterwards dispos- 

obtained settlements among the Picts either sessed by the descendants of Olioll Olum, 

by an alliance or by the sword ;" but the so that we have no account of the chieftains 

people here addressed by the monarch of this race in modern times, with the ex- 

Domhnall were the inhabitants of Mus- ception of the O'Donnells of Corca Bhais 

craighe Mitine, in the present county of cinn, who, however, sank under the Mac 

Cork ; of Muscraighe Breogain, now the Mahons (a branch of the O'Briens of Tho- 

barony of Clanwilliam, in the county of mond), in the fourteenth century See 

Tipperary; of Muscraighe Thire, now the O'Heerin's Topographical Poem, for the 

baronies of Upper and Lower Ormond, in possessions of the descendants of king 

the same county ; and of Corca-Bhaiscinn, Conairé, at the Anglo-Norman Invasion 

now the baronies of Moyarta and Clonde- of Ireland. 

ralaw, in the south-west of the county of u Protecting offspring of Cathair. — Caeni- 

Clare, in all which the descendants of this cine copnarhac Cacatp. — These were the 



caem-cineo copnarhac Caraíp, ocup a mop-Leac maiomec TTlo^a 
co coiccenn apcena, cuimnv£íó-pi oo Cental net ^oipu-bpiarpa £epa, 
^lám-ainpeca ^eoin oo paióiupuap pib. ^ail con ap ocpac a ail 
ap laec-poipnib Lai^en. Uapp cuipe o'a uaeb, a airepc pe 
h Oppai^ib. Opuioe ap Oaippuig aOpubao ap oe^-plua^aib Oep- 
murhan. Ocup a luce in raeib-pi uuaib, Oin, bap aipO-pi£ Gpenn, 
ni lu£a íp cuimni^n Oia bap cupaOaib-pi Oo Chon^al na nu£- 
bapamla upoma, campemaca rapcapail rue ap bap uuaraib: 
LMi bo bpuin oo biop a bapamail Oo car-buiomb cpooa cneap- 
poillpi Cpuacna ocup Connacc. pal pmo-cuill pe pipu, pui^lip 
pe cuaúaib upoma, uaipcoeca, cpebaipe Uempa, ocup claccTThoe. 
CiO íac m'amaip ocup mo óeopaio-pi pop, ap plaic pipénac poóla, 
ni lu^a íplea^ao o'a laecpaoaib inuamail ainmec, ainpech, ecpaioi 
Chongail ap a cupaoaib, .1. caep ap geimiun, 00 paioiuy^rap piu. 
Como aipe pin, cluinió ocup cuimni^-pi mo recupca cigepnaip, 


descendants of Cathaoir Mor, monarch of 
Ireland, of the Lagenian race, about the 
year 174. (See Ogygia, Part III. c. 59.) 
He is the ancestor of all the distinguished 
Irish families of Leinster (with the excep- 
tion of O'More, O'Nolan, and Fitzpatrick 
of Ossory), as of Mac Murrogh, now Kava- 
nagh, O'Dempsey of Clanmaliere, O'Conor 
Faly, O'Dunn of Dooregan, O'Toole, 
O'Byrne, &c. 

v Leath Mhogha. — lTlop-r",eac maiomec 
mo^a — Leath-Mogha, i. e. Mogha's half, is 
the name of the southern half of Ireland, 
so called from Mogha Nuadhat (the father 
of Olioll Olum mentioned in Note k ), who 
was king of it. For a description of the 
boundary between Leath-Mogha the south- 
ern, and Leath Cuinn, the northern half of 

Ireland, see Circuit of Muircheartach Mac 
Neill, note on line 128, pp. 44, 45. 

w Ossorians. — Oppctijhib The an- 
cient principality of Ossory was coextensive 
with the present diocese of Ossory. It 
comprised the entire of the present county 
of Kilkenny and the barony of Upper 
Ossory, in the Queen's County, excepting 
some very small portions not necessary to 
be specified in this place. It has been 
from the dawn of history one of the most 
celebrated territories in Ireland, and its 
chiefs were considered so distinguished 
and of such high rank, that the monarchs 
of Ireland did not think themselves above 
marrying their daughters. The hero of 
this tale and his brother Maelcobha, had 
both wives out of this territory. 

I2 5 

\ou great and triumphant inhabitants of Leath Mhogha v in general, 
remember to Congal the bitter, sharp-insulting, loud-abusing words 
which he said to you. ' A hound's valour over ordure' is his insult 
to the heroic troops of Leinster; 'the belly of a pig to its side' his 
saying to the Ossorians w ; ' stares on the oak' x he likens unto the noble 
hosts of Desmond y ! And you, men of the north," said the monarch 
of Erin, " your heroes have not less cause to remember to Congal the 
last heavy-insulting derogative comparisons he has made of your tribes : 
'a cow's udder boiled in water' he compares to the bright-skinned 
valiant bands of Cruachan 2 and Connaught. ' A hedge of white hazel 
before men' he likens unto the heavy, prosperous, active tribes of 
Tara and fair Meath. As to my own soldiers and exiles, moreover," 
said the upright king of Fodhla [Ireland], " their heroes are no 
less degraded by the reviling, reproachful, spiteful comparison which 
Congal has made to them. ' Caer ar geimiun' a he calls them. Where- 
fore hear and remember my exhortation of a lord, and my command 


x Stares on the oak. — The stare or star- and the ruins of several forts, and of an 

ling, called by the Irish opuio, is a very extensive Pagan burial ground, called 

timid and un war like bird. Roilig na Riogh, i. e. the cemetery of the 

y The noble hosts of Desmond. — tDeprhu- kings, are still to be seen at the place. — 

mam, Desmond, at this time comprised See Ordnance Map of the parishes of Ogul la 

the south half of Munster, being divided and Kilcorkey, on which the present re- 

from Thomond by a line drawn from mains at Rathcroghan, with their names, 

Brandon Hill, in Kerry, to Lismore and are accurately shown. It is remarkable that 

Dungarvan, in the county of Waterford ; the Ultonians of the ancient Irish race still 

but in later ages Desmond comprised only consider themselves as hardier and more 

Mac Carthy More's country. warlike than the natives of Munster, Con- 

z Cruachan. — Cpuachna, Gen. of Cpu- naught, or Leinster, and would not hesi- 

acha, or Cpuachuin, the name of the an- tate, even at this day, to call them soft 

cient palace of the kings of Connaught. fellows, not fit for war or hardship. 
It is now called Rathcroghan, and is situ- a Caer ar geimiun; it has been thought 

ated nearly midway between Tulsk and better to leave this phrase untranslated. 
Belanagare, in the county of Roscommon, 


ocup m'popcongap aipi^ ocup cnpt>-pí£ oipb-pi; .1. nap ub piblach, 
pul-pat>apcach, poftibpech pib 1 culaib in caúa umaib ap cac 
n-aipO, acc ^up ob cpooa cenn-cpoma, compemi bap cupam Do 
copnam na caú-laiupec; gup ob cenna, cpoma, caú-speamarmaca 
cuimt>e bap upen-peap pe uermuaib cpom-úalman, ocup £op ba 
luaca, leiomi^, let>apúai£ lama bap laecpame 1 comneapc bap 
col^, ocup bap cpaipech, ocup bap cach-pciar; ocup na h-eip^eao 
uaib o'innpai^it) na h-impeapna acu cac aen pip a h-épccnó a hmO- 
paigió. "Uaip ba uaeb pe uollaipbe 00 úi^eapna caeb pe pep^- 
lonnaib bap pip-laec-pi, mun ub comoicpa bap cupait) co laúaip 
t>a luaú-copnam: ocup mat) comtucpa ceupaoa bap cpen-peap, 
cabpaio in rachap pa co calcap, uul-bopb, capb-petn^n, upep- 
leiomech, map a cauhap '5a uappn^aipe ouib o aimpip bap 
n-uapal-bpachap, .1. na peulairme pi^-poillpi, ocup ria lei^i lo^maipe, 
ocup na cpaibi cellioi, copp-pianca, coimt>eua a cpiplach bepcach, 
t>eip5péit>ech Oepb-^lanpuine na OiaDachca, .1. Colum Cille, mac 
pellmioa pip-u^oapca peolimiD, a pine Neill Nai-^iallai^; ^op ub 
ap airpip na h-iplabpa pin t)o opoai^ in c-u^oap na pepba pilet) 
pa, ínano pón ocup na bpeach-pocla bpiauhap: 
Uabpaíó in caú co calma, 

ícip pi^ íp pi^-oamna, 

ppaincep ap plua^ UlaD án ; 

but> cuman leo a n-imapbai^. 

Uabpaíó in cac co calma, 

ícip pi^ íp pi^-Oamna ; 


b Columbkille, the son of Feidhlimidh Columbkille, (lib. i. c. 39.) that that Saint 

For the relationship between the monarch foretold the battle of Munitio Cethirni, or 

Domhnall and St. Columbkille see gene- Dun Ceitkirn, which was also fought by 

alogical table, showing the descent of Congal against king Domhnall, about ten 

O'Maoldoraidh, O'Canannain, and Mac years previous to this of Magh Eath. — 

Gillafinnen, at the end of this volume. Colgan Trias Thaum. p. 349. The Irish 

Adamnan states distinctly, in his Life of generals were accustomed to tell their 


of a prince and monarch to yon, namely, be not fonnd loitering, 
gaping aronnd, and unsteady in the rear of the battle ; but let the 
conduct of your heroes be brave and headstrong to maintain the 
field of battle ; let the feet of your mighty men be firm, solid, ce- 
mented, and immoveable on the earth, and let the hands of your 
champions be quick, expert, and wounding in using your swords, 
lances, and warlike shields, and let none of you go into the conflict 
except one who longs to approach it; for it would be trusting to 
shadows in a prince to trust to the exertions of your heroes unless 
they were all equally anxious to rush to the scene of action to defend 
him. And if the minds of your mighty men be equally anxious, fight 
this battle firmly, fiercely, furiously, and obstinately, for this battle is 
foretold to you since the time of your noble relative, viz., the royal 
bright star, the precious gem, the wise, self-denying, meek, divine 
branch who was in the charitable, discreet yoke of the pure mysteries 
of the Divinity, namely, Columbkille, the good and learned son of 
Fedhlimidh 5 , of the race of Niall of the Nine Hostages." To record 
this speech the author composed these poetic words: 

" Fight the battle bravely, 
Both king and prince ; 
Let the noble host of Ulster be defeated ; 
They shall remember their emulation. 
Fight the battle bravely, 
Both king and prince ; 


soldiers, before every formidable battle in to read a prophecy of this nature ascribed 

which they were about to engage, that vie- to Columbkille, aloud to his army before 

tory had been foretold to them in that the battle of the Blackwater, fought in the 

battle by one of the early Irish saints. As year 1595, in which he gained a signal 

late as the reign of Elizabeth, Hugh victory over the Marshall of Newry and 

O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, caused O'Clery his veteran English forces. 


gabap ooib co caecpac ann, 
in t)a Congal ím Oomnall. 

Oomnall bpeac, mac Gachach din, 
ocup Congal, mac Scannlain, 
Qet> ip Congal meic Gachach, 
ocup Suibne paep-bpeéach. 

Co ci Diuh bpecan co bpauh, 
ocup oiú Saxan paep-gnac, 
co na pia peap becao paip 
D'Ulluaib uaib na t>'allmapchaib, 

Cpec pa uancacap o rig, 

maicne Gachach a h-Qlbain? 
popat) lop t)oib Congal ciap, 
ap ulc ocup ap anpiap. 

pégaió lib Congal Cuailngi, 
05 na cipce clum-puait)i, 
cpeD pil euuppu ecip, 
ip 05 in geóió gel-eiuig? 

Ip bee o'peoil 

íuip uig cipce ip uig geoiO; 
maipg Do rhill Gpmo uile, 
cpe impeapain aen uige! 

"CapgaD lán pecu n-Oabac n-t>pon 
o'uigib géo in aen mat), 


c Congal ofCuailgne Gonial Cuailj- because it originally belonged to the pro- 
ne. — Cuailgne is the name of a very cele- vince of Ulster, of all which his ancestors 
brated mountainous district in the now had been kings. The ancient Ulster, as 
county of Louth, lying between Dundalk we learn from the best authorities, ex- 
and Newry. Congal is called of this place tended southwards as far as Inver Colpa, 
not because he was the possessor of it, but the ancient name of the mouth of the 


Let them be pressed till there fall 

The two Congals together with Domhnall. 
Domhnall Breac, the son of noble Eochaidh, 

And Congal, son of Scannlan, 

Aedh and Congal, the sons of Eochaidh, 

And Suibhne the just-judging. 
Until eternal destruction to Britain come, 

And the destruction of the ever-noble Saxons, 

So that not one man shall go eastwards from you 

Of the Ultonians or of the foreigners. 
Why have they left their home, 

The sons of Eochaidh from Alba ? 

It was enough for them that Congal the black 

Should be in evil and insubordination. 
Behold ye the conduct of Congal of Cuailgne c ! 

What is the difference at all between 

The egg of the red-feathered hen, 

And the egg of the white-winged goose ? 
There is little difference of meat 

Between the hen egg and the goose egg ; 

Alas for him who destroyed all Erin 

For a dispute about one egg ! 
The full of seven strong vats was offered 

Of goose eggs together, 



River Boyne, and comprised not only the this mountainous district, for it then 

mountains of Cuailgne, now correctly formed a portion of the territory of Oir- 

called in Irish Cuailghe, and Anglicised gial, Anglicé Oriel and Uriel, which be- 

Cooley, but the entire of the county of longed to Maelodhar Macha. It was wrest- 

Louth, which now belongs to Leinster. ed from the Clanna Rudhraighe so early 

At this time, however, Congal was only as the year of Christ 332. 
king of Ulidia, and possessed no part of 

i 3 o 

ocup 115 oip imaille, 

aji uachcap caca Daibce. 

«Capgapa 00 Con^al Claen, 

in uan no bi a^ Oun na naem, 
bennacc peap n-GpenD uile, 
ba momop m c-ic aen 1115c 

UapgaD Do each t>o cac ^pai^, 
ocup bo Da cac rcmaiD, 
uw^i D'op 1 cmo cac lip. 
o Opobaip co Oui-binip. 

UapgaD Do aball cac lip, 
ocup Dpoi^ean ^an eiplip, 
ocup ^apóa, — mop in speim, — 
in cac aen baile a n-Gpino. 

Uap^aD pi^i n-6penn Do, 

t)o Con^al Claen, ^éap ba po, 
mo beu-pi, ^ép mop m ail, 
ím aipD-pig uile ap Ullcaib. 

CX eDail pen pe bliaDain, 

Do-pum a h-Gpinn íaú-^lain, 
m'eoail-pi a h-Ullcaib, ^an on, 
a rabaipu pop t>o Con^al. 

Uap^aD m'each íp m'eippeaD Do, 
Do Chon^al Claen, gep ba po, 


d / offered. — Uapjapa, is the ancient Domhnall's own palace, where he had the 

form of the pret. first person sing, indie, principal saints of Ireland assembled, 

mood of the verb now written caip^im, in f Fort, lip. — Lis, an earthen fort, is an 

the present tense, ind. active. old word still used to denote the entrench- 

Dun na naemh — " Fortress of the ments which the ancient Irish formed for 

saints." This is but a poetical name for defence around their houses. 

l 3* 

And an egg of gold along with them 

On the top of each vat. 
I offered to Congal Claen d , 

When he was at Dun na naemh e , 

The blessing of the men of Erin all, 

It was a great mulct for one egg. 
There was offered him a steed from every stud, 

And a cow out of every herd, 

An ounce of gold for every fort f , 

From Drobhais g to Duibh-inis h . 
There was offered him an apple-tree in every fort, 

And a sloe-tree, without fail, 

And a garden, — great the grant, — 

In every townland in Erin. 
The sovereignty of Erin was even offered 

To Congal Claen, though it was too much, 

And that I should be, though great the disgrace, 

Sovereign over all Ulster only. 
His own profits for a year 

Raised from fair-surfaced Erin, 

And my profits out of Ulster, without diminution, 

Were to be given moreover to Congal. 
My steed and battle-dress were offered 

To Congal Claen, though it was too much, 


8 Drobhais t)poBaip, now Drowis, a Island, a name generally Anglicised Di- 

river which flows out of Lough Melvin, nish. There are so many islands of this 

in the north-west of the county of Leitrim, name in Ireland, that it is difficult to de- 

and falls into the bay of Donegal, at Bun- termine which of them is here alluded to ; 

drowis, on the confines of the counties of but this Duibh-inis must be looked for on 

Leitrim and Donegal. the eastern coast on a parallel with the 

h Duibh-inis OuiB-inip, i. e. Black River Drowis. 


I 3 2 

Dul oom' opuim-pi pop m each, 
i piaonaipi allTnapac. 

Uap^aD do Con^al na cpec, 
ícc anbail ína einec; 
cap^aD t)ó a ní a oeipeao pein, 
o'óp íp D'aip^eu, na 015-péip. 

Uap^ao na cpi cpica, 

ooneoch po b'peapp im Ueinpai^, 
ocup pciach pip nap ^ab car, 
t>o Con^al, t>o uuip Uempach, 
cuaú each ópe cairpeo oe, 
ocup baili cac cuaire. 

Uap^ao pleat), ba mop in ail, 

t>o Chon^al Claen, a Uempai^, 
gan neac t)a Oenum, miao n-gal, 
acc nriaó pi£ ocup pi^an, 
^an neac t)'a h-ól, monap n-oil, 
ace mac mna no pip t>'Ulluaib. 

Uap^ao ap ni-bennacc pa peac, 
ícip laec ocup cleipec, 
ap Con^al Claen cpiche in Scail, 
ap pin uile Do £abail. 

Uap^aD ap I11151 pa peac, 
ícip laec ocup cleipec, 
05 cucaD ap clap ílle, 
nach cap acc cpia caipipe. 


' In presence of the strangers. — This was stories of most parts of Ireland, 

a token of humiliation on the part of the J Crick an Scail. — Cpice in Scail, the 

monarch. Instances of this kind of humi- country of Seal, was the ancient name of 

liation are numerous in the traditional a territory in Ulster, but its situation we 


And liberty to mount off my back on my steed 

In presence of the strangers 1 . 
There was offered to Congal of the plunders 

A great reparation in his injury ; 

There was offered him whatever he himself should say, 

Of gold, of silver, to his full demand. 
There were offered the three eastern cantreds, 

The best around Tara, 

And a shield against which battle avails not, 

To Gongal, the prop of Tara, 

A cantred in every territory should be his, 

And a townland of every cantred. 
There was offered a banquet, — great to me was the disgrace, — 

To Congal Claen at Tara, 

To prepare which there should be none employed, — what an honor ! 

But kings and queens only, 

Of which none should partake — gracious deed — 

But the son of an Ultonian man or woman. 
Our blessing was offered respectively, 

Both from the laity and clergy, 

To Congal Claen of Crich an Scail j , 

For accepting of these offers. 
Our oath was offered respectively, 

Both from the laity and clergy, 

That the egg brought him on the table 

Was not for insult but affection. 


have not as yet been able satisfactorily to a part of the territory here called Crich 

determine. There is a remarkable valley, an Scail. See Book of Lismore in the Li- 

anciently called Gleann an Scail, near brary of the Royal Irish Academy, fol. 

Slemmish, in the barony and county of 224, b, a. 
Antrim ; and it is probable that it formed 

l 3.4 

O náp 5ab-puin pin wle, 

uaim-pi a cinca in aen ui^e, 

m h-eicean oun ppea^pa pant) 

ni ap a ea^la pop caip^peam. 
O nap $ab-pan pm po pep, 

uabpaí6-pi 60 a ni cuingep, 

oúine ni mebul in moo, 

noca 0I15 oemun O1I50D. 
dm goipcibe pa t)ó t>e, 

am ailcpe ocup am aioe ; 

co cpapcpa Oia a oá láim, 

ap m cia 00 ni m écaip, 
Tílo t>ebait> íp Con^ail Claen 

íp DebaiO elbn pe lae^, 

t>ebait) mic íp a mauap, 

ip upoio t>ep? oeapbpachap. 
ITIo ^leó-pa ip Con^ail pá'n clao, 

ip ^leo mic ip a auap, 

ip ímapbaó capac cam 

ni ma uucao in car pm. 
TTle po rogaib Con^al Claen, 

ocup a mac imapaen, 

00 ro^bup Gonial 'p a mac, 

ínmam Oiap cubaio, comnapu. 


k Foster-father — Stanihurst speaks as beat them to a mummy, you may put them 
follows, in regard to the fidelity between upon the rack, you may burn them upon 
foster-brethren, in Ireland, Lib. 1. p. 49 : — a gridiron, you may expose them to the 
" You cannot find one instance of perfidy, most exquisite tortures that the crudest 
deceit, or treachery among them ; nay, they tyrant can invent, yet you will never re- 
are ready to expose themselves to all move them from that innate fidelity which 
manner of dangers for the safety of those is grafted in them, you will never induce 
who sucked their mother's milk ; you may them to betray their duty." On this sub- 


As he has not accepted of all these 

From me in reparation of the crime of the one egg, — 

We need not give a weak response, — 

It was not through fear of him we offered them. 
As he has not accepted of these, as is known, 

Give you to him what he desires, 

With us the mode of giving it is no treachery, 

4 A demon is not entitled to forgiveness.' 
I am his foster-father k doubly, indeed, 

I am his fosterer and tutor : 

May God strike down both the hands 

Of him who doth injustice. 
My battle with Congal Claen 1 

Is the battle of a doe with her fawn, 

The battle of a son and his mother, 

And the fight of two brothers. 
My conflict with Congal in the field 

Is the conflict of a son and a father, 

The dispute of kind friends 

Is the thing about which that battle is given. 
It is I that reared Congal Claen, 

And his son in like manner, 

I reared Congal and his son ; 

Dear to me are the noble, puissant pair. 


ject the reader is also referred to the fol- bent." — Giraldus Cambren. Topographia, 

lowing authorities : Dist. iii. c. 23, Camden's Ed. p. 745. 

" Moris namque est patriae, ut si qui " Ita de singulari et mutuo affectús vin- 

nobilium infantem nutriunt, deinceps non culo inter nutricios et alumnos in Hiber- 

minus genitoribus ejus in omnibus auxi- niá Giraldus Cambrensis in Topographia 

lium exquirat." — Life of St Codroe apud Hib. Dist. 3, c. 23, et alii passim scri- 

Colgan, Acta SS. p. 496, c. 10. bunt." — Colgan, Acta SS. p. 503, Note 48. 

"Solum vero alumnis et collectaneis, si l Congal Claen TTlo óeBcnó írCongail 

quid habent vel amoris vel fidei illud ha- Claen. — This shows the extraordinary 

i 3 6 

Do glim Scannlam colaib ^al, 
oo ro^bupa in cup Congal, 
oo glun Chongail pa caem clu, 
oo ro^bupa pein paelcu. 

La na ^abai uaim-pi pin, 

a mic Scannlain Sciac-lechain, 
ca bper beipe, mop m moo, 
opm-pa, mapeao, ac aenop ? 

Jjebapa uaic, maO maic lac ; 
cabaip oam-pa, oo oa^ mac, 
oo lam oic, lp Oo bean mair, 
c'in^ean íp oo pope po-^lap. 

Noca bepi ace pinO pe pino ; 
bio me Oo eeine uimcill, 
noc ^onpa in gai Opeman Oub; 
noco 0I15 Oeman O1I511O. 

Qcai a c'aenap peac cac pi^ 
'50m aimleap o rip Oo cip, 
poo leapaigiup uaipip pin, 
o'n lo poo n-uc 00 maúaip. 

Q lai^ne oo'n lee pi reap, 
cicio co cpén íp in cpeap, 
cuimni£ió pino mac TCopa 
oon c-plo£ co meo meap-^opa. 

Q Chonnacca in comlamn cpuaio, 
cwmnipo Ullcu ppi h-en-uaip 
cuimm^io TTleob íp in car, 
íp Ctilell mop, mac Tila^ach. 


affection the Irish had for their foster- Leinster. The celebrated Irish monarch 

children. Cathaoir Mor was the seventh in direct 

1 Finn, the son of Boss pmn mac descent from him, thus, Cathaoir, the son 

"Ror-a He was a poet, and was king of ofFeidhlimFirurglas, son of Cormac Gelta 


From the knee of Scannlan of much valour 

I took the hero Congal; 

From the knee of Congal of fair fame 

I myself took Faelchu his son. 
When thou wouldst not accept of these from me, 

son of Broadshielded Scannlan, 

What sentence dost thou pass, — it is of great moment, — 

On me, from thy self alone, if so be that thou wilt not accept my offers. 
These will I accept from thee if thou wilt ; 

Give me thy good son, 

Thy hand from off thee, and thy good wife, 

Thy daughter and thy very blue eye. 
I will not give thee but spear for spear ; 

1 will be thy surrounding fire ; 

The terrific black javelin shall wound thee ; 

' A demon is entitled to no forgiveness/ 
Thou art singular beyond every king, 

Planning my misfortune from country to country, 

Notwithstanding that I reared thee 

From the day thy mother bore thee. 
Ye Lagenians from the southern quarter, 

Come mightily into the conflict ; 

Kemember Finn, the son of Ross 1 , 

To the host of many active deeds. 
Ye Connacians of hard conflict, 

Remember the Ultonians for one hour : 

Remember Medhbh in the battle" 1 , 

And Ailell Mor, the son of Magach. 


Gaeth, son of Nia-Corb, son of Cucorb, Eos. — Duald Mac Firbis, Geneal. (MS. in 
son of Mogh-Corb, son of Conchobhar the Royal Irish Academy) p. 472. 
Abhradhruadh, son of Finn File, son of m Remember Medhbh in the battle. — Cuirh- 


Q Lech TTlo^a bepiup buaio, 
cpecaib Ullcu upia anbuain, 
cuimni^íó Cúpí na peano, 
íp main o^lac Gpann. 

Q pipu TThoe na mapc, 

cicíó co cpuaio 'p a compac, 
cuimní^ió Caipppe Niapep 
ip Gpc pino, mac peólimeo. 

Q cenel Go^am, mic Neill, 
íp a Gip^ialla o'én-ppéirh, 
bpipíó beipnn pa bap comaip, 
cabpaió bap peiom aen conaip, 

Luap in bap lamaib co m-blaio, 
ocup maille in bap cpai^cib, 
nap ab' cemi piap na paip, 
ace céim popaiD, peaparhail. 
Q óeopaóa, íp me bap cenn, 
a arhpa aille Gpenn, 


r\'\pb TTleob. — Olioll and Meave were king 
and queen of Connaught immediately pre- 
ceding the first century of the Christian 
era. They carried on a war with Ulster 
for seven years, to which king Domhnall 
is here made to allude, to remind the Con- 
nacians of their ancient animosity to the 

n Remember Curi Cuimni^io Cupi, 

i. e. Curoi Mac Dairi, who was cotempo- 
rary with the heroes of the Red Branch in 
Ulster. He was king of the Ernaans of 
West Munster immediately preceding the 
first century of the Christian era, and is 
said to have resided in the upper part of 

Gleann Scoithin, near the mountain called 
after him, Cathair Conroi, i. e. Curoi's 
Fort, to the south-west of Tralee, in the 
present county of Kerry, where he was 
murdered by Cuchullin, the most distin- 
guished of the champions of the Red 

Branch See Ogygia, Part III. c. 46, and 

Keating, in his account of Conchobhar 
Mac Nessa and his champions. See also 
O'Conor's Dissertations, for some account 
of the famous people called the Ernaans 
of Munster. 

Cairbre Niafer Ccupppe Niapep 

was king of Leinster, and cotemporary 
with Olioll and Meave, king and queen of 

J 39 

O Leth Mogha wlio are wont to gain the victory 

Oppress the Ultonians with eagerness, 

Remember Curi n of the spears, 

And the chiefs of the youths of the Ernaans. 
Ye men of Meath, of steeds, 

Come vigorously into the conflict ; 

Remember Cairbre Niafer , 

And Ere Finn, the son of Feidhlimidh p . 
Ye race of Eoghan, the son of Niall, 

And ye Oirghialls of the same stock q , 

Break breaches before you, 

Direct your prowess in one path. 
Let there be rapidity in your hands of fame, 

And slowness in your feet ; 

Let there be no step west or east, 

But a firm, manly step. 
Ye sojourners, I am your head, 

Ye splendid soldiers of Erin 1 ", 


Connaught, and the heroes of the Red cestor of the Hy-FeiKmedha or O'Murphys, 

Branch in Ulster See Duald Mac Firbis's who were settled at and around Tullow, in 

Genealogical Book, pp. 437, 438. See also the now county of Carlo w ; but the Editor 

Book of Lecan, where this Cairbre is said has not discovered any account of his hos- 

to be of Teamhair (Tara), but it adds, tility to the Ultonians. 

" not of Teamhair, in Bregia, for the mo- q Oirghialls of the same stock Q cenel 

narch, Conaire More, resided there at the Bojain rhic Néill, ip a Gip^ialla o'en- 

time, but at Teamhair Brogha Nia, in ppéim. — The race of Eoghan and the de- 

Leinster. At the same time Finn, his fa- scendants of the three Collas are of the 

ther, resided at Aillinn, and Ailill, at Cru- same race, for both are sprung from Cair- 

achain." bre LifFechair, who was monarch of Ireland 

p Ere Finn, the son of Feidhlimidh from the year 279 to 296. 

Gpc pinn, mac Peiólimió — He was the T Ye splendid soldiers of Erin Q am- 

grandson of Enna Cinnsellach, king of pa aille 6penn The word cmnap is used 

Leinster, in the fourth century, and an- throughout the Irish Annals in the sense 

T 2 


a ceirepnn menmnac co m-blaió, 
caú im pi^ Uempac cabpaió. 

lap pin po ep^ioap uaipli ocup apo-rhaiúi Gpenn pé bpopruo 
na m-bpiacap pin, .1. cac upiach co n-a cinol, ocup cac cui^eaoach 
co n-a cach-pocpaioi. lp t>e pin po puitnjjjic a ploi^, ocup po co- 
paigic a cupait), ocup po cepcai^ic a cpen-pip, ocup po h-eoic a 
n-aipo-pigpaio o'ácaúbappaibcumoai^ocupD'il-pciaraibnnoea^la, 
ocup po noceaic a neapc-claiDme niam-poillpi a lamaib a laec- 
pami; po pglann-beapuai^ic a pceiuh ap £uaillib a n-^aipceoac ; 
po cliac-comapoai$ic a cpaipeca compaic, ocup, a leabap-^airh- 
lenna laicpec, ^op ba aipbe ai^béil anpaua íaepein ecuppu ocup 
a n-eccpainn, pe h-innapba a n-eapcapac. Ocup o pobpau apmoa, 
innillci, uplania, pa'n mnup pm, po h-ea^pat) aen car aóbal, op- 
capóa, int>pi£ o'peapaib Gpenn in aen mat), pa opeic n-Oelb-Oi^paip 
n-Oomnaill, map pop^lep in c-u^oap: 


of a hireling soldier, a mercenary ; and it of Marleburgh Turbiculi, and by others 

is used in the Leabhar Breac to translate Turbarii; that they fought with javelins 

the Latin satellites, as in the following tied with strings, with darts, and knives, 

passage : " Unitas Diaboli et satellitum called skeynes. 

ejus, &c, bale 1 m-bia oencu oiabail It is remarkable, that in this battle no 

ocup a ópoc-amup." — Fol. 24, b, a. mention is made of the Gollowglass, the 

s Ye highminded kernes — Q ceirepnn. heavy armed Irish soldier described by 

— Ceithern properly signifies a band of Spenser and others ; indeed it is almost 

light armed soldiers. It is a noun of evident from this silence that Spenser is 

multitude in the Irish language, but the correct in his conjecture that the Irish 

English writers who have treated of Ire- borrowed the gallowglass from the early 

land have Anglicised it kern, and formed English settlers. His words are : " For 

its plural kerns, as if kern meant a single Gall-ogla signifies an English servitour or 

soldier. yeoman. And he being so armed in a 

Ware, in his Antiquities of Ireland, long shirte of mayle down to the calfe of 

c. 1 2, says that the Irish kerns were light his leg with a long broad axe in his hand, 

armed soldiers, and were called by Henry was then pedes gravis armaturce, and was 


Ye hmhminded kernes 5 of fame, 
Give battle around the king of Tara." 

After this the nobles and magnates of Erin rose, being excited 
by these words, that is, every lord with his muster, and every pro 
vincialist with his battle-forces. They then arrayed their forces, 
accoutred their heroes, tested their mighty men, and harnessed their 
arch-princes in their protecting helmets 1 and defending shields ; and 
they unsheathed their strong glittering swords in the hands of their 
heroes ; they adjusted their shields on the shoulders of their cham- 
pions ; they raised their warlike lances 11 and their broad javelins, so 
that they formed a terrible partition between them and their border- 
ranks, to expel their enemies. And when they were armed, arrayed, 
and prepared in this manner, one great heroic battalion of the men 
of Erin was arrayed under the bright countenance of king Domhnall ; 
as the author testifies : 

" They 

instead of the armed footman that now 
weareth a corslet, before the corslet was 
used or almost invented." — State of Ire- 
land, Dublin Ed. p. 117. 

1 Protecting helmets t)a coxBappaib" 

cumoaij. — Nothing has been yet disco- 
vered to prove what kind of helmet the 
ancient Irish cathbharr was, that is, 
whether it were a cap of strong leather, 
checkered with bars of iron, or a helmet 
wholly of iron or brass, such as was used 
in later ages. One fact is established, that 
no ancient Irish helmet, made of the latter 
materials, has been as yet discovered. 

u Warlike lances Q cpaij echa corh- 

paic — The ancient Irish weapon called 
cpcnpeac, was a lance with a long handle. 

It is curious that there is no mention of 
the battle-axe in this story. The Irish had 
battle-axes of steel in the time of Giraldus, 
but he says that they borrowed them from 
the Norwegians and Danes. The military 
weapons used by the Irish in the twelfth 
century are described by Giraldus Cam- 
brensis as follows : Dist. III. c. 10. 

" Tribus tamen utuntur armor urn ge- 
neribus, lanceis non longis et jaculis binis: 
in quibus et Basclensium mores sunt imi- 
tati. Securibus quoque amplis fabrili 
diligentia optimé chalybatis, quas a Nor- 
wagiensibus et Ostmannis sunt mutuati." 

Ledwich says that the lance was sixteen 
feet or more in length. — See his Antiqui- 
ties, Second Ed. p. 283. 


Do ponparap aen each oib, 
ícip pi^-Oamna ocup pi£, 
po iat)pac amoabach pciar, 
pa Oomnall popait), pmO-liaú. 

d]\ pin po epig upiach buionech Caillcen, .1. Oomnall, mac 
Qeoa, pa cpi 1 cimcell in caca ap na copugao, o'pippu^ao a lmell 
pa'n apmbacr, ocup pa n-aicbéli, ocup 00 oecain a n-oeipib pa 
bichpacu, ocup pa oe^-^mniai^i, ocup Co cepuu^at) a copai^ pa 
n^e ocup pa cpealmai^ecc, uaip ip amlaib po bui bpollac bopb- 
^ep baob-lapamain, booba in caua comoluua, come^aip pin ap na 
co£>a 00 cpen-peapaib Clann Conaill, ocup 605am, ocup Qip^iall, 
ocup po mnpaig m c-aipo-pig ^up in mai^m a m-boi TTlaelooap 
ITlaca, co maicib Clann Colla pa cneap, ocup ba h-eaD po paio- 
eapcap piu: bli^ci-pi bul rap cum^aipi caich b'poppac Ulao, ocup 
t>'innapba allmapac, uaip nip cium bap comaibcep-pi pa'n cpich 
Do copnabap na Colla o'popba pip-t)ilip Ulat>, o ^lmo TCi^e co 
beappamain, ocup o Gch in ímaipg co pint), ocup co poicip, map 
popglep in c-u^bap: 

peapann Gipgiall, luairep lint), 
o Qch in ímaip^ co pi no, 
o J5lint> Pi^e piap co pe, 
co beappamain a m-6peipne. 

v Oirghialls The territory of the Oir- Ulster, viz., the Boyne, the Barm, the 

ghialla was divided from Ulidia by Lough Erne, and the Finn. 

Neagh and the Lower Bann, and by the w Ath an Imairg, — i. e. the ford of the 

remarkable trench called the Danes' Cast, contest, must have been the ancient name 

In a MS. in Trinity College, Dublin, (H. of a ford on the Lower Bann. 

3. 18. p. 783.) it is stated that the country x Finn — Sicm co Pino, — i. e. from Ath 

of the Clann Colla, called Oirghiall, was an Imairg westwards, to the River Finn, 

bounded by the three noblest rivers in which falls into the Mourne at the town 

A 43 

" They made one battalion of them, 
Both princes and kings, 
They closed in a circle of shields, 
Around the firm, fair grey Domhnall." 

Then the populous lord of Taillteann, Domhnall, the son of Aedh, 
arose and walked thrice around the army when drawn up into battle 
array, to examine whether its border was well armed and terrible ; 
to see whether the rear was diligent and prepared for valiant deeds ; 
to examine whether the van was in thick array and well accoutred. 
For the fierce, sharp, fiery, terrible breast of that well-set and well- 
arranged battalion was composed of mighty men selected out of the 
Cinel-Conaill, Cinel-Eoghain, and OirghiahV ; and the monarch made 
towards the place where Maelodhar Macha, with the nobles of the 
Clann Colla, were stationed, and said to them : " It behoves you to 
surpass the power of all in overwhelming the Ultonians and expelling 
the foreigners, for your neighbours have not been quiet in conse- 
quence of the district which the Collas wrested from the real country 
of the Ultonians, namely, from Glenn Bighe to Berramain, and from 
Ath an Imairg to the River Finn, and to Foithir;" as the author tes- 
tifies : 

" The land of Airghiall, let it be mentioned by us, 
Extended from Ath an Imairg w to the Finn x , 
And from Glinn Righe y westwards directly, 
To Bearramain in Breifné 2 . 

of Lifford, in the present county of Do- and the Danes' Cast, which was the boun- 
negal. dary between Ulidia and Oirghialla (see 

y Glenn Righe is the ancient name of note \ supra), extends close to it. 
the glen through which the Newry river z Bearramain in Breifne, in the now 
flows — See note on line 34 of the Circuit county of Cavan. There is another cele- 
of Muircheartach, p. 31. It is on the con- brated place of the name on the coast of 
fines of the counties of Down and Armagh, Kerry, six miles westwards of Tralee. 

1 44 

J5 op copcnn TTluipcecrpcac meap 

pe claino na Colla cneip-^el, 

o J^linn Con, puarap na cpeach, 

co h-Ualpaig, Oaipe oaipbpech. 
l?o ^ellpac ^appaio, ^mrh-apnaió, ^lan-apmac Clann Colla, 
comao íae but) aipi^it) ai£ t)'peapaib Gpenn, ocup ma oa compaiceo 
Con^al ocup TDaelooap lTlaca, con ciuclaipuíó Con^al t>a n-ana 
pe h-imbualaó; ocup muna ana, bit) innapct>a ín^abala t)'á éipi. 
6a pailio in plain Do na ppe^apraib pm, ocup po impo a a£aió ap 
aipo-pigpaio Q1I15, .1. ap Cpunnmael, mac Suibne, co coonacaib 
clann oiponi^i Go^ain íme, ocup ba h-eaD po paioiupcap piu: Cia 
nana cuibt)i claen-bpera Congail Do cope, na uaill-bpiarpa UlaO 
tnpliu^at), na t>o comDip^iuD Clann Conaill ap popbaipib popeicm, 
ínaD aipD-pi£paió G1I15? uaip ni h-eanna aen laime, ocup m 
h-aicme aen arap, ocup m h-iappma aen macap, na aen alca, na 
aen raipbeapua, Da cac-cmeó comceneoil ap pean-ainmniu^ao 
plomDci D'peapaib Gpenn, ace pinne ocup pib-pi, map pop^lep in 


a Until the vigorous Muircheartach wrested. 5015, mic CÍ icemuin (Book of Fenagh, MS., 

— £op copain lTluipceapcach meup fol. 47, b), now the city of Londonderry. 

This was Muircheartach More Mac Earca, It appears from Irish history that the de- 
head of the Cinel-Eoghain race, and mo- scendants of the Collas possessed a con- 
narch of Ireland from the year 5 1 3 to 533. siderable portion of the present county of 

b Glenn Con. — ^lectnn Con — This Londonderry, till they were dispossesed 

would appear to be the glen now called by Muirchertach Mor Mac Erca, the Hector 

Glen-Con- Kane, and situated in the parish of the Cinel-Eoghain. But after this pe- 

ofBallynascreen, barony of Loughinsholin, riod the Cinel-Eoghain encroached to a 

and county of Derry. The village of Dra- great extent upon the country of the 

perstown Cross is in it. Oirghialla or Clann Colla, who, in their 

c To Ualraig, at the oak-bearing Derry. turn, encroached still further upon the 

— Co h-Ualpaij Oaipe oaipbpeach, — Ulidians or Clanna Rudhraighe. 
i.e. the place originally called DoipeChal- d Crunnmael, the son of Suibhne, — i.e. 

l 45 

Until the vigorous Muircheartach a wrested, 

From the descendants of the fair-skinned Collas, 
The tract extending from Glen Con b in a battle of plunders 
To Ualraig at the oak-bearing DerryV 

The valiant, bright-armed host of the Clann Colla promised that 
they would be the most remarkable for bravery of all the men of 
Erin, and that should Congal and Maelodhar Macha engage, Congal 
would be slain if he should wait for blows, but if not, that he 
would be afterwards led captive and fettered. The king was glad 
on account of these responses, and he turned his face upon the 
princes of Ailech, namely, upon Crunnmael, the son of Suibhne d , 
with the chiefs of the illustrious race of Eoghan about him, and said 
to them : "In whom is it more becoming to check the unjust judg- 
ments of Congal, and to humble the haughty words of the Ultonians, 
or to protect the race of Conall against violent assaults, than in the 
princes of Ailech ? For no two tribes 6 of the old surnames of the 
men of Erin are the vessels formed by one hand, the race of one father, 
the offspring of one mother, of one conception, of one fostering, but 
we and you ; as the author testifies : 

" Eoghan 

the son of Suibhne Meann, who was mo- cholic decline, of which he died the year 

narch of Ireland from the year 615 to after. This fact is commemorated in the 

628. following quatrain, quoted by the Four 

e For no two tribes, tyc. — Eoghan, the Masters under the year 465 : 

son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, and u ^ 1 . ^ . ki 11 

the ancestor of the Cinel-Eoghain and ^, ,. , 

Re oeopaib, — ba 

Conall Gulban, the ancestor of the Cinel- 

Conaill, were twin-brothers ; and, accord- 
ing to Irish history, so attached to each 
other, that when Conall was slain in 464, By which it appears that Eoghan was 

Eoghan was so much affected with grief buried at Uisce chaoin, now Eskaheen, in 
for his death, that he fell into a melan- Inishowen, not far from the city of Derry. 


mair a maoin, — 
Upe ecc Chonaill na j-cleap^-cpuaió, 
J)0 b-puil a ucnj a n-Uipce cuoin." 


Govern ip Conall, cen cpao, 

oiap coimmeapa, caió, comlán, 
o'én-pecc po compepO, miao n-^al, 
ocup o'aen-raipbeapu pucab. 

ConiO aipe pin íp inann peióm ocup pa^bala, paipe ocup poc- 
paióecc,buaióocup bái5,ocup bpáraippi 5 popa5pat)apap n-airpecha 
a^amo, .1. 605cm oipt>ni£i, ocup Conall copnamach, map popglep 
in c-ugoap: 

lnano bpiarhap t)oib 'gá 05, 
o pé paopaic ip Caipni^, 
na Da m-bparaip, gpuao ppi spuaio, 
want) buaió, inano oimbuaió. 

Ocup t)in pop, ni uil t)'popecin aipo-pige na Do rpéióib ci£ep- 
naip a^ m oa car-aipecx comceneoil pi ap a cell, ace mat) paep- 
pluai^eo pochaip, ocup comep^i caúa 1 combai^ in aipechca uamo 
'5a cei^ema in ci^epnup; no ap a n-uipmepa in aipo-pi^e; ocup 
cit> epioein ant>, lp eicean comuuapupcal cinnn o each t)'a cell 
rap a cenn pin, map pop^lep in c-u^oap: 

In ran bup pi$ TC15 O1I15 

ap plo^ Conaill ceo-^uini^, 

0I1510 cuapupcal cac ain, 

ó cá bpu£aió co h-aipo-pig. 
In ran bup pi£ TC15 Conaill 

ap plog 605am gan ooóain^, 


f The same blessing St. Patrick blessed ract of Easroe. — See Tripartite Life of St. 

Eoghan at Ailech, and foretold the future Patrick, Part II. c. 113, 117, and 118. 

greatness of the Cinel-Eoghain. He also In an ancient historical Irish tale, pre- 

blessed his brother Conall Gulban and served in a Vellum MS., in the Library of 

Fergus, the son of Conall, on the brink of Trinity College, Dublin (Class H. 2. 1 6. p. 

the River Erne, near the celebrated cata- 3 1 6), it is stated, that St. Cairnech of Tui- 


" Eoghan and Conall, without doubt, 

Two of equal estimation, pure, perfect, 
Were conceived together, — honourable deed, — 
And at one birth were born. 
" Wherefore our fathers, Eoghan the renowned, and Conall, the 
defensive, have bequeathed unto us the same prowess and gifts, 
freedom and noble-heartedness, victory, aifection, and brotherly love ; 
as the author testifies : 

" The same blessing f to them at their house, 
Since the time of Patrick and Cairnech, 
To the two brothers, cheek to cheek, is left, 
And the same success and ill-success. 
" And moreover, these two warlike tribes of the same race have no 
monarchical controul or lordly ascendency over each other, save only 
that the party who happens to possess the lordship or the monarchy 
should receive auxiliary forces, and a rising out for battle from the 
other ; and notwithstanding this, they are bound to give each other 
an equal fixed stipend, as the author testifies : 

" When the king of Ailech is king 5 

Over the race of Conall the warlike, 

He is bound to give a stipend to all, 

From the brughaidh [farmer] to the arch-chief. 

When a king of the race of Conall is king 

Over the race of Eoghan, without opposition, 


len, now Dulane, near Kells, in the county the battles fought for a just cause, 
of East Meath, blessed the descendants of s When the king of Ailech is king — 
Eoghan and Conall, and ordered them to For an account of the regulations here re- 
carry the three following consecrated reli- ferred to, see the Leabhar na g-Ceart, 
quaries in their standards, viz., the Cathach preserved in the Books of Lecan and Bal- 
[C£LaK],Clog-Padraig, and MisachCairnigh, lymote, in the Library of the Royal Irish 
which would ensure them success in all Academy. 



oli^it) in cetma oib-pm, 
o bur aipt>pi£ h-e uaipcib. 
Ni 0I15 cecrap tub malle, 
cap a cenn pin o'a ceile, 
acr pluai£eo pe peim para, 
íp comep^i cpuat) cara. 

ba h-eat) mpo pui^li ocup ppe^apúa na h-Go^an-clainDi ap h-ua 
n-Ginmipech, co n-^eboíp cucpuma pe các cui^eo o'apft-cuiceoaib 
GpenD Do con^bail den, ocup 00 copnum caú-laiúpec, ocup cm 
íac apt)-maiúe Gpenn uile 00 impobao ap h-ua n-Ginmipec ap aen 
pe h-Ullcaib ocup pe h-allmapcaib, co nac bept)ip a bpo£a o'u£pa 
na o'poipeicen mnapcaio uat>-pom na uainb-pium, ace a m-bepao 
Con^al ap a caiptnne, no cac 00 com dnpleach a cell ap laéaip in 
laire pm. 

6a pailio in plaic Oo na pui^lib pin, ocup po mora uainb co 
car copnamac Conaill, ocup ba h-eaD po paiOeapcap piu : íp oicpa, 
ocup íp ouupaccai^e oligcipe cinneO ap each, ma cac cac-aipecu 
comceneoil o'ap cecaipcepa gup cpapca ; uaip íp t>'a bap cineo 
bap cenn, ocup íp t)'a bap n-aipecc bap n-aipD-pi^, ocup íp a^aib 
po pa^at) poplamup plaúa peap puinio, inuno pon ocup ímcon^bail 
ecca, ocup eni^, ocup en^numa na h-6penn, map pop^lep mnpee 
Neill Nai-^iallai^ : 

TTlo plaic 00 Conall ceD calg, 

mo ^aipceo o' Gogan aipm-Oeap^, 
mo cpica 00 Chaipppi cam, 
m'amainpi t>' Gnna mmain. 


h Cairbre Caipppi, or Caipbpi, was county of Longford, where the mountain 

the third son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, Sliabh Cairbre still retains his name; and 

and ancestor of the Cinel-Cairbre, who also in the territory of Carbury, in the 

were settled in the north of the present north of the county of Sligo. — SeeTripart. 


He is bound to give tliem the same, 
As he is monarch over them. 
They are not entitled on either side 
Beyond this from each other, 

Except to furnish forces to maintain a prosperous reign, 
And a hard rising out for battle." 

The speech and reply of the race of Eoghan to the grandson of 
Ainmire was, that they would do as much as any one province of the 
great provinces to sustain the front and maintain the field of battle, 
and that even though the arch-chieftains of all Erin should turn 
against the grandson of Ainmire, together with the Ultonians and 
foreigners, they would not carry off any advantage of battle or 
force from him nor from them, except what Congal would effect 
through friendship, or from both sides slaughtering each other on 
that day. 

The king was joyful for these responses, and he turned away from 
them to the defending battalions of the race of Conall, and said to 
them, " You are bound to surpass all more zealously and more dili- 
gently than any other warlike hosts of our relatives whom we have 
as yet exhorted, because your head is of your tribe, and your monarch 
is one of your own assembly, and to you has been bequeathed the 
supremacy over the men of the West, which is the same as the main- 
taining of the achievements, hospitality, and valour of Erin ; as the 
words of Niall of the Nine Hostages testify : 

" My lordship / bequeath to Conall of the hundred swords, 
My chivalry to Eoghan of red weapons, 
My territories to the comely Cairbre h , 
My foresight to the beloved Enna 1 . 


Life of St. Patrick, Part II. c. 113, Ogygia, ' l Enna was the youngest son of king 

Part III. c. 85. Niall. His descendants were settled in 

i 5 o 

Ocup Din ip oipb-pi pupailcep, ocup in bup leic lea^ap, cuuvgi- 
Decc caca cac-laicpech t>o con^bail, uaip ip lb-pi cuipci cenna, 
cpoma, cpena, cumiDe, cupcbala camnai^ci, ocup capb-peoi^ci 
cpeap-laicpec in caiman ; uaip íp íac cpaioeca bap cupao, ocup 
cecpaDa bap cacmileo, ocup ppe^apca bap píplaec pip-laicpeca 
pocai^ci buipbi, ocup bai^, ocup bpach-mepDacc in beaca, map 
pop^lep in c-u^Dap : 

Conall pe copcaD caca, 

pe pecc^i peim pi^-placa, 

buipbe, ice, ip en^num oil, 

^apc, gaip^i, ip cpuap a Conoll. 

Ocup Din ip pe pine caca pip a^aib-pi aippoena na n-acapóa 
o'aicpip, ocup D'píp-aópaó, .1. a cpo t)o copnarh, ocup a comapbup 
Do con^bail, ocup Duchup £an Dilpiu^aD; ocup Din ip Do comapbup 
Conaill ^ulban, op ^enpibaip, Gpiu co n-a h-uppannaib, ocup ni 
Dli^cipe a Dilpiu^aD ; ocup ip t>o comapbup m Chonaill cet)na pin 
aipechup echca, ocup eni^, ocup en^numa na h-Gpenn t)o coimec, 
ocup 00 congbail, ocup Do cuimniugao a cluapaib ocup a cpaioe- 
Daib bap cacmileD ; coniD lac pin na pecca ocup na po-Ducupa ]io 
pa^aoap bap n-aicpecha a^aib ap plicc bap pen-acap, o ploinDcep 
bap paep cuaca, .1. Conall ^lonn-mep, ^aiclennac, ^lac-láiDip, 
^apb-ppea^apcac Jgulban. dec cena, po pat) cuba, ocup po pao 
cainpemao Da bap cuacaib. Da maD copaib po cuiceD cloc-^nima 
Conaill ^an congbail, uaip ba h-é-piDe péi^i popneapemap pine 
neapc-clainoi Neill, map pop^lep m c-u^Dap: 
Conall mac Neill, mic Gchach, 

cuin^iD cpuaiD, calma, cpeacach, 


Tir-Enda, a territory containing thirty- Lough Swilly, and in the territory of 
quarters of land, in the present county of Cinel-Enda, near the hill of Uisneach, in 
Donegal, lying between Lough Foyle and Westmeath. 

l 5 l 

" And, therefore, it is of you it is demanded, and to your charge it 
is left, to maintain the leadership of every battle field ; for you are 
the strong, heavy, mighty, immoveable pillars and battle props of the 
land, because the hearts of your heroes, the minds of your warriors, 
the responses of your good champions, are the true basis and support 
of the fierceness, valour, and vigour of the world ; as the author 
testifies : 

" Conall is distinguished for supporting the battle 
For the justice of the reign of a royal prince ; 
Fierceness, clemency, and great valour, 
Liberality, venom, and hardiness are in Conall. 

And it behoves the family of every one of you to imitate and 
worship the attributes of your progenitor, by defending his fold, by 
maintaining his succession, and by not allowing his patrimony to 
be lessened ; and of the patrimony of Conall Gulban, from whom 
you are sprung, is Erin with her divisions, and you should not allow 
it to be circumscribed ; and it is the duty of the successor of the same 
Conall to support, maintain, and impress upon the ears and hearts of 
his warriors, the splendour, achievements, hospitality, and chivalry 
of Erin. Such then were the ordinances and the great hereditary 
prerogatives which your forefathers bequeathed unto you, derived 
from the ancestor from whom your free country is named, viz., the 
puissant, javelin-dexterous, strong-handed, and resolute Conall Gul- 
ban. And it were a great censure and reproach to your tribes, 
should it be your mishap not to continue the renowned achievements 
of Conall, for he was the chief prop in strength of the puissant sons 
of Niall, as the author testifies : 

" Conall, son of Niall, son of Eochaidh, 
A hardy, brave, plundering hero ; 


l 5 2 

ni boi t)o pá-clamo a^ Niall 
commaiu Conaill na a compial. 

ConiO cuimmgci ceneoil aipD-pi£ Gpenn conice pin. 

C16 cia lap ap popbann innpci in aipo-pi$, po peap^ai^et) peap 
co£;t)a, cul-bopb, cuaipcepcac, a cuaipcepc caca copnamai^ 
Conaill, pe bpopcuo bpiachap, ocup pe cecapcaib cigepnaip in 
apo-placa h-ui Qinmipec, .1. Conall, mac baet>ain, mic NmoeOa, 
o Chulai^ Oaúi, ocup ó úpachu-popuaib Uopai^i in ruaipcipc ; 
uaip nip lich leipein a laitnuo, ocup nip mian a mop-^pépacc ; ocup 
po oeipi^ a Dub-^ai n-tnbpaicri, $upa achcuip upcap co h-ainpep- 
^ach, ancellioi, ap h-ua n-Qmmipech. l?o cmcapuap cpiup co^aitn, 
rpiar-aipech, á cepr-lap caúa copnumaig; Conaill, ap mcaib in 
aipo-pi£ eicip é ocup in c-upcap, .1. TTlaine, ocup Gnna, ocup Qip- 
nelach, ocup po co^baoap upi leacan pceich lan-mopa 1 piaOnaipi 
na plara pop eiuip e ocup in c-upcap; acu cena t>o cuaib cepc-^a 
Conaill t]\ey na cpi pciafaib Opuim ap t>puim, ocup upep m n-oeip^ 
n-opuimni^ tno^ainn, .1. op-pciaú oipi^ in aipo-pi^ co n-Oecaio in 
t>ai£ep tnbpaicuhe, t>ap bpo^aO a bibaipci, 1 uul-muin^ in ualman, 
írip oa cpai^iO aipo-pi^ Gpenn. 

Duppan nac ac bpuinne 00 bean, ocup nac cpét> cpaiDi po 
clannupuap, ap Conall ; uaip, t)á mat) eaó, ni aichippigreapa cot>- 
nacu cacha map cpen-peapaib in uuaipcipu, uaip ni olui^ ocup ni 


i Baedan, who was the son ofNinnidh bpaicce. — The ^ai or dart referred to 

Baedan, Mac Ninnedha, the father of this throughout this battle was the jaculum 

Conall, was monarch of Ireland for one mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis, in Dist. 

year, A. D. 571. III. c. 10, where he says that the Irish 

k Tulach Dathi, is probably the place had three kinds of weapons, viz., short 

now called Tullagh-O'Begly, situated in lances, two darts, and broad axes. Led- 

the N. W. of the Barony of Kilmacrenan, in wich says (Antiq. second ed. p. 283), that 

the Co. of Donegal, opposite Tory Island. " the jaculum or dart is translated javelin, 

1 Black-darting javelin — t)ub-jcu oiu- and described to be an half pike, five feet 

l 53 

There was not one of the great sons of Niall 
So good as Conall, or so hospitable." 

So far the family-reminiscent exhortations of the monarch of Erin. 

But to whomsoever this speech of the monarch appeared super- 
fluous, a haughty, fierce-faced northman of the northern part of the 
protecting battalion of Conall, became enraged at the verbal exhor- 
tation and the lordly instructions of the monarch the grandson of 
Ainmire, namely, Conall, the son of Baedan, who was the son of 
Ninnidh j , from Tulach Dathi k , and the high-cliffed strand of Tory, in 
the north, for he did not like to be exhorted at all, and he did not 
like to be excited; he prepared his black-darting javelin 1 , and sent a 
shot spitefully and rashly at the grandson of Ainmire m . But three 
select lordly chieftains from the middle of the defensive battalion 
of Conall, namely, Maine, Enna, and Airnelach, observing his de- 
sign, sprang before the king, and between him and the shot, and 
raised three great wide shields before the king and between him 
and the shot, but the hard javelin of Conall passed through the 
three shields back to back, and through the defensive Derg druim- 
nech n , i. e. the golden shield of the monarch himself, so that the dis- 
charged javelin passed off the side of its boss into the surface of the 
ground between the feet of the monarch of Erin. 

"Oh grief! that it was not in thy breast it struck, and that it 
was not thy heart it pierced," said Conall, " for then, thou wouldst 
never again reproach such leaders of battle as the mighty men of the 

north ; 

and an half long." n Derg Druimnech, — i. e. the red- 

m Grandson of Ainmire Ua Gin- backed, was a descriptive name of king 

mipech is translated Nepos Ainmirech by DomhnalPs shield See the Tale of Deir- 

Adamnan,LifeofColumba,Lib.3,c.5. Inac- dre, in the Transactions of the Gselic So- 

cordance with which it has here been trans- ciety, p. 94, for the proper names of 

lated " grandson of Ainmire" throughout. Conor Mac Nessa, king of Ulster's arms. 


oli^io ouiu-piu clann Conaill Do laioiuo, na Oo luai^-spepacr, ace 
muna paicúea, ocup muna aipi^rea lai^e 'na lonn-^mmaib pe 
bpuinnib a m-bióbaD. Ocup acbepe na bpiauhpa pa ann : 
Ni 0I15 Oe^-plua^ o'up-spepachc 

00 cpiaúaib ip rainpemat), 
Q laiOiuo, a luac^pepacr, 
Oppu mine h-aipi^rea 

Q noicpacu pe h-innpai^io. 
Cach Conaill ip comoicpa 
T?e copnum cac-laiúpech ; 
CeO gpepacht; a cupao-pan 
Q pep^ pein, a peapamlacc, 
Ct luinOi Y a laiOipecc, 
Q cpooacc 'p a cobpaioecc, 
Q paipe 'p a peicpi^i, 
Q peer pigfta po-^upmap 
'5 a m-bpopcao co biobaoaib. 
bpopuao pop t>a pepaib-pim 
Q15Ú1 oppo a n-epcapac, 
Sle^a paena ap paerrgabail, 

1 lamaib a laec bit)bao, 
lc paicill a ppireolma, 


n It is not lawful to exhort a brave host. — pies of this kind of metre are to be met with 

This is the kind of composition called in the ancient Irish historical tale called 

Rithlearg. It is a species of irregular ex- Forbais Droma Damhghaire, preserved 

temporaneous rhapsody. in the Book of Lismore. It is curious to 

Poems of this description are generally observe the eifect which the writer of this 

put into the mouths of Druids while un- tale wishes to produce in this place. He 

der the influence of inspiration, or of he- introduces Conall, the son of a king, the 

roes while under great excitement, as in mightiest of the mighty, and the bravest 

the present instance. Many curious exam- of the brave, as actually attempting to 

l 55 

north ; for it was not meet or lawful for thee to exhort or excite the 
race of Conall, unless thou hadst seen and perceived weakness in 
their deeds in fronting their enemies" And he said these words : 

" It is not lawful to exhort a brave host" : 
On chieftains it is a reflection 
To be urged on, or exhorted, 
Unless in them thou hadst observed 
Irresolution in making the onset. 
The battalion of Conall is resolute 
To maintain the field of battle ; 
The first thing that rouses their heroes 
Is their own anger, their manliness, 
Their choler, their energy, 
Their valour, and their firmness, 
Their nobleness, their robustness, 
Their regal ordinance of great valour 
Setting them on against their enemies. 
A further incitement to their men 

Is derived from the faces of their enemies being turned on them, 
Reclining lances being held 
In the hands of their heroic foes, 
Preparing to attack them ! 


take the monarch's life, for daring to make to inflict, and, strange to say, the only 

a speech to rouse the Cinel Conaill, or di- punishment which the latter thought pro- 

rect them how to act in the battle ; and per to impose was, that the royal hero, 

he is immediately after represented as en- Conall, should not, if it should happen to 

tirely convinced of his error and crime, by be in his power, slay Congal, the monarch's 

a few proverbs which the monarch quoted most inveterate enemy, and the cause of 

to instruct him. He becomes immediately the battle, because he was his foster-son. 

penitent, and willing to submit patiently to This, no doubt, presents a strong picture 

any punishment the monarch was pleased of ancient Irish manners and feelings. 

X 2 


Q rpep-£pépachn ^naradi-pum, — 
De ni peuaji ppirailim 
Oppo pe h-ucnp impepna, — 
Q puil pein '5a paobpannaó. 
lap pin noca poóainge 
Sil Secna pe pecpi^i, 
peiom pin cacha paep-chiniD 
Qcu pe h-uaip n-imlait>i. 
Gnna-clcmn pe h-inopaigit), 
6051111115 pe bopb-aiplec, 
Caeprennai^ pe cac-lacaip, 
Qen^upai^ pe h-uppclcn^i, 
81I pmpai^ pe paebap-clep, 
Sil NinOeOa a^ neapc-bpipmo, 
Sil Seuna pe ponaipuecc. 


Clann Enna. — Gnna-clann, i. e. the the mountains, 

race of Enna, the sixth son of Conall O Gome co t)oBap oil 

Gulban, ancestor of the Cinel Conaill. Siliup ctp na japb-pleibciB. 

Their territory extended from the River From Conaing, the third son of this Enna 

Swilly to Barnismore and Sruthair, and Boghuine, the O'Breslens, who are still 

eastwards to Fearnach, in the present numerous in Tirconnell, are descended, 

county of Donegal. They inhabited originally the territory of 

p Boghuinigh, — i. e. the descendants of Fanaid, but were driven thence, by con- 

Enna Boghuine, the second son of Conall sent of O'Donnell, in the fourteenth cen- 

Gulban, who were settled in the present tury, and a branch of the Mac Sweenys, 

barony of Banagh, in the south-west of who came from Scotland, was established 

the county of Donegal, to which they in their place ; after which, as we are in- 

gave name. This territory is described formed by Duald Mac Firbis, O'Breslen 

in the Book of Fenagh, fol. 47, p. &, col. a, became a Brehon to Maguire of Ferma- 

as extending from the River Eidhnech, nagh, which office his descendant retained 

now the River Eany, which falls into the till the year 1643. 

harbour of Inver, in the bay of Donegal, q Caerthannachs. — Caeprennaij, i. e. 

to the stream of Dobhar, which flows from the descendants of Caerthan, the son of 

l 57 

Their usual battle-incitement, 

Which cannot be resisted, 

At the hour of the conflict, 

Is their own blood arousing them. 

After this not tameable, 

Are the race of Setna of robustness. 

They possess the puissance of any tribe 

At the hour of the slaughter. 

The Clann-Enna are distinguished at the onset, 

The Boghainechs p at fierce slaughtering, 

The Caerthannachs q for maintaining a battle-field, 

The race of Aengus r for resisting, 

The race of Fidhrach 8 for sword-fighting, 

The race of Ninnidh 1 for routing, 

The race of Setna 11 for firmness. 


Fergus, who was son of Conall Gulban. whom the most distinguished were the 

r Descendants of Aengus Genjupai j, O'Donnells. The territory of the Sil Luigh- 

i. e. the descendants of Aengus Gunnad, dhech Mic Setna is described in a poem in 

the son of Conall Gulban. 

s Sil Fidhrach Sil piopaij ; their si- 
tuation in Tirconnell is not known, nor is 
their descent given in any of the genealo- 
gical books. 

c Sil Ninnidh Sil Ninoeocc, i. e. the 

descendants of Ninnidh, the son of Duach, 
who was son of Conall Gulban. 

u Sil Setna. — Sil Secna, i. e. the descen- 
dants of Setna, the grandson of Conall 
Gulban. These were the most distin- 
guished families of Tirconnell. That tribe 
of them called Sil Luighdhech Mic Setna, 
after the establishment of hereditary sur- 
names, branched into various families, of 

the Book of Fenagh, as extending from the 
stream of Dobhar (which flows from the 
rugged mountains) to the River S willy : 

Upiucha Gpcr "Rucuó pébaij 
lTlaijpich, íapgaich inbepai£ 
O Call cam na cpobanj cap 
Co h-Gonich copainno-rpen-jlaip. 

Upiucha &ajuine m-blechca, — 
Golcaioe lucho na quepea, — 
O Gonich co t)obap n-oil 
Shiliup ap na gapb-pleibcib. 

O'n t)obap oipsip ceona 
Upiucha Guijoech, mic Sheona 


Gg pin cmO cac caú-cinio 

Do cát Conaill compaTnai^, 

CineO molbcac manaipec, 

TTlaip5 aicnio ná anaicnio ; 

lnnpai^eap h-ua Qinrwpech, 

Oppo im t>ail nac 0I15. 

Ni 0I15. 

Uibip in plaiú pe ppea^apúaib uo^oa, cul-bopba in ruaipcep- 
rai^; íp oo'n buipbi bunaiO, ocup íp Oo'n cul-mipe cuaipcepcai5 
in caem pin, a Conaill, a cac-milio! ace cena, m cualaoaip in 
pnáiúi pemióe, pen-poclach po pa^baoap na h-u^oaip a pleccaib a 
pen-bpiauap ? 

peppoi car copu^ao ; 

peppoi plua^ poúecupc; 

peppoi maich Tnop-chopmac ; 

peippoe bpeo bpopou£ao ; 

pe|ipt)i clouh cuirhniu^ao ; 

peppoi ciall comaipli ; 

peppoi emech ímpi^e; 


Cup in ubainn íp jlan li, The milky cantred of Baghuine, 

t)anap corhainm Suilióe. Let all inquirers know, 

Upiucha 6nna piap ap pin Extends from Edhnech to the bright 

Co óeapnup mop, co Spuchaip, Dobhar, 

Capbac dp Cnna na n-gpeaó Which flows from the rugged mountains., 

Soip co Pectpnach na peinneaó. From the same rapid flood of Dobhar 

Lib. Fenagh, fol. 47, £, a. The cantred of Lughaidh, son of Sedna, 

" The cantred of the boisterous Eas Ruaidh, Extends to that bright-coloured river, 

The salmon-full, fish-full cataract, Which is named the Suilidhe [Swilly]. 

Extends from Call Cain of knotty nut The cantred of Enna thence westwards 

clusters Extends to Bearnus Mor and to Sruthair, 

To the noisy, impetuous green river Edh- Profitable is Tir-Enna of horses, 

nech. It extends eastwards to Fearnach of heroes." 


Such are the attributes 

Of the race of brave Conall, 

A praiseworthy tribe of spears. 

Wo to the known or unknown who insult them ; 

The grandson of Ainmire attacks them 

For a cause which he ought not. 

It is," &c. 

The king smiled at the haughty and furious answers of the 
northern, and said, " This paroxysm is of the hereditary fury and of 
the northern madness, Conall, warrior ! But hast thou heard the 
mild proverbial string v which authors have left written of the re- 
mains of their old sayings ?" 

" A battle is the better of array ; 
An army is the better of good instruction ; 
Good is the better of a great increase ; 
Fire is the better of being stirred up ; 
Fame is the better of commemoration ; 
Sense is the better of advice ; 
Protection is the better of intercession ; 


This poem then goes on to state, that bial saying brought to bear upon the il- 

the race of Eoghan, deeming the territory lustration of any subject, makes a deep 

left them by their ancestor, Niall of the impression on the minds of the native Irish, 

Nine Hostages, to be too narrow, extended as the editor has had ample opportunities 

their possessions by force of arms as far of knowing. But though proverbs abound 

as Armagh, leaving Derry to the Cinel- among them no considerable list of them 

Conaill, and DrumclifF to the descendants has ever yet been published. The most 

of Cairbre. accessible to the Irish reader is that which 

v Proverbial siring. — The Irish were is given by Mr. Hardiman, in his " Irish 

very fond of adducing proverbs in proof of Minstrelsy, or Bardic Remains of Ireland," 

their assertions, and to this day, a prover- vol. ii. p. 397. Lond. 1 83 1. 


pepptn pip piappai^m ; 

pepjit)i ruip uepru^uo; 

pepptn ^aíp ^lan-po^lainn ; 

peppOi pip par po^laim. p. c. 
Lich ^aca labapuha leac, a aipo-pi^ 6penn, ap Conall, cain- 
leap caca comaipli cu^uo, íp cialloa po coipcip mo compepg ; íp 
pípa na pui^li, ^upa páú pao-péioi^n pepgi 05-bpiacpa ana, 
amainpeca na n-aipo-pi^. dec cena, beip t>o bpeiú pmacua, 
pmuaincig Do peer pi£, nac tngip t>ap pia£ail 00 pecu^i, a pi^-plair, 
ap Conall ; íp am cmuac-pa, oilpap a bobép, ocup ícpapa anpia- 
cu, uaip ni h-ana^pa ace pip plara a^aipuhep oipne. bepao 
bpeir n-mopi^, n-t)ipi£, n-t>leipcenai£, ap Domnall; map 00 cpiall- 
aipiu mo úiu^-bá-pa ^an cai^ill, ^an compé^at), eu-pa t>o repap- 
^ain ^an Oichell, $an Oipliu^ao, ocup mo oalca, Con^al, t>o cai^ill 
t>uir-piu ap col^-oeip 00 claitum, a Chonaill. Ni popbunn plara 
mapcaip, a pi^-plair, ap Conall, .1. Con^al Oo cai^il. TTIáoa 
compaicpem, cen^elcap a$um-pa h-é, má íccaio a anpiacu a up- 
^abail, uaip ni but) aipechup en^numa Dam-pa t)o oalca t>o 01- 
cennat) Dor' amoeoin ic' piatmaipi, a aipD-pi^ Gpenn, ap Conall. 
Conat) conpat) Conaill ocup a ceapu bpiarpa ap comepp in caúa 
anuap conice pin. 

lmuhupa Domnaill, po oeli^-pein pé paep-coonai^ t)é^ o'á 
oepb-pine booein, pe h-uppclai^e, ocup pe h-innapba each peoma, 
ocu| > cac popei^ne ap a uchu. Ocup po archuip ae^aipechr 
nepr-clamne Neill o'póipiuhin ap cac poppán ap Chellac, mac 

w Foster-son, Congal. — TDo óalca Con- x Cellack, the son of Maelcobha. — Celiac, 

£cil do cai^il ouic-pu King Domhnall mac fflailecaba. — This great hero was 

is represented throughout this story as afterwards monarch of Ireland jointly with 
most anxious that Congal should not be his brother Conall, from the year 642 to 
slain, because his attachment to him was 654. He is the ancestor of the famous 
inviolable as being his foster-son. family of the O'Gallaghers of Tirconnell, 


Knowledge is the better of inquiry ; 
A pillar is the better of being tested ; 
Wisdom is the better of clear learning ; 
Knowledge is the better of philosophy." 

" May the choice of each expression be with thee, monarch of 
Erin," said Conall ; " the mild success of each advice be with thee ; 
wisely hast thou suppressed my great anger. True is the saying 
that the pure, noble, sapient words of monarchs are the cause of 
mitigating anger. Howbeit, pass thy sentence of control ; ponder on 
thy regal law, that thou mayest not go beyond the rule of thy justice, 
O royal prince," said Conall. " I am guilty; do thou take vengeance 
according to thy custom, and I will pay the debts due to thee ; for it 
will not be an unjust revenge, but the justice of a king that shall be 
visited upon us." " I shall pronounce a king-becoming, upright, legiti- 
mate sentence," said Domhnall. " As thou hast sought my death, un- 
sparingly and without consideration, I will spare thee without forget- 
fulness, without limitation, and my foster-son Congal w is to be spared by 
thee from the edge of thy right-hand sword, Conall." " It is not the 
exorbitant demand of a king thou hast asked, monarch," said Conall, 
"in requesting that Congal should be spared. If we engage he 
shall be fettered by me (if his capture be sufficient to pay his evil 
debts), as it would not be noble valour in me to behead thy foster- 
son against thy will, before thy face, O king of Erin," said Conall. So 
far the fury of Conall and his exact words at the rising of the battle. 

As to Domhnall he detached sixteen chieftains of his own tribe, 
to resist and repel every attack and violence from his breast, and 
he charged Cellach, the son of Maelcobha x , above all, to watch and 


who are more royally descended than the ages See genealogical table of the descen- 

O'Donnells, though inferior to them in dants of Conall Gulban, at the end of this 
point of power and possessions in later volume. 


Tílailecaba, peach each, ocup cuaipe ppea^pa Con^ail Do com- 
ppepoal, ocup comaipci a ceiúpi n-oalcao n-óecpaiOech n-oepb- 
raipipi oo oenum, .1. THaelouin ocup Cobúac, pinncao ocup 
paelcu ; ocup po piaonai^ap apo-maiúib Gpenn ap a aicle, cumao 
pa copmailpi copai^n in caúa pin, ocup pa pamail a puioi^ri, 00 
coipi^rea caca pep n-Gpenn co bpumne bpaca, ocup acbepu na 
bpiacpa pa: 

Cleara mo cara-pa pein 

Gogan co Caipppi, mac Neill, 

cuipci pulam^ caca CumD 

Conall co n-a Gnna-cloinD. 
Connacca íp TTI1015 pela 

a pioach cuip comoluca, 

Lai^ni^, TTIuimni^, mep a moo, 

cuige in cara 'p a úé^op. 
Gipigio mo cara cam 

Qip^ialla ocup mo óeopaio, 

me booein a papca cpom, 

pe Om^e caich Oo'n comlonn. 
lp me Domnall, mac Geoa, 

mian lim cella 00 caemna, 

mian lim Sil Secna 5-an paill, 

co cpen a h-ucc Clann Conaill. 
TTIian lim Cenel Conaill cpuaiO 

pomum 1 pcainnip pciaú-buain ; 

Sil Secna, mo chmeo pem, 

maip^ nac ím^aib a n-aimpéip. 


y Are Conall. — In this quatrain Eoghan, of multitude to denote their respective 

Cairpri, and Conall, the names of three of races. 

the sons of the monarch Niall of the Nine z Are the shelter — The Irish word cuije, 

Hostages, are put collectively as nouns which is cognate with the Latin tectum, 


relieve the puissant race of Niall out of every difficulty, to respond 
to the onsets of Congal, and to protect his own four good-hearted, 
beloved foster-sons, namely, Maelduin and Cobhthach, Fionnchadh, 
and Faelchu. And he requested of the arch-chieftains of Erin, after 
this, that the armies of the men of Erin should, to the brink of 
eternity, be arrayed to the likeness of the arrangement and position 
of this battle ; and he said these words : 
" The props of my own army 

Are Eoghan and Cairbre, the son of Niall j 
The supporting pillars of the army of Con 
Are Conall y and the race of Enna. 
The Connacians and bright Meathians 
Are its well-shaped thickset wood, 
The Lagenians and Momonians of rapid action 
Are the shelter! and protection of the army. 
The ornaments of my beauteous army 
Are the Oirghialls and my sojourners 51 , 
And I myself the heavy sledge 
To drive all into the conflict. 
I am Domhnall, the son of Aedh, 
I desire to protect churches ; 
I desire that the race of Setna, without remissness, 
Should be mighty in the front of the Clann Conaill. 
I desire that the hardy Cinel Conaill 

Should be before me in the battle of strong shields ; 

The race of Setna, are my own tribe ; 

Wo to him who avoids not disobedience to them. 


is used in old MSS. to denote the roof of ile, sojourner, pilgrim, or any one living 

a house, and sometimes, figuratively, shel- out of his native country. The oeopaio 

ter or protection. or sojourners here referred to were evi- 

Sojourners — tDeopaió signifies an ex- dently hireling soldiers from Scotland or 

Y 2 


Cennpaelao pleOac, mac ^ ai pt), 
pingin coiboenac in Caipnn, 
cpiap ele ba Oeula a n-opeac, 
TTlaine, Gnna, Gipnelach. 

Loinspec, mac Geoa na n-oám, 
ocup Conall, mac baeoam, 
epi meic TTlailcoba na clano, 
Cennpaelao, Celiac, Conall. 

Tilo C1115 meic-pea, oep^ a n-Dpeach, 
pep^up, Oen^up coiboenach, 
Qilell íp C0I5U nac 5a nn, 
ocup in cuigeaO Conall. 

lp íac pin cpichpe mo cuipp, 
plan caic rule 'ma puabaipr, 
peio inn cac peo, bopb a m-bann 
a£ cecu a n-ai£ió eccpano. 

Se pip oéc Do cmeO Cumt> 

po áipmeap 1 cenn comlaino, 
m ml pa mm, — mop in moo, — 
Oeic ceo laec pop oin^ebao. 

lp íac pin cogaim co cenn, 
1 piaOnaipi pep n-Gpenn, 


Wales who were in the constant employ- or O'Dohertys ; 2. Maelduin the father of 

ment of the Irish monarch, such as were Airnelach, Snedgal, Fiangus, and Cenn- 

called Bonnaghts by English writers, in faeladh ; and, 3. Muirchertach, the an- 

the reign of Elizabeth. cestor of the Clann-Dalaigh or O'Don- 

b Cennfaeladh the festive, son ofGarbh. — nells. 
Cennpaelao pleoach, mac J5 ai P^ The c Finghin, the leader from Cam Pin- 
Book of Kilmacrenan, as quoted in the 5m coiboenac in Chaipnn, is not men- 
Book of Fenagh, fol. 42, states that this tioned in the Irish Annals or genealogical 
Cennfaeladh had three sons, viz., Fiamuin, books, 
the eldest, ancestor of the Clann Fiamuin d Maine, Bnna, and Airnelach. — These 

1 65 

Cennfaeladli the Festive, son of Garbh b , 

Finghin, the leader, from Carn c , 

And three others of bold aspects, 

Maine, Enna, and Airnelach d . 
Loingsech, the son of Aedh e of troops, 

And Conall, son of Baedan, 

The three sons of Maelcobha f of clans, 

Cennfaeladh, Cellach, and Conall. 
My own five sons of ruddy aspects 2 , 

Fergus, Aengus of troops, 

Ailell and Colgu, not penurious, 

And the fifth, Conall. 
These are the sparks of my body, 

The safety of all lies in their attack, 

Ready in each road, furious their action 

When coming against foreigners. 
Sixteen men of the race of Conn 

I have reckoned at the head of the conflict, 

There is not under heaven, — great the saying, — 

Ten hundred heroes who would resist them. 

These I select confidently, 

In presence of the men of Erin, 


names do not occur in the Irish Annals, from the Genealogical Irish Books, or the 

nor in the genealogies of the Cinel-Conaill. Irish Annals, that any of these five sons 

e Loingsech, the son of Aedh toinj- of king Domhnall became the founder of 

pech mac Qeoa, is not mentioned in the a family, except Aengus, or Oengus, who 

Irish Annals or genealogical books. was the ancestor of the O'Canannans and 

f Three sons of Maelcobha. — Ujn meic O'Muldorys, princes of Tirconnell, pre- 

TTIailcoba, i. e. of Maelcobha, the cleric, ceding the O'Donnells, and of the Mac 

the brother of king Domhnall. Gillafinnens, chieftains of Muinter-Pheo- 

8 My own five sons of ruddy aspect. — dachain, in Fermanagh See Note E, at 

TTlo cui£ meic-r-ea. — It does not appear the end of this volume. 

1 66 

umum pein, nap ocup caip, 
Oom' peirem, oom' ínrioe^ail. 
Celiac, mac TTlailcaba cpuim, 

uaim o'pupuachu cac anpoplaino, 
pe ppea^pa Con^ail na cpeac, 
Celiac cpot>a na cac clear! 
lmúupa Congail nmpaicep a^aino araió ele, uaip ni peoair 
u^oaip in oa paipnéip o' puppannaó 1 n-aenpecc, amail apbepc in 

Uióe ap n-uit>e po poich pin, 
aipneip cac u^Daip eolai^ ; 
ni a n-aenpecc po poich uile, 
t>á paipnéip le h-aen t>uine. 

Cio cia ap ap cuipepuap ceipu in caúa, ni he aipt>-pi£ UlaD t)o 
bi co tnibach, Oobponach, ná co be^-uienmnach, pe bpumne na 
bpepli^i bpara pin ; uaip ba tnmain o'a Opaicib t)epb paipcine 
t>emin t>o t>enum t>o, ocup nip rapba t>o rail^ennaib upiall a 
regaipc; ap ba compao pe cappaic t>'a caipOib comaipli Do 
Con^al, pe h-aplac na n-amaiOeaD n-ipepnaiDi a^ pupáil a aimlepa 
aip ; uaip nip cpeicpen na upi h-uipe upbaoaca, ipepnaioi eipium 
o uaip a úúipmit) co cpach a úiu£-bá, .1. Gleacco, ocup TTIe^epa, 
ocup Uepipone, conat) h-e a piabpat) ocup a paeb-popcecul pm 
pat>epa t>o-pum t)upcat> caca t>poc-t>ala, ocup impaD cac a íomap- 
baip, ocup popbat) caca pip-uilc ; uaip ip ann po-úaigepcap m uip 


h Rere and front Uiap if caip, i. e. lustrated in O'Brien's Irish Dictionary, in 

west and east. The Irish as well as the voce Deas. 

Jews used the same words to express the ' Authors cannot give two narratives to- 
right hand and the south, the left hand gether Uaip ni peocnc: ujoaip The 

and the north, the front and the east, and writers of Irish Tales are remarkably fond 

the back and the west — See this fully il- of quoting ancient authorities. Here the 


To be around myself rere and front 11 , 
To attend me, to defend me. 
Cellach, the son of Maelcobha, the crooked, 
/ appoint from me to relieve each distress, 
To respond to Congal of plunders, 
Cellach braver than any chieftain !" 
With respect to Congal, we shall speak of him another time, for 
authors cannot give two narratives together 1 , as the poet says : 
" By progress after progress he passed through 
The narrative of every learned author ; 
Two narratives cannot all at the same time 
Be passed through by one person." 
Whoever felt dejection for the battle, it was not the arch king of 
Ulster that was sorrowful, dejected, or pusillanimous at the approach 
of this final defeat ; and it was in vain for his druids to make true 
magical predictions for him, and it was not profitable for his tailginns 
\clergy\ to seek instructing him; for his friends might as well con- 
verse with a rock as advise him, in consequence of the temptations 
of the infernal agents who were pressing his destruction upon him ; 
for the three destructive infernal furies Electo, Meggera, and Tesi- 
phone, had not forsaken him from the time he was born until the 
period of his final dissolution, so that it was their influence and 
evil suggestions that induced him to stir up every evil design, medi- 
tate every contention, and complete every true evil ; for the snare- 

author quotes an old poet as authority for The Editor understands it thus : 

his arrangement of the subject. This " Progress after progress he made 

quatrain seems to have been quoted from In reading the narratives of learned au- 

the biography of some poet or professor of thors, 

literature, but it is now difficult to under- Studying them one by one, 

stand it perfectly, as the quotation is so For he could not attend to two together." 

short and the subject matter unknown. 


wbleóech, epioan, ait^ill Gleccó ap cepc-láp cleib ocup cpaioe 
Congail, ic maiOem cac mipuin, ocup ic piu^pao caca pip-uilc. 
Ocup oin in maipg mipcnech, mipunac, mallacunach TTle^epa oo 
copain a calat)-popc comnaitn ap cepu-lap capbaic Con^ail, ic 
ra^pa á caiblib a úen^at), ocup ic buaDnaipi a bunnpacaib a bpia- 
cap ; ocup t)in in cenn cleapach, copaioec, connupacca, rpomoa, 
ruppaccac, úuaié-ebpac Uepipóne cappaio pew apt)-comup aipech- 
aip ap CU15 ceopaoaib comlana coppapt>a Congail, comoip com. 
rrícpa pew pe popbao caca pip-uilc. 5 u r u ^ c pép ^ 01 h-ínpib 
ipepnaiDi pin cuicúep na cpi pecaoa puopaca aimpi^ep cac aen, 
.1. pcpuouo, ocup ímpáouO ocup 5111m, peib apbepc pocuo na 

Glecco p^puoup cac col, 
TTle^epa ppi h-impaouo, 
Uepipóne pem co pip 
cuipeap cac caip 1 copp-jjm'm. 

ConaO he a n-aplac ocup a n-impiDe-pew aip-pim pa t>epa t>o 
^an comaipli a capac Do cuimniu^ao, ocup íp lac pa Depa 00 beir 
co mepcoa, micellio ícip Ulluaib ocup allmapcaib aOai^ TTláipci 
pe maiom caúa ITIU151 puatvlinncig; l?ach, co cainic cpach puam 
ocup pam-cot>ulca Do na plua^aib ; ocup po cooail Con^al lap pin 
pe ciuw-pogap na cuipleann ciuil, ocup pe popcat) paíóemail, 
puapaíoech, pip-cpua^ na céo ocup na cimpán '5a uaoall o'aigúib 
ocup o'popmnaoaib eant> ocup m^en na puao '5a pap-pewm. Qcc 
cena, ba umnabpao epoch 00 Gonial in cot)la pin, t>o peip map íp 
^nac puba ocup pámai^úi pip-cooulca ic aimpiu^aD cac ain pe 


j Fothadh na Canoine, here quoted as See Annals of the Four Masters at that 
authority for the office of the three Furies, year, and Colgan, Acta SS. p. 783. 
was lecturer of Armagh in the year 799 k Tympans Uimpctn Various pas- 

1 69 

laying, impure, and wicked fury, Electo, took up her abode in the 
very centre of the breast and heart of Congal, suggesting every evil 
resolution and pointing out every true evil to him. And also the woeful, 
ill-designing, wicked Megaera placed her resident fortress in the very 
middle of Congal's palate, to hurl defiance from the battlements of 
his tongue, and to threaten with the scourges of his words. And the 
tricky, evil-teaching, cursed, morose, backbiting Tesiphone assumed 
absolute sway over the five corporeal senses of Congal, so that they 
(the three Furies) were diligent to accomplish every true evil. By 
these three infernal Furies is understood the three evils which tempt 
every one, viz., Thought, Word, and Deed, as Fothadh na Canoine J 
said : 

" Electo thinks of every sin, 
Meggera is for reporting, 
And Tesiphone herself truly 
Puts every crime into bodily execution." 

And it was the influence of their temptation and solicitation of 
him that induced him not to attend to the advice of his friends, and 
it was they that caused him to be confused and senseless between 
the Ultonians and foreigners, on the Tuesday night before the loss 
of the battle of the red-pooled plain of Magh Rath, until the time of 
rest and soft repose arrived for the armies. And after this Congal 
slept, being lulled to rest by the soft sounds of the musical pipes 
and by the warbling vibrations and melancholy notes of the strings 
and tympans k struck by the tops, sides, and nails of the fingers of the 
minstrels, who so exquisitely performed on them. However, this sleep 
was a miserable repose to Congal ; but indeed hilarity and agreeable 


sages can be produced to show that the and not a drum, as might be supposed 
Irish cimpcm was a stringed instrument, from the name. 

bpuinne bctip, ocup pe h-íónaib aióeóa. dcz cena, nip cumpcai^ 
Con^al ap in coolut) pin ^up can Oiibtnao Dpai na bpiarpa beca 

Q Chon^ail Chlaín comepi^, 

CinOpeu u'eccpaiu n'mftpai^m ; 

Opt) meli lnian puain pip-lai£e ; 

Suan pe báp bpicu booba ; 

6e$ bpíga bebpac bi baú miolác; 

TTloc-eip^e mian pemnet) ocup ppiuaipe; 

poprceo n-galann ^piuh-niat) nemuop mbooba; 

b]\ut pola, — eacpaip cupat), — 

Chuguu a Chon^ail. 

Q C on^ail. 

lp ouaibpeac pom ouipcip, a Owboiaó, ap Gonial. Ceipt) 
ae^aipe, pa^bup a éioi icip paelaib^an ímcoimeu, asuu-pa íapam, 
ap Duboiao. O015 ni h~opo ae^aipe coolut) '5a ceacpaib; ni Oar 
coimeoai^ mill iapniapcac-pu o'Ulluaib ; buo pine ap n-a pooail 
aicme Olloman t>ap € éipi; but) laiúpec $an lan-^abail apo-popu 
aipecaip ^aca h-Ullcaig ap c' aicli. Gcc cio compaD pe cappai^ 
comaipli Do cpoich pe na úiu^-ba ! Do comDi^laip Do cneaó, a 
Chon^ail, ap OuboiaD; Dena pit) puúaw pe c'aiDi, ocuppe h-apo- 
maiúib Gpenn, ocup ímgaib micopcap na TTlaipce inac mapbrap 
co mainb UlaD umuc in aen mai^in. 


1 But indeed sleep, $c. — The present comepi£ — In all old Irish tales mystical 

belief among the Irish peasantry is, that assertions, expressed in irregular metre, 

at the approach of death by sickness, a are generally put into the mouths of Druids, 

man sleeps, but that a woman is awake ; The terms are generally ambiguous and 

bióeann an peap 'n a coolao agup an full of mystery; and it is sometimes al- 

bean o'a paipe péin. most impossible to translate such rhymes 

m To thee Congal — Q Conjail clain as they are made to speak, into intelligible 


sleep 1 come upon every one at the approach of death, and of the 
pangs of dissolution. And Congal did not awake from this sleep 
until Dubhdiadh the druid had chanted these few words : 

"0 Congal Claen arise, 
Thy enemies approach thee ; 

The characteristic of an imbecile is the desire of constant lying asleep; 
Sleep of death is an awful omen ; 
Little energy forebodes the destruction of the coward, 
The desire of the hero and the watchman is early rising ; 
An inciter of valour is a proud and fearless fiery-champion, 
Fervour of blood, — the characteristic of a hero, — 
Be to thee Congal m ! 

Congal," &c. 

" Disagreeably hast thou awakened me, Dubhdiadh," said Con- 
gal. " Thou dost like a shepherd who leaves his flock among wolves 
without a guard," said Dubhdiadh. " It is not the business of a 
shepherd to sleep over his flock : thou art not n a vigilant keeper of a 
flock to the Ultonians ; the race of Ollamh would be a divided 
tribe after thee ; the great habitation of each Ultonian would, after 
thee, be a deserted spot; but indeed to give advice to a wretch 
before his death is to talk to a rock." " Thou hast sufficiently 
avenged thy wounds, Congal," said Dubhdiadh, " make an eternal 
peace with thy foster-father and the arch-chieftains of Erin, and fly 
from the defeat of Tuesday, on which [it is foreseen] thou wilt be 
slain, and the chiefs of Ulster about thee in one place." 


English. of Ireland, and flourished about the year of 

n Thou art not — "Hi octc, i. e. non es. the world 3227, according to O'Flaherty's 

Race of Ollamh Qicme Ollamcm, Chronology. — See Ogygia, Part III. c. 29. 

i. e. the race of Ollamh Fodhla, who was This monarch was ancestor of Congal and 
one of the most celebrated of the monarchs of all the Clanna Rudhraighe. 

Z 2 


Ucnnic ant) pm caem célli cumaipc DoChon^al, $up canupuap: 
cia o' apD-clannaib h-lp puaip cepmann ap úiu£-ba, ná maipiuy* 
$an mapbaD? ocup ip De^-pi^; map Oomnall co n-apD-mainb Gpenn 
uime, o pímúap a po-mapbaD, ocup íp ímcuibDi D'Ullraib D'a 
n-aipleach Do'n cup-pa, ap Con^al. Ocup ciDeaD po cpiallainD 
ceiceD in nacaip pea ocup mo repap^am ap riu^-ba, map a caic 
mo Dpaici '5a Depb-paipnme Dam mo ruicim ip in cacap-pa; m 
cepaipg cpu eeicheD; ni capba éc D'm^abail, uaip epi h-uaipe nac 
ím^aibcep, .1. uaip éca, uaip ^ene, uaip coimpepea, ap Con^al. 
Cen co h-im^aibnep éc, im^aibchep á£, ap OubDiaD, uaip ni Deip 
pe t)ia Dep^-maprpa ap Dainib, ocup acbepu in laiD pi: 

lmgaib ᣠ'p pot) ím^éba, 

a Chongail Tílullai^ TTlaca, 

mac QeDa, mic Ginmipech, 

cu^uc 1 cenn in caca. 
In car pin po ro^baipiu, 

ip po pua^paip cen lai^e, 

ip y*nam mapa móp-ronnai^ 

Duiu caúu^aD pe u'aiDe. 
In car: pin po co^baipiu, 

a laic ceipu na Da cómlann, 

biD pnam mapa mop-úonnai^ 

Duiu caúu^uD pe Oomnall. 


p Descendants oflr. — t)' apo-clcmncnb stantly heard to say " what is to happen 

lp. — The most distinguished of the race must happen: whatever God has fore- 

of Ir, son of Milesius, were the Clanna seen must come to pass exactly as he 

Rudhraighe, of whom Congal was at this foresaw it, and man cannot change the 

time the senior representative. manner of it by any exertions of his own." 

q It is profitless to fly from death. — This The common saying among them is, "7i 

is still the prevailing feeling among the was to happen." 

illiterate Irish peasantry, who are con- r Mullach Macha. — TTIullaig IDacu, 

l 73 

A confused gleam of reason then beamed on Congal, and he said, 
" Which of the great descendants of Ir p has got protection against 
final destruction, or will live without being killed ? And it is a good 
king like Domhnall, with the arch-chieftains of Erin about him, to 
whom it belongs by fate to have the killing and slaughtering of the 
Ultonians on this occasion," said Congal. " But though I should at- 
tempt to avoid this battle and save myself from final destruction (for 
my druids are making true predictions to me that I shall fall in this 
battle), yet flight has never saved a wretch; it is profitless to fly 
from death q ; for there are three periods of time which cannot be 
avoided, viz., the hour of death, the hour of birth, and the hour of 
conception," said Congal. " Although death cannot be avoided a 
battle may be avoided," said Dubhdiadh, " for God does not like that 
men should be slaughtered ;" and he repeated this poem : 

" Shun the battle, and it will shun thee, 
O Congal of Mullach Macha r ; 
The son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, 
Approaches thee at the head of the battle. 
In that battle which thou hast raised, 

And which thou hast proclaimed without feebleness ; 
It is the same as swimming over the mighty -waved sea, 
For thee to contend with thy foster-father. 
In that battle which thou hast raised, 
just hero of the two combats, 
It is the swimming over the mighty-waved sea, 
For thee to contend with Domhnall. 


the summit or hill of Macha, i. e. of the Christ, 332, though not included within 

hill of Armagh. Congal is called of this the limit of Ulidia, his own principality, 

place, because it was in the territory of which comprised no portion of the present 

his ancestors, previously to the year of county of Armagh. 


Oomnall Oúme apo balaip, 

paipi ná pluag in domain, 

t>a n-t)eapnoaip opm allmapai^, 

Do pincpioip Do in conaip. 
6ol Dam ainm in Oaipe pea, 

co ci in bpaua Oaipe in lauha, 

bio e ainm in mui^e pea 

ma^ cuanach lTlui^i l?ara. 
bit) TTla^ par o'n poch-mal pa, 

ma^ op aipep in áuha, 

Capnn Con^ail in cnoccm pa, 

o mu£ co lain in bpauha. 
biaio Suibne na gealuu^an, 

bit) eolach peac gac n-Din^na, 

bit) gealuán upua^ pann-cpaiDec, 

bio uatao, ni ba himoa. 



s Domhnall of the lofty fort of B alar. — of calling people after such places is very 

Oorhnall oúine apo óalaip. — Dun-Ba- common among the Irish poets, but it 

lair. The site of this fort is shown on leads to confusion, as it is often applied in 

Tory Island, off the north coast of Done- too vague a manner. 

gal, where there is still a vivid recollection t Oak-grove. — t)cnpe, is translated ro- 
of Balar, its founder, who is famed in the boretum by Adamnan, in his Life of Co- 
bardic history of Ireland as the general of lumba, Lib. i. c. 2, 20, 49. 
the Fomorians, or sea pirates, in the second u Daire in latha, is in Mac Morissy's copy 
battle of Magh-Tuiredh, fought about the more correctly t)oipe na plara, i. e. the 
year, A.M. 2764, according to O'Flaherty's oak grove of the prince or king. There 
Chronology. — See Ordnance Map of Tory is a place of this name near Dungiven, in 
Island for the exact situation of Dun Balair. the county of Derry, anglicised Derryna- 

King Domhnall is called of Dun Balair, flaw, but the name is not now to be found 

not because he resided there, but because at Moira, where this battle was fought, so 

it belonged to Tirconnell, the principality that the druid is out in his prophecy, 

of his own immediate tribe. The custom v Suibhne shall be a lunatic. — óiaió 


Domhnall of the lofty fort of Balar s 

Is nobler than any of the host of the world ; 

If the foreigners would do my bidding 

They would for him leave the way. 
I know the future name which this oak-grove c shall bear, 

Until the day of judgment — Daire in latha u . 

The name of this plain shall be 

The beautiful Magh Rath. 
It shall be called Magh Rath from this prosperous battle, 

A plain over the brink of the ford ; 

This hillock shall be called Cam Congail 

From this day till the day of judgment. 
Suibhne shall be a lunatic v , 

He shall be acquainted with every fort w , 

He shall be a pitiful, weak-hearted maniac ; 

Few, not many, shall be his attendants. 

Shun," &c. 


Suibne net ^ealcugctn — That is, Suibhne, to Suibhne's constant roving from one 
the son of Colman Cuar, chief of Dal place to another. Dinjnu signifies a fort 
Araidhe. — See Buile Shuibhne, or, " The or any remarkable place, and it appears 
Madness of Suibhne," a curious romance, from the romance just referred to, that 
generally added to the Battle of Magh Suibhne was almost constantly moving 
Rath, for an account of the rambles, freaks, about from one remarkable place to another 
and eccentricities of this chieftain, after throughout Ireland; but though he is re- 
the Battle of Magh Rath, from which he presented as having visited the most ro- 
lled panic stricken, in consequence, as it mantic and best-known localities in Ire- 
is alleged, of his having received the curse land, it is strange that he is not made to 
of St. Ronan Finn, abbot of Druim Ineas- go to Gleann na n-gealt, in Kerry, whither, 
glainn, now Drumiskin, in the county of at the present day, all madmen are made 
Louth, whom Suibhne had treated with to repair to be cured of their malady. In 
indignity. Mac Morrissy's copy, however, this line 
w He shall be acquainted with every fort, reads, bio ecclac pe jac n-ioona, i. e. he 
— 610 eolach pec jac n-oinjna, alludes shall be afraid of every kind of weapon. 


6a tnmaín t>o Ouboiat) pip na píp-^áipi t)o caicem pe Con^al; 
ace cena po com^aijieao Ceann con co Con^al, .1. 51II0: uaipipi 
t)o n upiaú rmlit), ^upa pamepcup h-e o'pippu^aO cleci Conaill 
ocup aipo-^pinne 605am, o'piop in pabaoap ^laip no ^eimleca ícip 
cac oá n-ánpaiD n-incomlaino acu. TTlap 00 canao a céu-compaiuib 
a cupao, map Deapbuap ap Oep^puba Conaill : 

T?o cinOpec comaiple cpuaiD, 
Gipnelac, mac Ponain l?uait>, 
Ocup Suibne ÍTIino oo'n 1TIU15, 
TTIac píp-^apua peapaftai^: 
J^jeimel mp each t>a cup 
Do Chonaill ocup t>' Go£an, 
Co ná parhlaó 05 na ytr) 
Oib ^émaó cennua ceiceO. 

InunO uaip po cuipet) Cenn con pe uupoeilb na copca pin ocup 
po impa Oomnall Deipel ap copu^at) m caua, ocup po pe^upuap 
Oomnall oap min-oipbib in mui^i, ocup ac conaipcpum cui^i Cenn 
con, ocup pa ainn aobap a roicill ocup a recraipecca ; conat> 
aipe pm, po páió pe upen-pepaib in Uuaipcipu: ac ciupa cu^aib 
gilla t>o ^illib Con^ail ocup Cenn con a comamm pein, ocup Do 
peoappa at)bap a roichill, 00 raiobpeo bap uuapupcbala-pi ocup 
t>' pippu^aO bap n-inmll, in but) con^lonnua copaigci bap cupait), 
ocup mun but) eao iar, co na cópai^eaó Con^al apt)-main Ulao 
na allmupac 1 n-$lapaib, na 1 n-^eimlecaib. Conat) aipe pm, a 
o^u, bap aipt)-pi£ Gpenn, lea^ap lib-pi eappa ocup íccapa bap 
n-eippiuo, ocup bap n-eu^uo co upachc-aiolennaib bap cpai^eo, o 7 


x Phalanx, fyc. — CI 1 ar cara is explained rissy's copy, p. 71, by the modern words 

by Peter Connell, in his Dictionary, as a neapc no oainjean, i. e. " strength or bul- 

body of men in battle array, and he ex- wark," bnt the latter word must be under- 

plains gpinne, in the margin of Mac Mo- stood here as applied to that arrayed di- 

l 77 

It was vain, however, for Dubhdiadh to waste the knowledge of 
true wisdom on Congal. Cenncon, a faithful servant of the lordly 
hero Congal, was called, and he despatched him to reconnoitre the 
phalanx* of the race of Conall, and the great bulwark of the race of 
Eoghan, to see if they had locks or fetters between every two of their 
fighting soldiers, as had been proposed in the first consultations of 
their heroes, as is proved in Dergrubha Chonaill y : 
" They came to a stern resolution, 

Airnelach, son of Ronan the Red, 

And Suibhne Meann, on the plain, 

The truly expert son of Feradhach, 

To put a fetter between every two heroes 

Of the races of Conall and Eoghan, 

So that neither young nor old 

To them, though pressed, might suggest flight." 

At the exact time that Cenncon was sent to perform this business, 
it was that Domhnall turned round to the right to view the array of 
the battle; and he looked over the smooth surface of the plain, and 
perceived Cenncon coming towards him, and perceived the cause of 
his journey and message. Wherefore, he said to the mighty men of 
the north, " I see approaching you a servant of the servants of Congal, 
by name Cenncon, and I know that the cause of his journey is to re- 
connoitre so as to describe you, and to ascertain your battle array ; 
to see whether your heroes be linked together with fetters, in order 
that if they should not be so, Congal may not array the arch-chief- 
tains of Ulster or of the foreigners in locks or fetters. Wherefore, 
O youths," said the monarch of Erin, " let down the verges and skirts 


vision of the monarch's army which con- y Dergrubha Chonaill, was evidently an 

sisted of the Cinel Conaill, Cinel Eoghain, ancient Irish historical tale, but the Editor 
and Oirghialla. is not aware that it is at present extant. 


x 7 8 

polac ocup D'popbibaD na paep-$eimlec pen-iapainD pnim-cen- 
^ailci, po h-imnaipceD opaib. Uó^baíó ocup caipbénaíó, cpoicíó 
ocup cpiuhnai^íó na plabpaDu puaicmci, polup-iapnaióe, po puíó- 
í£eó ap bap n-^eimlecaib ^lan-cumua, ^lap-iapainD, ocup cabpaíó 
rpi upom-^aipi bopba, buaDnaipecha, buippeoai^i, Do cup ^páine 
ocup ^eineDecca íp in n-^illa, cumat) bpéc-úeccaipecc bpaplain^i 
oo bepao D'innpai^iD Ulab ocup allmapac. T3o cincaD in uecupc 
pm a$ cpen-pepaib in Uuaipcipu. Ocup ap cinneD caca cain^ne 
Dap popcon^aip in c-aipD-pi^ oppo, co cucpaDap cpi cpom-gaipi, 
bopb-buaDnupaca, buippeaDai^i, cop ImaD, ocup^up luac-meaDpaD 
in $illa Do $pain ocup Do ^eniDecc, o'oillc, ocup D'paenneall, ocup 
D'poluamain, ^op ob eao po cecpai^epuap cuige, ^up ^emel ^lan- 
paDac, ^lap-iapawD Do pea^aim íuip cac Da cupaiD Do Conall 
ocup d' Gó^an íp in uaip pin ; ocup po mnua uaiúib D'innpai5i6 
UlaD ocup allmapac, co pa innip a aicepc, ocup ^up úa^aip a úecc- 
aipecc ba piaDnaipi Doib. Ip De pm po canupcap Gonial, ca 
h-aipm a puil OubDiaD Dpai, a o$u, bap eipium ; Sunna, bap 
eipim, mm paóa ppi paipcpi, ^e mat) Depcaipi ppi Demin Duir, ap 
OubDiaó, ocup ni caiccep ppiu e, ^e maD acallaim incleui ba lamn 
leu. Do [.i.doI] Duiu amlaiD, bap eipium D'aipcpi ocup D'pippe^aD 
pep n-Gpenn uaim-pi, ^up ob Do peip Do cepra ocup Do cuapupc- 
bala ap plaiúib pumiD, coipécau-pa mo caua, ocup puiDigpeu mo 

i r 

z Raise and show. — It seems difficult at were in the hands of the soldiers, and ready 

first sight to understand the apparently for use, yet that they were not actually 

inconsistent orders given by the monarch put on. Another difficulty arises from 

to his men, to hide their fetters, and at the spy being represented as imaginivig 

the same time to exhibit and clank the what was really the fact. Perhaps the 

iron chains attached to them. His de- writer intended to intimate that the spy, 

sign probably was to make CongaPs mes- in his terror and panic, reported what his 

senger believe that although the fetters story proved he could not have seen ; it 


of your battle-coats to your heels to cover and conceal the noble fetters 
of well-cemented old iron, which have been fastened upon you. Raise 
and show 2 , shake and rattle the beautiful, bright iron chains which are 
fastened to your well-formed fetters of blue iron, and give three 
heavy, fierce, exulting, terrific shouts, to strike terror and dismay 
into the heart of the servant, that he may bring back to the Ultonians 
and foreigners a false and deceptive message." The mighty men of the 
north attended to these instructions : when the monarch had finished 
each of his commands, they gave three heavy, fierce, exulting, and 
terrific shouts, by which the servant was filled and quickly confused 
with horror and dismay, and with dread, awe, and panic, so that 
what he imagined was, that there was a bright fetter of blue iron be- 
tween every two of the heroes of the races of Conall and Eoghan at 
that time ; and he turned from them towards the Ultonians and the 
foreigners, and he told his story, and stated the result o/*his message 
in the presence of them. Then Congal asked, " Where is Dubhdiadh 
the druid, youths," he said. " Here," replied the other ; " I am 
not experienced at reconnoitering, even though I should recon- 
noitre for thee in earnest," said Dubhdiadh ; " but I shall not dispute 
with thee, even though thou shouldst desire me to obtain a private 
interview." " Thou art to go, therefore, from me," said he [Congal] 
"to view and reconnoitre the men of Erin, and it will be according 
to thy account and description of the chiefs of the west that I will 

array my battalions and arrange my forces." 


is evident, at least, that Congal was dis- quainted with any parallel for the singu- 

satisfied with the report of his first mes- lar expedient of chaining the soldiers to- 

senger, from his sending Dubhdiadh to gether, in order to prevent one from flying 

reconnoitre a second time, and bring him without the consent of the other; nor is it 

a more accurate account of the state of spoken of as a new device, or one peculiar 

the enemies' forces. The whole story is to Domhnall, for Congal evidently expected 

extremely curious ; the Editor is not ac- it, and was prepared to follow the example. 

2 A 2 


lp anD fin Do Decent) OubDiaD co h-QpD na h-imaipcpi, conaD 
app po pe^upcap uaDa, ocup ac conaipe in car-laem cupara, co- 
pai^ri ap n-a comea^ap, ocup in c-pocpaiDi ponaipe, pap-innillci 
ap n-a puiDiu^aD; ocup ^ép b' ímDa aipecc examail, ocup gpinne 
^pamemail, ocnp paep-pplua^ pomemail ap n-a puiDiu^aD D ? pea- 
paib Gpenn in aen mat), nip an, ocup nip aoaip, ocup nip Deli£- 
epcap aipe, na ai^neo, na innumD OuibDiaD 1 n-Dpeim Dib pin, ace 
mat) íp in cpen-pocpaiDi capbDa, cop-aúapDa, cuaipcepuai^, ac 
conaipe pe cneap in apD-placha h-ui Qinmipech, pe ^puamDacc 
ocup pe gpamemlacc na laecpaiDi pin leip, con-a n-^peann-mor- 
paib goipciDi, ocup co n-a claD-mailgib cupat) ic polac ocup ic 
popDibaD paipcpena na peinneo. Ocup Din pe h-up^pain ocup pe 
h-anaicencacu leip na lenD-bpac li^Da, lech-paDa, lebap-claimac, 
ocup a n-inap n-oip-eagaip ap n-a poppilleD Dap popmnaib na pip- 
laech. Gcu cena po combuaiDpiu ceepaDa OuibDiaD pe pop^pain 
a paipcpena, ocup po mDca uaiúib co uinnepnach, ocup a cean^a 
ap luuh, ocup ap luamam, in eaDap-poll a ai^ci, a^ cup ocup ic 
rpiall, ocup ic cmnpceDul repca ocup cuapupcbala na upen-poc- 
paiDe pin Do cabaipe; ocup cainic peme co lap lon^poipu UlaD 
ocup all-mapac, gup in inaD ap comoeip Do each a compe^aD ic 
aipneip a aicipc, ocup ic cagpa a úeccaipecca, ocup po mDua ap 
apD-maicib UlaD ocup allmapach, ocup apbepc na bpiauhpa pa: 

Qu ciu cac-laem cu^aib-pi, 
Q Ullcu 'p a allmapcu, 
Oll-cac á^map epiDem, 


a Ard na h-imaircsi, — i. e. the hill of b Excepting only This clearly shows 

the espying or reconnoitering. In Mac that the battle was written to flatter the 

Morissy's copy it is written more correctly, pride of the Cinel Conaill. 

Gpo na h-iompaipccpe. c Wide-folded shirts. — Oeno-bpac was 


Then Dubhdiadh went to Ard na h-imaircsi a , and from it took 
his view; and he saw the heroic army arranged and arrayed, and 
the powerful, well-appointed forces drawn up ; and though many a 
various band, terrible troop, and noble well-looking host of the men 
of Erin were there stationed together, the observation, mind, or 
attention of Dubhdiadh did not dwell, fix, or rivet itself upon any 
battalion of them, excepting only 5 npon the mighty, bull-like, puissant 
northern battalion, which he saw close to the monarch the grandson of 
Ainmire ; but by these his whole attention was arrested, on account 
of the sternness and abhorrent fierceness he observed in their heroes, 
with their proud-tufted beards, with their warlike prominent eye- 
brows [seemingly] overshadowing and obscuring their vision, and on 
account of the horror and strangeness presented to him by their glossy, 
half-length, wide-folded shirts , and by their gold-embroidered tunics d 
returning over the shoulders of these true heroes. In short, Dubh- 
diadh's senses became bewildered from viewing them, and he turned 
from them quickly with horror, with his tongue moving and vibrating 
in his mouth, assaying, attempting, and designing to give an account 
and description of that mighty army. And he came on to the middle 
of the camp of the Ultonians and foreigners to a place where all 
might conveniently view him, reporting his story and delivering his 
message, and he turned to the arch-chiefs of the Ultonians and spake 
these words : 

"I have seen a mighty army approaching you, 
O Ultonians and foreigners, 

It is a mighty, valiant army, 


evidently the linen vest dyed with saffron, d Tunics. — lnap is explained by the 

with long and open sleeves, often men- Latin word tunica, in a vocabulary in the 

tioned by English writers as worn by the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, (H. 2. 

<okliers of the Irish chieftains. 13.) 


Cupaio cpooa, copnumac, 

Ppaecoa, ponnmap, pop ram ail, 

Sepmach, peiupec, pouecaipc, 

Uaipcpech, upiac-lonn, caipipmech; 

Co n-imao apm n-wnillci, 

pá'n caú ap na copu^at). 

piaich péi^, peua, poipuinech, 

TCi^oa, po-^ap^ puiúenua, 

Oipiuch, opeach-t>ep5 ooiu-lebap, 

Jjnuip-liac ^lonn-meap, gpuao-copcpa, 

Qp ceapc-láp in caúa pin, 

'J5 a copuuo, '5a copu^ao, 

7 ^ a laioiuo, '5a luamaipecu ; 

^aeOil uime ap apm-lapao, 

lc poillpm^ao pipint)i, 

Na placa op a puiliu j'ean ; 

Upicha cail^enn ro^aiDi, 

l?e h-ua Setma a£ palm-ceaoul ; 

Ni poich mulecc aen Omne, 

Ni nc o'mnpcne aen een^at), 

^emao cen^a upe-poclac, 

pip-ugoaip no olloiman, 

"Cup na reipc, na cuapupcbail, 

Domnaill co n-a t>ea£-Tmiinnuip, 

l?e h-imat> a n-05 apniach, 

T?e ^aibúi^e a n-^aipcefrach,. 


e The Gaels. — 5 ae ^ uinne. — Gaedhil writer wished to make the Druid remark 

is the name for the Irish of the Scotic or that king Domhnall had the Gaedhil only 

Milesian race in general ; and the name is about him, while Congal had people of 

here rather incorrectly applied, unless the different nations who would not fight 

>8 3 

Composed of brave, defending heroes, 

Who are furious, willing, valorous, 

Firm, puissant, docile, 

Aspiring, lordly-strong, invincible, 

With abundance of well-prepared weapons 

Throughout the arrayed battalions. 

A king fierce, intelligent, steady, 

Royal, furious, resplendent, 

Upright, ruddy-faced, long-palmed, 

Grey-visaged, active, red-cheeked, 

In the centre of that army, 

Steadying it, arraying it. 

Exhorting it, guiding it ; 

The Gaels 6 around him glittering in arms, 

Showing the legitimacy 

Of the king under whom they are ; 

Thirty select clerics f , 

With the descendants of Sedna, singing psalms ; 

No intellect of man could conceive, 

Nor could the language of any tongue, 

Even the ^Aree-worded tongue 

Of a true author or Olave, 

Recount, delineate, or describe 

Domhnall and his good people. 

From the number of their armed youths, 

The terribleness of "their champions, 


with the same enthusiasm for Congal as a distinguished saint or ecclesiastic. It 

his own countrymen and blood relations could in this sense be translated by the 

would for king Domhnall. Latin Antistes, which Colgan generally 

f Clerics. — Upicha cculjenn cogaioi applies to St. Patrick. 

Here the word cculjenn is used to denote 


l?e leapfracc a laecpame, 

"Re TYieanmncn^i a mop-mileo, 

l?e cpiar-lwnne a cpén-caipec, 

T?e niam-^pam a nocc-claioem, 

l?e pcar-^lcnne a pciaú-luipec, 

l?e h-oll-^pich a n-ecpait)i, 

l?e porpum a pann-bpauach, 

lc ímluao, íc eiuealai^, 

Clp ltmcnb a n-ápO-cpcrípec ; 

den Opem t)ib po oeppnai^peu, 

Do ^appaoaib ^lan-póola, 

Cenel Conaill compamai^, 

Cmet) in pi£ po nepcrnaip, 

'N a cimcell 'gá cepapgain, 

lc peioiu^at) peme-pmn, 

Chompaip caca cach-laiuhpec. 

Uiucub t>uib na uuapupcbail, 

Na rapb-cot)nac uuaipcepuac : 

Oub-plua^ Oeula, DcmapOa, 

pep^ac, popupen, pomópoa, 

^puamfta, ^lann-meap, ^nuip-lecan, 

Ctpt), aouacmap iac-pioe, 

Co r)-5peann-TTioúpaib goipcibe, 

lc cuige 'p ic uiTncellat), 

Q n-^puat) ip a n-^ulban-puin ; 

Q leaccm a laec-pmei^eat», 

Ctobal eat) a n-ulcan-pum, 


g Fierce. — tDanapoa literally means h Fomorian-like. — The Fomorians, ac- 

Dane-like, fierce, and the existence of the cording to the Bardic History of Ireland, 

word here shows that this story was com- were African pirates, who settled on the 

posed after the arrival of the Danes. coast of Ireland in the early ages of Irish 

The numerousness of their heroes, 

The highmindedness of their great soldiers, 

The lordly vigour of their chieftains, 

The glittering dreadfulness of their exposed swords, 

The brightness of their defending coats of mail, 

The high-spiritedness of their steeds, 

The rustling of their standards 

Streaming and floating 

From the points of their lofty spears. 

One party of them excel 

The hosts of famed Fodhla, 

The valiant Cinel Conaill, 

The tribe of the very puissant king himself 

Around him defending him, 

Clearing the way before him, 

The obstructions of each battle-field. 

I will give you the description 

Of the bull-like northern chieftains : 

A bold and fierce 2 black host, 

Furious, mighty, Fomorian-like h , 

Grim, agile, broad-faced, 

Tall, terrific are they, 

With tufted beards 1 

Covering and surrounding 

Their cheeks and their mouths, 

Their faces and their heroic chins. 

Great is the length of their beards ! 


history. They are described by the Irish IV. [1465], by which the Irish living 

writers as cruel and tyrannical. within the English pale are commanded 

1 With tufted beards, — See Act 5 Edw. to shave off the beard above the mouth. 



Impi^ií) 5a n-imlennaib ; 
Clao-mailgi na car-mileD, 
popbpic cap a pabpaoaib ; 
bpocbla na pep pomópoa, 
bpuic op-luai^ i poppilbut). 
Uap popmnaib na pip-laec pin ; 
Cpoicenn clum-tmb ceacnaici, 
lnopamail cac aen loúaip, 
pil impu ap na poppillet) ; 
Ni léi^ meo a menmanpaiD, 
Ooib apo-cennup o'aen ouine, 
Qcu be^an ap bparaippi, 
popaemaie o'ua Qinmipec; 
5«n cip, na ^an comepgi, 
Uacib Do Ú15 ci^eapna, 
Lear up^pame oppopum 
Piap na h-uilib 605am pea. 
Tílaip^ 00 pia o á pai^m pi urn, 
TTlap a caic pa cigepna, 
lna cpó pa chnep-bpumne. 
Q Llllnu 'p a allmapchu, 
TTlaip^ pop pil ic pupnaiDi, 
In aipo-pi^ pa n-ep^iu pium, 
Q oelb-pein íp Deppcnaigri, 
Oa cac t>eilb Dap oe^-cnmao, 
TTlap epca 'n a oll-cui^eaó, 
Samail ai^úi h-m Gmmipech, 
No map ^pein op ^lan-pennaib, 
Opeac Oomnaill ap Oepg-lapat). 
Op cinO caich auciu. 


i8 7 

They reach to their navels. 

The prominent eyebrows of the warriors 

Grow beyond their eyelashes. 

The garments of these Fomorian men 

Are valuable embroidered garments folded 

Over the shoulders of these true heroes ; 

The black-wooled skin of a sheep 

Is the likeness of every article of dress 

Which is folded about them. 

The greatness of their highmindedness does not permit them 

To give supremacy to any man, 

Except a little, which, through relationship, 

They cede unto the grandson of Ainmire, 

Nor tribute, nor obeisance 

Do they render to the house of a lord. 

They bear a kind of half detestation 

To all the race of Eoghan. 

Wo to those who seek them, 

Because they stand by their lord, 

As a rampart to his very breast. 

O Ultonians and foreigners ! 

Wo also to those who are awaiting 

The monarch with whom they rise up : 

His aspect is more dignified 

Than any that was well-formed ; 

Like the moon, in his great province 

Is the face of the grandson of Ainmire. 

Or like the sun above the bright stars 

Is the face of Domhnall red-glowing 

Above all who see him. 

2 B 2 The 


Pi^paiD Q1I15 oll-^ocac, 

Gpo-clann 605am anpaca, 

Sil na Colla compamac, 

D'aen caib pip na h-Gogancaib, 

Do oeip Domnaill Ooic-lebaip, 

Pi^paio Uempach caeb-^laine, 

Cupaio Cpuacna clao-uaine 

Do car-elm na Conallac ; 

Lai^m^ Ciamna lenn-maipi, 

TDuinini^ TTlui^i mop pemm, 

Ocup Chaipil comoalai^, 

1 copuao in caca pin, 

7 N-a popmnaib 7 n-a iap-culaib. 

Q amaip, a an-uppaio, 

Qipo-pi^ Gpenn eccai^i, 

Oll-cpian ^a e0e ^ sabaiupium, 

l?e h-ep^i, pe h-impepam, 

1 ciip cara au cm. 

Gc cm c. 

<5 u I ia peiy ic paelaib Do copp, ap Con^al, ocup ^upa pailm 

piac apmui^e op t>o bpuinne, ip puail nach ap clanp cecpaoa ap 

cupaO, ocup nac ap meacaip meipnec ap mop-flua^, pe uemne na 


J The loud-voiced. — The compounded of Connaught, so called from Cruachan, 

adjective oll-jocach, which was the cog- now called Eath-Croghan, which was the 

nomen of two of the Irish monarchs, is chief seat of the kings of Connaught. 
translated grandivocus by O'Flaherty, in m Lagenians of Liamhain. — C^ai^ni^ 

Ogygia, part III. c. 31. C-iamna The inhabitants of Leinster 

k Race of puissant Collas Sil na were called 60151115 6iarhna from t)un 

5- Colla, i. e. the men of Oirghiall. Ciamna, now Dunlavan (in the west of 

1 Green-sided Cruachan. — Cupaio Cpu- the county of Wicklow), one of the ancient 

achna, i. e. the inhabitants of the province residences of the kings of that province. 


The loud-voiced j princes of Ailech, 

The high descendants of valiant Eoghan, 

The progeny of the puissant Collas k , 

At the side of the race of Eoghan, 

On the right of the long-palmed Domhnall ; 

The princes of the fair-sided Tara, 

And the heroes of the green-sided Cruachan 1 , 

With the famed battalion of the Conallians, 

The Lagenians of Liamhain m of beautiful shirts, 

The Momonians of the great plain of Feimin 11 , 

And of Cashel of assemblies, 

To support that battalion, 

In squadrons, in rear-troops. 

The soldiers, the adherents 

Of the monarch of noble Erin, — 

The third part and upwards of the Gaels have come 

To rise up to contend, in the van of the army 

Which I have seen. 

I have seen," &c. 

" May thy body be a feast to wolves ," said Congal, " and may the 

ravenous ravens rejoice over thy breast ; thou hast almost subdued 

the senses of our heroes, and destroyed the courage of our great 

troops by the strength of the account and description which thou 


n Plain of Feimin TTlui^e Peimin, of 5 u P a F^T 1C F ae ^ ai ^ DO copp, is modern- 

the plain of Feimen, a celebrated plain in izedinMac Morissy's copy jup ab péir- 0:5 

the south-east of the county of Tipperary, paelconaib do copp. The word paela is 

extending from KnockgrafFon southwards certainly here used to mean wolves, though 

to the River Suir, and from Cahir to the most usual name for the wolf is 

Sliabh na m-ban, and to the boundary of paelcu or maccipe. The last native 

the territory of the Hy-Eirc, in the south wolf seen in Ireland was killed on a 

of ancient Ossory. mountain in the county of Kerry in the 

May thy body be a feast to wolves year 1725. 


repua ocup na cuapupcbala eucaip ap apo-maicib Gpenn, pá 
n-aipt)-pi£. Qcu aen ní, ní h-incpeui o'ánpaDaib ppera piabaipn, 
peacpánaca, paeb-popcecail na pean-Opuao, ap na piabpao 00 cic- 
nellaib na cpine; ocup ní mó íp meOaip pipe pui^li ocup popmolca 
papa, popbannaca, poppaibli^e na pileo, ap n-a m-buioecup t>o 
bpeúaib cpoma, caipbepcaca rpiac ^aca cipe ina reacaio. Qcx 
acanicena, ap Congal, cuin^im-pi pám' úpéióib ci^epnaip, mun-bao 
pell ap einec Dam-pa t>pai no Dei^pep Oana t>o Oich na Do OicennaD, 
ip 00 luaú-imcap mo lama-pa uicpaoip 00 cpom-nella ciu^-bap-pa 
pepiu pa cumaipcOip na caúa ceccapDa pa ap a cell. 

Leic app, ale, na h-impait) wanaipcep, ap OubtnaO, muna úi 
mo úaeú lain ciu^-ba-pa leac ip in laicea pea 1 puilim, a Chon^ail, 
a cuin^iO, ni muipbpepu mipi na neac eli t>ap eip aipli^ na h-aen- 
TTlaipui pea; uaip ni biapu a^ ba^up na ag buaonaipi ap biobam 
o'n Tílaipc-laiúi pea amac co bpumne bpaua. dec aen ni, cio 
aobal a^aib-pi mo úepca-pa, ocup mo cuapupcbala ap cpiar 
bumnec Uaillcen, ocupap^lepi n-^ a et)el, bai^im-pi bpiarap, ^upa 
bee 00 upian a cepca ocup a cuapupcbala 1 canac-pa ^up upapca. 
Qp nip pupail ain^el o' ainglib niam-poillpi naem-nime 00 cupem 
a repua ocup a cuapupcbala, .1. pe puicnib a pi^, ocup pe h-apm- 
5pam a n-aipec, ocup pe mepni^ a milet), pe comúnuú a cupat), pe 
^puamoacc a n-^aipceoac, pe lonn-bpuú a laecpaioi, pe caipm- 
^pir a cpen-pep, pe h-olboacc a n-amup, pe h-aúlaime a n-o^baD ; 
ocup t>in pop pe puacOacc a pep^i, pe ^pam-paipcpi a n-^aiulenn, 
pe bat>b-t)lup a m-bpaeach, pe lomnpige a luipec, pe clap-len a 
cloioem, ocup pe leaptmcc a lebap-pciar, pe pap-t)luiri a plea^ ap 


p The wavering, fyc These look very q / swear by my characteristics of a lord, 

like the words of a modern sceptic, but — i. e. by my courage, my valour, my muni- 
there can be no question about the ge- ficence, and other attributes inseparable 
nuineness of the passage. from the true character of a chieftain. 

I 9 1 

hast given of the arch-chiefs of Erin under their monarch. But there 
is one thing, the wavering 15 , imaginative, wandering, false-instructing 
words of the old druids are not to be believed by warriors, they hav- 
ing grown obsolete by the showery clouds of antiquity ; neither are 
the empty, vain, and fabulous words and panegyrics of poets cheer- 
ing, which are remunerated by the heavy awards and rich rewards 
of the chieftains of each country in which they come. But be this as 
it may," said Congal, " I swear by my characteristics of a lord q , that, 
were it not a violation of protection 1 " in me to put to death or behead 
a druid or good man of poetry, it would be from the rapid motion of 
my hand that thy heavy clouds of final dissolution would be brought, 
before these two armies should come in collision with each other." 

" Lay aside these unbecoming sayings," said Dubhdiadh ; " unless 
my day of final dissolution shall be brought about by thee this day, 
in which I exist, Congal, hero, thou shalt not kill me or any other 
person after the slaughter of this one Tuesday ; for thou shalt not 
threaten or menace an enemy from this Tuesday forth till the day 
of judgment. But there is one thing, though strong ye deem my 
account and description of the populous prince of Tailltenn and 
of the choicest of the Gaels, I pledge my word that I have as yet 
given but a little of the third part of the description and account of 
them, for it would require an angel of the bright angels of sacred 
heaven to give an account and description of them, in consequence 
of the magnificence of the king, the terror of the arms of the chief- 
tains, the courage of the soldiers, the emulation of the heroes, the 
grimness of the champions, the force of the warriors, the fiery vigour 
of the mighty men, the dexterity of the soldiers, and activity of the 
youths ; and in consequence, moreover, of the stubbornness of their 
anger, the horribleness of viewing their javelins, the closeness of their 


r Protection, einech in this sense undoubtedly means protection or guarantee. 


[iioiugao i lamaib a laec-mileo. Ctcr aen ni, po paD peiorri, 

po paD upmaipi aipig no pip-laic puipec pe pegao a péinneo, 

pe cait>bpet> a ruapupcbala, .1. pe bpepirn, ocup pe bolgpa- 

a cupao, ocup a catvmileao, pe ppengail ocup peiupeoaig a 

pinnpep, ocup a pen-Dame ic pancugaD oa bap paigiD pi ; pe 

ppuuhlao ocup ppiangaip a n-^pai^i n-glepca, n-gloynap-cennpa, 1 

5-comluc pa caippcechaib, 1 copcuD ocup ic coDnugaD in cara 

impu ap each aipO, gup ob pcica, pceimnneca maici na mileD, pe 

méo a peoma, ic popuguo na peap, ocup ic coDnugaD in cara, uaip 

ni cennpa a cupaiD pe coonugao, ocup íp cocpaD pe upiaraib 


r Coats of mail. — "Re lomnpije a lui- 

pech The Irish word luipech, which is 

supposed to be derived from the Latin 
lorica, certainly signifies a coat of mail, 
but antiquarians do not admit that the 
Irish had the use of mail armour so early 
as the period at which this battle was 
fought. Giraldus Cambrensis, who describ- 
ed the battle dress of the Irish in the 
twelfth century, says that they went naked 
to battle : — " Preterea nudi et inermes ad 
bella procedunt. Habent enim arma pro 
on ere. Inermes vero dimicare pro audaciá 
reputant et honore." (Dist. III. c. 10.) 
And O'Neill's bard, Mac Namee, in de- 

" Unequal they entered the battle, 
The Galls and the Gaels of Tara : 
Fair satin shirts on the race of Conn, 
The Galls in one mass of iron." 
If, therefore, lúipech means mail ar- 
mour, it would go to prove that this ac- 
count of the battle of Magh Rath was 
composed after the Irish had adopted the 
custom of wearing armour from the Eng- 
lish, unless it be proved that the ancient 
Irish themselves had the use of it, and left 
it off afterwards in the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries ; but this will hardly be 
admitted. The utmost that can be argued 
in favour of the antiquity of the tale is, 

scribing the havoc made of the Irish in that it might possibly have been composed 

the battle of Down, fought in the year 
1260, states that the English were in 
one mass of iron, while the Irish were 
dressed in satin shirts only. 
£,eaccpom 00 cuaoap 'pa car 
^joill acop JJaeioil Cerhpac: 
Céince caerh-ppoill ap cloinn Chuinn, 
Jo ill «ni n-aen-bpom íapuinn. 

after the Danes had introduced the use of 
armour into Ireland. But it looks on 
the other hand very extraordinary, that 
there is no mention made of the battle- 
axe throughout this whole story, a fact 
which would seem to prove that it was 
written before the time of Cambrensis, 
when almost every Irishman carried a 


standards, the shining of their coats of maiT, the hollow broadness 
of their swords 8 , the great size of their shields, the closeness of their 
lances' fixed in the hands of their warlike soldiers. But there is 
one thing, it would be the business and improvement of a chief or 
true hero to remain to view their heroes and conceive their descrip- 
tion : the shouts and acclamations of their heroes and warriors, the 
panting and aspirations of their seniors and old men coveting to 
attack you ; the snorting and neighing of their caparisoned, bridle- 
tamed steeds bounding under chariots", supporting and command- 
ing the battle around them in every direction ; so that the chiefs 
of the soldiers are fatigued and excited from the greatness of their 
exertion in restraining the men and commanding the battle, for 


battle-axe, as they do walking-sticks at in his time the Irish generally used the 

present. " De antiquá imo iniquá con- battle-axe instead of the sword. Spenser 

suetudine, semper in manu quasi pro ba- describes the Irish sword as a hand broad 

culo securim bajulant, &c. &c, a securibus in his own time, and seems to consider 

nulla securitas." (Dist. III. c. 21). that such was derived from the Scythians, 

s The hollow broadness of their swords from whom he believed the Irish to be 

T?e clap-leci a 5-cloióem. — In Mac Mo- descended. 

rissy's copy pe jlcm-ccnrneiriici a 5-cloi- l Lances The Sleaj was certainly 

beam, i. e. by the bright glittering of their the lance or spear. 

swords. It is remarkable that Giraldus u Charioteers. — Pa caippcechaib. — 
Cambrensis makes no mention of the sword This seems to refer to war chariots. The 
among the military weapons used by the word caippcech is thus used in the Lea- 
Irish in his time, though it appears from bhar Breac, fol. 49, b, a, which puts its 
all their own histories, annals and histo- meaning beyond any doubt : — Girpech 
rical tales, that they had the cloióerh, cpa la Popano in cecujuo cucapcap 00 
i. e. gladius or sword, from the earliest cloino lppael, co came ina n-oea^aió 
dawn of their history; and indeed the pe cec CCUTCpOGCh cengailce, ocup 
omission of the sword in Giraldus's de- pepcac mile epoi^rech. 
scription of Irish military weapons is This is a reference to Exodus, xiv. 
sufficient to throw great doubts on his 7 : — " And he took six hundred chosen 
accuracy ; but it may have happened that chariots and all the chariots of Egypt," &c. 



a raipmepc, ocup íp ue^upca co^aiDi ci^epnaip, ocup íp puio"' 1 
pei^i, pellpamariDa, popbapcaca pileD popcap ocup lmpuip^ep lac 
^an bap n-innpai^iD Dap in péib, ocup Dap in pia^aib po opDai^pec 
bap n-apD-naim, ocup bap n-ollomam at)t)paib; uaip íp aen peim 
ocup aen pun acu uile o'a bap n-mopai^m. Ro^abpacap mop-caúa 
lTluman mian ocup molbra 151 pe manDap na mop-^liao ; poppac 
lainnecha, lan-olbDa Lai^in co lafaip D'a luau-copnam ; poppar 
cpoDa, comDicpa cupait) Cpuacna ocup Connacc pe comppe^pa in 
cara ; poppau bpocla, bopb-páiuech, bpeag-plua^ boinne. ocup 
LaechpaioLiachopoma; poppac púncai^, pancaca, papai^ri^ bopb- 
plua^ ba£ach, biapcai^i, buippeDac, copcpac, cpoDa, caipDemail, 
laecoa, luar-^ap^ leomanra, pep^ac, popgpuamDa, pepconua, 
cennap, cecpaDach, comceneoil Conaill, ocup 605am, ocup Qip- 
giall o'aen-caib ocup o'aen-laim ocup D'aen-a^neo D'a bap n-inn- 
pai^iD. Uaip íp uainb nach élairep, ocup íp rpifu nac cia^ap, 
ocup íp raipppib nac co^aiprep, ocup tun, ip t>o combai^, ocup Do 
comep^i na cupao pin cu^aib-pi nac paicpi oume t)o'n Dine Deioe- 
nac pa UlaD ocup allmapac a úuau ma a cpeab-aicme. Ocup Din 
ciD lhpi Do paemaD anaD ap pám-comaDaib píóa, m h-anpaD in 
c-apD-plait h-ua h-Qinmipec, ap n-epgi a pep^i, ocup ap copu^aD a 
caúa, ocup o'n uaip po iaDpac ocup po ímcompaicpec íme a n-aen- 
pecu comea^ap cupaD Conaill ocup 605am ocup Qip^iall, rií mó 
na Do mipbuilib aipD-pi^ na n-uili cicpaD raipmepc cpearam ocup 


• v The Bregian hosts of the Boyne. — 6pej- not agree with the ancient authorities, 

f luag óóinne. — The River Boyne flows which place the plain of Magh bolg [Moy- 

through the plain of Bregia, which was bolgue] in it, and describe it as extending 

the ancient name of a very extensive tract beyond Kells, and as far as the River 

of Meath, containing five cantreds or ba- Casan. 

ronies. Dr. O'Conor says that the Boyne ópeci^-riuaj 6omne, would also bear 

formed one of its boundaries, but this does the translation "the fine troops of the 

l 95 

their heroes are not mild to be commanded, and it is a torment 
to chieftains to be restrained ; so that it is the judicious instructions 
of lords, and the keen, philosophic, and instructive words of the 
poets that restrain and keep them from attacking you, contrary to 
the directions and rules made by your saints and ollaves between 
you ; for they have all the same bent and determination to attack 
you. The great battalions of Munster have got a desire and thirst 
for fight at the onset of the great conflict. The Lagenians are spear- 
armed and fully prepared to maintain the field. The heroes of 
Cruachain and Connaught are brave and diligent to attend the 
battle. The Bregian hosts of the Boyne v and the heroes of Liath- 
druinT are furious and menacing. The races of Conall and Eoghain 
and the Oirghialls are active, covetous, oppressive, furious, menac- 
ing, vulneriferous, uproarious, exulting, brave, united, heroic, ra- 
pidly-fierce, lion-like, angry, grim, dog-like, slaughtering, vigilant 
with one accord one hand and one mind to attack you. For from 
them no escape can be made, through them no passage can be forced, 
and over them no force will prevail. And of the union and rising 
up together of these heroes to you it will come to pass that not a 
man of this last tribe of the Ultonians and foreigners will ever see his 
country or tribe. And moreover, even though ye should now consent 
to come to the tranquil conditions of peace, the monarch the grand- 
son of Ainmire would not, his anger being raised and his army being 
arrayed for battle. And since the combined bodies of the heroes of 
the races of Conall and Eoghan and the Oirghialls have closed and 


Boyne," but this is evidently not the stantly used by the poets, to the no small 
meaning intended. confusion of their readers. For some ac- 

w Heroes of Liathdruim ^aechpcuó count of the five ancient names of Tara 

Ciachopoma — Liathdruim was one of the see Petrie's History and Antiquities of 
ancient names of Tara Hill, which is con- Tara Hill, p. 106. 



rpen-puacaip in apo-plaua h-ui Qmmipec t)'á bap n-innpai£it) ; ^up 
ob puaill nap rapm-cpicnai^ in ualam pa a rpai^úib, ap n-oep^ao 
a Dpechi, ocup ap n-£pípat) a ^puaioi, áp puaimniu^ao a pwpc, 
ocup ap noccao a niam-clait>im, ap pclano-bepuugat) a pceir, ap 
cocbail ocup ap eaipbenat) a cpaipi^i cenn-^mpme cara op a cint> 
1 cepc-aiptn, pa'n ppoll-mep^i puaicmt), ppebnaioi, paeb-copach, 
polup-pennach, penua, pa ppeuhaic, ocup pa pui 0151c ple£a ocup 
bpacaca bpeac-mep^eaoa aipO-pi^paiOi Gpenn uile, ap cac aipo, 
ocup aobepc na bpianhpa pa : 

l?o có^baic na mepgi reap, 

a^ piúo Domnall íp in upep ; 

níc bia lua^ puicpi Oo cenn, 

ac cm cat puaó pig Gpenn. 
Ctcaiu uile na pomul, 

m ^eib ea^la na omun, 

íp eaó luaúai^ip m caú 

pep^ mop ap h-ua Ginmepech. 
lTléo a claioim ^apua ^uipm, 

puil na oeip oéula óuipno ! 

íp mér a pceiú moip pe aip, 

meo a lai^ne learan-^laip. 
puilic npi neoill op a cinO, 

nell 50pm, nell Oub, nell pino ; 

nell 50pm m gaipceO ^lam ^le, 

íp nell pint) na pipinoe. 


x Consecrated satin banner. — Senca. — Cinel Conaill ; it was kept by Magroarty, 

The cathacli of St. Columbkille which was who resided at Ballymagroarty, near the 

a consecrated reliquary of that saint, was town of Donegal, 
generally carried in the banner of the y The size of his broad green spear. — 

l 97 

united around him together, nothing less than the miraculous inter- 
position of the King of all will stay the fury and mighty onslaught of 
the monarch the grandson of Ainmire against you. And the earth 
had almost quaked under his feet when his face reddened, his cheek 
blushed, and his eye sparkled, when he exposed his bright sword, 
when he adjusted his shield, and raised and exhibited to view his 
blue-headed warlike lance over his head aloft, under the variegated, 
streaming, floating, star-bright, consecrated satin banner x , about which 
are placed and ranged the lances and variegated banners of all the 
chieftains of Erin from every quarter ;" and he [Dubhdiadh] said 
these words : 

" The standards have been raised to the south ; 

There is Domhnall in the battle ; 

Thou wilt not be joyous, thou shalt leave thy head ; 

Thou shalt see the mighty army of the men of Erin. 
They are all alike ; 

They take neither fear nor dread ; 

What hastens the battle 

Is the great anger of the grandson of Ainmire. 
Oh the size of the expert blue sword 

Which is in his valiant right hand ! 

And the size of his great shield beside it ! 

The size of his broad green spear y ! 
There are three clouds over his head, 

A blue cloud, a black cloud, a white cloud ; 

The blue cloud of fine bright valour, 

And the white cloud of truth. 


lTleo a Icnjne learan-jlair*. Gratianus province of Leinster took the name of 

Lucius renders the word lai jne, lancea, in Laighen from the introduction of the 

his translation of Keating. It is stated broad-headed lance by Labhra Loingsech, 

in the Bardic History of Ireland that the one of its kings, from Gaul. 


puil op a cino 05 eipmis, 

caillec lorn, luac a^ leimni^ 

óp eannaib a n-apm pa pciaf, 

íp 1 in TT1 op p 15U mon^-liach. 
In poo ap a puipmenn pin, 

'p ap a coipnenn a upai^m 

pe met) po puaimnig a pope, 

íp Cua ma'p cualamg a cope. 
Comaipli uaim 00m' aúaip, 

bio comaipli co pacam, 

pe miDium na car co ri-^pam, 

a oá pi^it) Oo cogbail. 


Ipann pmpomit) ocup po muamni^ lapla am^ic, ecpocap UlaD, 
.1. Congal Claen, comaipli Ouaibpech, DemnacOa, o'ippu^ao eng- 
numa Ulao ocup allmapach, t>o uepcu^ut) a capaio ocup a upen- 
lamai^ pe cup in cafa, nac gabao ocup nach ^eimli^eo 01b acu 
each opem ap a n-aipeocat> élan^, pe cup ocup pe uepcu^uo a 
rapait). Conao e aipeag uapapcap pum oppo pe ppomao caca 
pip Ullcai^ ocup o'pip allmapac, .1. cac pa peach uairib oa mnpai- 
510 1 ppim-ipuao a puibli. Ocup pep puacoa, pop^panna co n-t>ub- 
5a n-ouiabpec co cmt> coioli^e cpuaio leuhaip in aicill pop^aim 
ip in t>apa h-uppamo, ocup pep^lonn popmep pip-^panoa peapcon íp 


z Morrigu. — TTIoppiju. — She was one of rigu is introduced as the Bellona of this 

the wives of the Dagda, and the goddess people. In the Book of Leinster, fol. 16, 

of battle among the Tuatha de Dananns, b, b, she is called the daughter of Erumas, 

the colony which preceded the Sccti or and said to have resided in the Sight or 

Milesians in their occupation of Ireland. — fairy palaces. 

See Battle of Magh Tuiredh, preserved a The Earl of Ulster.— -lapla Ulaó.— 

in the MS. H. 2. 1 6. in the Library of Is larla an original Irish word ? Was it 

Trinity College, Dublin, where this Mor- borrowed from the Danes ? or are we to 

i 9 9 

There is over his head shrieking 

A lean, nimble hag, hovering 

Over the points of their weapons and shields : 

She is the grey-haired Morrigu 2 . 
On the sod on which he treads, 

On which he lays down his foot, 

So much has his eye sparkled, 

None but God can repress him. 
An advice from me to my father, 

It is an advice with reason, 

Before the battalions of terror shall be viewed, 

To raise his two hands. 

The standards," &c. 

It was then the malicious and merciless Earl of Ulster a , Congal 
Claen, ruminated and imagined a dire, demoniacal design, to test the 
valour of the Ultonians and foreigners, to try their activity and might 
at arms before engaging in the battle, in order that none of them might 
be restrained or fettered excepting only such as would betray an in- 
clination to flight 5 on their courage being tested and tried ; so that 
the scheme he adopted for proving every true [i. e. truly courageous] 
Ultonian, and for testing every foreigner was this : each of them res- 
pectively was to go in to him to the principal apartment in his tent, 
while a fierce and terrible man, with a black, fearful javelin c with a 
hard leather head, in readiness to thrust, was at the one jamb [of 


come to the conclusion that this battle c Fearful javelin. — pep co n-ouo-^a, 

was written after the time of John De &c. — For a similar anecdote, see Leabhar 

Courcey, who was the first person who Gabhala of the O'Clery's, an extract from 

obtained the title of Earl of Ulster? which is printed in the Preface to Circuit 

^Flight. — Gp a n-aipeocaió. — The text of Muirchertach Mac Neill, published by 

is here corrected from Mac Morissy's copy, the Irish Archaeological Society, p. 21. 


in up paint) ele co n-upnapc mnpemap íapnaioi aip, 1 cental oo 
cuailli coúai^ri con^bala. buacaill bpo^oa ic a bpopcat) 'na cepc- 
papao pe cope no com^pepacu. Ocup in ran cicpat) Ullcach no 
allmapac ecuppu, in mat> a aimpi^úi, t>o bepet> pep in cpuao-^ai 
cmo coioli^e pop^um aip lp in Oapa h-uppamt). Ocup clipeó in 
cu CU151 pa'n curna ceuna ap in uppaino eli. Da pilleO no t>a pop- 
pcacai^e in pep pm pe puipmet) pip in pop^aim ocup pe cpuao-^loim 
in chon ic up-noccat) a piacal ocup ic comoplu^uo a cappaic t)'a 
repeat) no t>a cpen-^abail, t>o $abf a ocup t)o ^eimli^rea £an puipec 
e-pein. Ocup oin m ué uicpao ^an popachu ^an pobit^ab a 
h-uachbapaib m aipi^ pin Oo lei^uea gan lan-^abail. Qcr cena 
íp e pob aipi^io upgabala pe cac ip in cleap pm Ouboiao Dpai. 
O015 ip pe ppim-pe^i na puipli po popcat) ocup po h-up^abao epéin 
ic Dola ap tnbla ocup ap Oapacc, pe huaubap in pop^ami pm. Cit) 
cpacu ni ppic pep ^an élan^; no ^an euiplen co pepoomun puilec, 
mac lmomain, uaip ba h-epem con ciuchail in com cpe n-a cappaic 
^up compomo a cpaioi o'á claioem caúa 'n-a cliab, ocup po opu 
pep in pop^aim ip in uppaino eli 'na cepc-oe^aio ^an cai^ill o'a 
cpaipi^. Ocup cucupcap epi beimenna biobanaip ^an cai^ill gan 
compe^aO, 00 Gonial, Oo oi^ail a oobeapr ap Ullcaib ocup ap 
allmapacaib, ^up mapbupcap ^^ 1 ] 1 <5 ann ' mac ^laip ^eip^, a 
Oalca, ba piaonaipi t)o. Ocup a jilla ^ 01 ! 1 <5 ann > mac Sluagam, 
ceann cumoai^ ocup commopúa caca claen-Oala le Con^al. lm 
^abaip lapla UlaO pept>omun ic uabaipe in •cj\ef > berm, ^up 
benuprap mclaiOem ma cepc mao, $up compamO m mnOai^ n-aip- 


d He was taken and fettered, Sfc. — i. e. fly from the battle except by general con- 

those whose courage did not stand the test sent. Those whose courage had stood the 

of passing into the tent between the armed ordeal, were not so secured, because it was 

warrior and the hound, were tied together taken for granted that they would " byde 

so as to render it impossible for them to the brunt to the death." 


the door óf the tent], and a furious, swift, fearful hound at the other 
jamb, having on him a thick iron collar, fastened to a strong pole to 
keep him; a sturdy boy beside him to check or incite him; and when 
an Ultonian or foreigner would come between them, where he could 
be attacked, the man with the hard leather-headed javelin was to 
make a thrust at him from the one jamb, and the hound, in like 
manner, to spring at him from the other jamb. Should the man to 
be chosen turn back, or take fright at the attack of the man with the 
spear, or at the dire onset of the hound exposing his teeth and ex- 
tending his jaws to tear or hold him fast, he was taken and fettered 
without delay d . But he who had passed the horrors of this mode of 
trial, without panic or dismay, was left without restraint. The first man, 
whose courage was, before all, tested by this plan, was Dubhdiadh, 
the Druid, for he was stopped and taken on the highest pole [ridge- 
pole] of the tent, having been panic stricken and driven to distraction 
at the horror of this attack [i. e. mode of trial]. In short there was 
not found a man who did not shrink and fly from it except Ferdoman 
the Bloody, the son of Imoman e , but he cleft the hound's jaws and 
cut in twain its heart in its breast with his warlike sword, and im- 
mediately after slew without mercy with his lance the man who was 
armed with the spear at the other jamb, and rushing into the tent 
he made three hostile blows at Congal without mercy or consi- 
deration, to revenge upon him his evil treatment of the Ultonians and 
foreigners, in exposing them to the ignominy of such a trial, and 
slew Gair Gann, the son of Elar Derg, his foster-son, in his presence, 
and his servant, Gair Gann, the son of Slugan, the latter the chief con- 
triver and plotter of every evil counsel for Congal. The Earl of Ulster 
avoided Ferdoman in giving the third blow, and the sword struck 


e Ferdoman the Bloody, the son of Imo- account of this warrior has been found in 
man. — peapoomun mac lmomain. — No any other document. 


ecaip cpempi co calmain. Cicu cena baigim co pip, ap pepoo- 
Tnun, nac oepnaip t>o oupcat) Dibepgi, ná o'popbat) pip-uilc ícip 
Gpinn ocup Qlbain nac aiuhpino-pea opr, muna lm^aibcea in inaD. 
Qcc aca ni but) aipcipi ant), .1. ep^i ^up cpapua, ocup na caca 00 
copu^uo, ocup na cupaio 00 com^pepachu, ocup na h-apo-maici 
o'acallaim, ina na h-amainpi ocup na h-ainigne eucaip ap Ullcaib 
ocup ap allmapacaib Do'n cuaic-bepc 511 p upapca; uaip íp peiom 
op na peomannaib, ocup ip popneapu nac pulain^cep plaich-pi^ 
peap pumit), .1. Oomnall, mac Get>a, Do nepc-ppea^pa aniu^. 
l?oc pia buaio, a cac-miliD, ap Con^al, ip pecc ftuopai^each pin, 
ocup ip ppe^pa pip Ullcai^ ; ace cena, biD a pip a^uc-pa, ^opa 
pep ppepcail cacha plaúa, coipe ocup cuppai^n caca cupao 
Con^al, ap peiom ocup ap en^num, ap ouchup, ocup ap De^nim. 
Ocup pa luaioecap in laiO pea, ocup laibepcap ip in laio, ap ip 
eapbaoac 6'a h-aobap : 

Gpi^, a Chon^ail TTlaca, 

ocup copai^ na caúa, 

mop m peiom pa cucaip laim, 

pi£ map Oomnall 00 om^bail. 
C10 ma but) peiom mop 00m' laim, 

Ouine ap Oomun 00 om^bail, 

me bot)em am ponn caúa, 

am ua pi£ ip po-plara. 


f King of 'the men of the West. — piaieh- nell ; it occurs very frequently in the 

P'5 F e P F um 'ó, — i. e. of Ireland. Keating Book of Lismore, but it is not explained 

writes that Crioch na bh-Fuineadhach, in any printed Irish dictionary. 

i. e. the county of the Hesperides, was the h The argument of which is defective 

second name which was given to Ireland. This shows that the writer of the story had 

« Success. — "Roc pia, a verb defective, is ancient MS. authorities for his facts, 

explained take or receive by Peter Con- * Macha TTIacha, — i. e. of Armagh. 


the exact spot where he had sat, and cut the royal couch in twain to 
the earth. " I swear truly," said Ferdoman, " that hadst thou not 
slunk from thy place, thou hast not stirred up any disloyalty, nor 
effected any certain evil between Erin and Alba, which I would not 
have revenged upon thee. It would have been more becoming in 
thee to have risen up at once, arrayed the battalions, roused the war- 
riors, and harangued the arch-chiefs, than to have annoyed and insulted 
the Ultonians and foreigners by such a perverse deed as thou hast 
just committed ; but it is an exertion beyond exertions, and an effort 
of which we are incapable, to respond to the king of the men of the 
West f , Domhnall, son of Aedh, this day." " Mayest thou have suc- 
cess g , warrior," said Congal, " what thou hast said is the paroxysm 
of a Rudrician and the reply of a true Ultonian. But be it known to 
thee that Congal, for his vigour and dexterity, for his descent and 
goodly deeds, is a man to respond to any chieftain, and to withstand 
and repress any hero." And this poem was spoken, the argument 
to which is defective 11 : 

Ferdoman. — " Arise, Congal of Macha 1 , 
And array the battalions, 
Great is the task thou hast taken in hand, 
To resist a king like Domhnall." 
Congal — " Why should it be a great exertion for my hand 
To resist any man in the world, 
I myself being a bulwark of battle, 
The grandson of a king 3 and a great prince. 


i Grandson of a king—Oim ua 1115. — history lias preserved, being the senior re- 
See pedigree of Congal, at the end of this presentative of the ancient kings of Emania 
volume, from which it appears that he or Ulster, whose history is more certain 
had just claims to all that he boasts of, than that of any other line of princes pre- 
fer he was descended from the most heroic served in the Irish annals, not excepting 
and most ancient line of princes that Irish even the monarchs of the Hy-Niall race. 



pmnait> 5a h'n aca aming, 
mac Qet>a, aipt)-pi£ G1I15? 
in picip neac uaib 50 pe, 
in lia 001b ina t)úinne? 

Coic cui^it), a oepap ann, 
acaic in íaúaib Gpeann, 
acaic uile, aioblib ^al, 
1 c'agait) ace aen coiceo. 

Qca ímapcaib eli, 

ic cenn, a uí "Ruópaige, 

au coiceo pein, peiom n-gialta, 

Conall, Go^an, Qin^ialla. 

Glbanaig uaim na n-a£aió, 
ip CU15 ceo a Cint) TTla^aip, 
Omgebau cui^eD máo cat, 
ceqn meic ailli Gachach. 

TTTamaip ocup mo oeopaio, 
1 n-ai£io Ceneoil Gogam, 
me boDein ocup mo jaill, 
1 n-a^aio Ceneoil Conaill. 

D' Ullcaib noc ap pupail lem, 
a ceicpe comlm 'na cenn, 
nip lia laec cpuaió Do elece gail, 
o' pepaib Gpenn na o 7 Ullcaib. 


k Arch-king of A Heck. — Qipopij Q1I15. end of this volume. 

— After the desertion of Tara, in the m Cenn Maghair Cinn TTla^aip is still 

year 563, the monarchs of the northern so called, by those who speak the Irish 

Hy-Niall generally resided at Ailech, near language, but anglicised Kinnaweer ; it is 

Derry. situated near Mulroy Lough, in the baro- 

1 Descendants of Budhraighe. — Q ui ny of Kilmacrenan, and in the county 

"Ruópai je. — See Congal's pedigree at the of Donegal. In the paper copy Dun )Tlo- 


Know ye the number that are yonder 

With the son of Aedh, arch-king of Ailech k ? 
Does any among you know as yet, 
Whether they are more numerous than we ?" 
Ferdoman. — " The five provinces, it is said, 
That are in the land of Erin, 
Are all, — great their valour, — 
Against thee, except one province. 

There is another odds 

Against thee, descendant of Rudhraighe 1 , 
In thine own province, — a capturing force,- — 
The races of Conall and Eoghan, and the Airghialla." 
Congal. — " The Albanachs from me against them, 

And five hundred from Cenn Maghair 111 , 
The four beauteous sons of Eochaidh 
Will repel one province in the battle. 

My soldiers and my exiles 

Against the race of Eoghan, 
Myself and my foreigners 
Against the race of Conall. 

For the Ultonians I would not deem it too much 
To have four times their number against them, 
There were not more heroes 11 , accustomed to battle, 
Of the men of all Erin than of the Ultonians. 


nctió is read instead of Cinn fflajctip, 
which seems the correct reading, for Cinn 
Maghair did not at this period belong to 
Congal, and he could not, therefore, have 
any forces out of it. 

n There were not more heroes, — i. e. Ul- 

ster alone produced as many heroes as all 
the other provinces put together. The 
modern Ultonians, of the ancient Irish or 
Milesian race, still retain this conceit of 
their own valour, as the Editor has had 
frequent opportunities of learning. 


l?o pat) Oib Concobap coip, 

po pat) t)ib pep^up, mac TC015, 
po pat) Oib Do Choin na clep, 
po pat) tub Conall comoep. 

l?o pat) t)ib t>o claint) l?opa, 
peer Tiieic ailli pep^upa; 
po pat) tub Celccaip na car, 
ocup Cae^aipe buaDach. 

l?o pat) Oib luce Conaille, 

Gen^up, mac Laime ^aibe ; 
po pat) tub, ba peppt>e in Dal, 
Naipi ocup Ginli íp Qpoan. 

Conchobhar Concobap, — i. e. Con- 

cliobar Mac Nessa, king of Ulster, under 
whom the heroes of the Red Branch flou- 
rished, as has been already often remarked. 

p Fergus, the son of Roigh. — Pep^ur-, 

mac "Roigh He was king of Ulster 

immediately preceding Conchobhar Mac 
Nessa, by whom, and whose myrmidons, he 
was dethroned. He afterwards passed into 
Connaught, where he was received by 
Olill, King of Connaught, and his queen, 
the celebrated heroine Meave, who assisted 
him to wage a war on the Ultonians, which 
was carried on for the space of seven, or, 
according to others, ten years. 

q Cu of the feats Cu na-5-clectp, — i. e. 

Cu of the feats of arms. This was Cu 
Chulainn, one of the heroes of the Red 
Branch, who is called by the annalist 
Tighernach, "fortissimus heros Scotorum." 

r Conall. — Conall, — i. e. Conall Cear- 
nach, another of the heroes of the Red 


Branch ; for an account of whom see 
Keating, in his account of the heroes of 
Ulster who flourished under Conchobhar 
Mac Nessa. 

s Race of Ross. — Clann "Ropa, — i. e. 
the descendants of Ross the Red, the son 
of Rudhraighe, ancestor of the Clanna 

t/Sons of Fergus Secc meic Pepgupa. 

— The seven sons of Fergus, that is, of 
Fergus Mac Roigh, mentioned above in 
Note p . These were Eoghan, Feartlachtgha, 
Core, surnamed Feardoid, Ciar, surnamed 
Moghtaeth, Cormac, surnamed Moghdoid, 
Uada Ethlenn, and Corbolonn. Meave, 
Queen of Connaught, was the mother of 
three of these sons, viz., of Conmac, Ciar, 
and Core, who became the founders of 
many powerful families — See Ogygia, 
Part III. c. 46, and Mac Firbis's Genealo- 
gies of the Clanna Rudhraighe. 

u Celtchar of the battles Celccaip na 


Of them was Conch obhar° the Just; 

Of them was Fergus, the son of Roigh p ; 

Of them was Cu q of the Feats ; 

Of them was Conall r the Comely. 
Of them were the race of Ross s , 

The seven beauteous sons of Fergus 1 ; 

Of them were Celtchar of the Battles", 

And Laeghaire the Victorious v . 
Of them too were the people of Conaille, 

Aengus, son of Lamh Gaibhe w , 

Of them were, — of whom they would boast, — 

Naisi, Ainli, and Ardan x . 


$-cac. — He was one of the heroes of the 2. 16. p. 759.) as follows: "These were the 
Red Branch, and gave name to Dun Celt- twelve chiefs of Ulster : Fergus Mac Roich, 
chair, a very large fort near the town of Conall Cearnach, Laeghaire the Victorious, 

Cuchullin, Eoghan Mac Durthacht, Celt- 
chair Mac Uitechair, Blai Brughaidh, 
Dubhthach Dael Uladh, Ailill Milteng, 
Conall Anglonach, Muinremur Mac Gerr- 
ginn, and Cethern Mac Fintain." They 
were all at the Banquet of Bricrinn, of 
which a curious account is given in the 
Book of Leinster. 

^Aengus, son ofLamhGaibhe Qengur- 

lDac £airhe ^aibe. — He was also one of 
the heroes of the Red Branch. Some ac- 
count of him and his father, Lamh Gaibhe, 
or Lamh Gabhaidh, is preserved in the 
Book of Leinster, fol. 73, a, a. 

x Naisi, Ainli, and Ardan. — These were 
the three sons of Uisnech, celebrated in 
the Romantic Tale called Oighidh Clainne 
Uisnech, published by Theophilus O'Fla- 
nagan, in the Transactions of the Gaelic 

Downpatrick. — See Book of Leinster, fol. 
66, a, where he is called of Leth glais, 
another ancient name for Downpatrick. 
Colgan writes of this hero as follows, in a 
note to the life of St. Bridget by Animo- 
sus, Lib. ii. c. 99 : " Hie Keltcharius nu- 
meratur in vetustis nostris hystoriis inter 
prsecipuos Hiberniae heroes seu athletas, 
iioruitque tempore Concavarii regis Ulto- 
niae circa ipsa Filii Dei Incarnati tem- 
pera, " — Trias Thaum. p. 566, n. 52. 

v Laeghaire the Victorious. — 6ae£cnpe 
óuaóac. — He was also one of the heroes 
of the Red Branch ; for an account of his 
death see Keating. The chiefs of Ulster, 
before the expulsion of Fergus Mac Roigh 
into Connaught by his successor, Concho- 
bhar Mac Nessa, are set down in a vellum 
MS- in the Library of Trinity College, (H. 


l?o pat> t>ib-pin ap pot>ain, 
clann cupaca Concobaip; 
po pat) Oib Oubuhac ó' n Lino, 
ip TTIunpemap, mac 55 e PPo" in0 - 

l?o pat) tub, ap in Uaw uaip, 

Ceuhepn pip-^ap^, mac pinnuain, 
po pa tub, ba ^apb a n-^ail, 
Gmaip^m pi^Oa TCeochaio. 

l?o pa t)ib, — ba peppoi pm, — 
pepgup, mac Leioe luuhmaip; 
po pa Oib, a n-am na cpeach, 
Cachbait), Corral Claipin^nech. 

Society of Dublin. They were cousins- 
german to the heroes Cuchullin and Co- 
nall Cearnach, as O'Flanagan shows in that 
work, pp. 24, 25. 

y /Sons of ' Conchobhar Clann cupaca 

Concobaip. — i. e. the sons of Conchobhar 
Mac Nessa, King of Ulster, who distin- 
guished themselves in the war between Con- 
naught and Ulster, in the first century, for 
an account of which see Keating's History 
of Ireland, and the celebrated historical 
tale called Tain Bo Cuailgne, of which the 
most ancient copy now extant is preserved 
in Leabhar na h-Uidhre, in the possession 
of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, College- 
green, Dublin. 

O'Flaherty says (Ogygia, Part III. c. 
48) that this Conchobhar had above twenty- 
one sons whose descendants are extinct 
these many centuries. The nine most 
distinguished of his sons are enumerated 
in the following ancient verses, cited by 


Duald Mac Firbis in his pedigrees of the 

Clanna Rudhraighe : 

ITIcncne Concobaip an pij, 
Ca h-Ulleaib ba rhóp a m-bpig ; 
Ni piacc a n-úpa ná 5-car 
Honbap pooup pápui^peaó; 
Copmac ba Conluinjip lainn, 
Pionncaó, ^laipne, íp Conainj, 
TTIame, Cumpjpaió ba caorh gné, 
piacha, Piachna, Pupbuióe. 

" The sons of Conchobhar, the king, 
Among the Ul tonians great was their vigor ; 
There never engaged in skirmish or battle 
Nine who would subdue them : 
Cormac Conluingis, the strong, 
Fionnchadh, Glaisne, Conaing, 
Maine, Cuinsgraidh of fair countenance, 
Fiacha, Fiachna, Furbuidhe." 

z Dubhthach. — He was the celebrated 
Dubhthach DaelUladh, one of Conchobhar 
Mac Nessa's household It is stated in 


Of them were likewise 

The heroic sons of Conchobhar y ; 

Of them was Dubhthach of Linn 2 

And Munremar, son of Gerrginn a . 
Of them, on the Tain [cattle -spoil] in the east, 

The truly fierce Cethern, son of Finntan 5 , 

Of them was, — fierce his fight, — 

The regal Amairgin Reochaidh c . 
Of them was, — better for it, — 

Fergus, son of Leide the supple d ; 

Of them were, in times of plunders, 

Cathbhaidh 6 and Congal Clairingnech f . 


the Book of Lecan that the lands which of Ireland, in the present county of Louth. 

were his patrimonial inheritance were, e Amairgin Reochaidh QmcupjinTCeo- 

soon after his death, inundated by Lough caió. — He was the father of the famous 

Neagh. hero Conall Cearnach. His pedigree is 

a Munremar, son of Gerrginn ÍTIun- given by Mac Firbis, thus : — " Amergin, 

pemap mac ^eppjino He was one of son of Cas, son of Fachtna, son of Caipe, 

the heroic chiefs of Ulster in the time of son of Cionga, son of Rudhraighe, the an- 

Fergus See Book of Leinster, fol. 73, a, a, cestor of the Clanna Rudhraighe." 

where he is mentioned as one of the heroes d Fergus, son of Leide the supple pep- 

who claimed the honour of dissecting the gup mac Ceioe. — He was the grandson 

famous pig called Muc Datho, at a banquet of the monarch Rudhraighe, from whom 

given by a Leinster chieftain. all the Clanna Rudhraighe are sprung. In 

b Cethern, son of Finntan Cecepn the Book of Leinster, fol. 65, b, b, he is 

mac pinncain. — He was one of the twelve said to have resided at Line, now Moy- 

chiefs of Ulster in the time of Fergus. — linny, in the county of Antrim. 

See Book of Leinster, fol. 62, a, where he e Cathbhadh Carbaó, — i. e. Cath- 

is called the grandson of Niall Niamh- bhadh, the druid, the father of Conchobhar 

glonnach of Dun da bheann. He is a very Mac Nessa, King of Ulster, 

conspicuous character in the very ancient f Congal Clairingnech was the son of 

Irish Tale called Tain Bo Cuailgne, which Rudhraighe Mor, and monarch of Ireland, 

is the Tain referred to in the text. East according to O' Flaherty's chronology, 

in this line alludes to Cuailgne, in the east about the year of the world 3889. 



T?o pa oib — an^baib in paino, — 

lpial Uaicne, mac Conaill. 

po pa Oib ac cup ria upep 

Curhpcpaio, Copmac Conloin^ep. 
UlaiD ac imoa a n-écua, 

a copcap ní coioécca 

^up in TTlaipu pi pop TTlui^ Par, 

ó oo cuippeu a ceD cau. 
Car Raúain, cac l?uip na pi£, 

car Duma beinne íp blao pip, 

caú Goaip, ann po h-anao, 

caú pipbeooa pint>-capaD. 
Car náp b' upupa o'áipinri, 

ic gaipi^, íc íol^aip^cci, 

car po bpip ap plua^ Semne, 

bpiplec TTlui^i TTIuipcemne. 


No account of this battle lias yet been dis- 
covered. There are many places of the 
name in Ireland, of which the most cele- 
brated is Rathain, now Rahen, in the 
King's County, about five miles westwards 
of Tullamore, where Saint Carthach of 
Lis more erected a church. 

k Battle of Ros na Righ. — Car Ruir- 
na pi j, — now Rossnaree, situated on the 
River Boyne, near the village of Slane, 
in the county of East Meath. This battle 
was fought in the beginning of the first 
century, between Conchobhar Mac Nessa, 
King of Ulster, and Cairbre Nia Fear, 
King of Tara, with his brother, Finn File, 
King of Leinster. The Lagenians were 
defeated. A short account of this battle is 
preserved in the Book of Leinster, fol. 140. 

g Irial Uaithne, the son o/Conall. — lpial 

Uairne mac Conaill He was generally 

called Irial Glunmhar, and was King of 
Emania, or Ulster, for forty years, and the 
son of Conall Cearnach, one of the most 
distinguished of the heroes of the Red 
Branch. — See list of the Kings of Emania, 
as taken from the Annals of Tighernach, 
in Note C, at the end of this volume. 

h Cumhscraidk. — Cumpcpaio. — He was 
one of the sons of Conchobhar Mac Nessa, 
King of Ulster, and succeeded his father 
as King of Ulster for three years. He was 
slain in the year of Christ 37, according to 
the Annals of Tighernach. 

1 Cormac Conloinges. — He was the son 
of Conchobhar Mac Nessa. 

J Battle of Rathain Caé "Raéain. — 

21 I 

Of them was, — valiant his deeds, — 

Irial Uaithne g , the son of Conall, 

Of them in fighting the battles 

Were Cnmhscraidh h and Cormac Conloinges 1 . 
The Ultonians ! many their exploits, 

Their triumphs were incomparable 

To this Tuesday on Magh Rath, 

Since they fought their first battle. 
The battle of Rathain j , the battle of Eos na righ k , 

The battle of Dumha Beinne 1 of true fame, 

The battle of Edar m , where a delay was made, 

The truly vigorous battle of Finn-charadh 11 . 
A battle which was not easy to be described, 

From shouts, — from various shouts, — 

The battle in which the host of Semne° were defeated,- 

The Breach of Magh Muirtheimhne p . 

1 Dumha Beinne, — i. e. the mound of 
Beinne. No account of this battle has 
yet been discovered, nor is the situation 
of the place certain. It is probable that 
this Dumha, or mound, was on the plain 
of Magh Mucroimhe, near Athenry, in the 
county of Galway, where Beinne, the son 
of the King of Britain, was slain, A. D. 
240. — See Ogygia, Part III. c. 67. 

m Edar, now the Hill of Howth, in the 
county of Dublin, not far from the city. 
The battle here referred to, — which was 
caused by the exorbitant demands of the 
poet Athairne from the people of Leinster, 
— was fought between the poet Athairne, 
Conall Cearnach, and Cethern Mac Fintain, 
the Ultonian side, and 




King of Leinster, and his people, on the 
other. In this battle Mesgeghra was slain 
by Conall Cearnach, who took out his 
brains and carried them off as a trophy. 

n Battle of Finn-charadh Car Pinnca- 

paó. — No account of this battle has yet 
been discovered, nor has the situation of 
the place been determined. 

The host of Seimne Sluctjs; Seimne. 

— The Ultonians were sometimes so called 
by the bards, from the plain of Seimne, 
situated in the territory of Dal Araidhe, 
in the south of the present county of An- 
trim. — See Colgan, Trias Thaum. p. 183, 
n. 219. 

p The Breach of Magh Muirtheimhne. — 

&piplech TTIuije muipreiriine Magh 

2 E 2 


Cen la Concobaip t>'a claino, 
ocup Oep^-puarap Conaill, 
t>'a cue pep^up, — popum n-^le, — 
na epi maela íílióe. 

Secc caúa ím Cainp Conpui, 
ap^ain piamain, tyiic popui 
ap^aw Conpui ba buan blao, 
mi pecu macaib Dec Oeaóaó. 

Ni t>epnnpac ban-ecua ban, 
plua^ Gmna, aipecc Ulat>. 
act: mat) TTlu^ain, epia na peipe, 
ocup Hleob uanmap, oipoepc. 


Muirthemhne was the ancient name of an 
extensive plain near Dundalk, in the pre- 
sent county of Louth. The battle here 
referred to was made the subject of an 
Irish romantic tale, of which there are 
many paper copies in the collection of 
Messrs. Hodges and Smith, College-green, 

q Conchobhar gave his sons. — Ceo la 
Concobaip o'a clomn. — The story is un- 
known to the Editor. 

T Derg-ruathar Chonaill. — tDeapj-pu ac- 
ap Chonaill — This is also the name of 
an historical Irish Tale. 

s Maels q/Meath. — t)'á o-cucPepjup. — 
The story to which this line refers is un- 
known to the Editor. 

r Cathair Conrui. — Caéaip Conpui, — 
i. e. the caher or stone fort of Curoi Mac 
Dairi. It is still the name of a mountain 
situated about six miles S. W. of the town 

of Tralee, in Kerry, near which Curoi Mac 
Daire, King of the Deagads of Munster, 
resided in the first century. In the Book 
of Leinster, fol. 1 6, a, b, it is stated that 
the Lecht or monument of Curoi is on Sliabh 
Mis mountain, of which Caherconree is the 
highest part. The Carn or sepulchral 
pile of Curoi is still to be seen on the 
north-east shoulder of this mountain, but 
his caher, or fort, has been long since 
destroyed, though Dr. Smith, in his His- 
tory of Kerry, states, that the ruins of it 
were to be seen on the summit of the 
mountain in his own time. But this is 
utterly erroneous, for the feature called 
Caher Conree on this mountain is a natural 
ledge of rocks. 

u Fiamuin, son of Forui Piammn 

mac Popui It is stated in the Book of 

Leinster, fol. 16, a, b, that Fiamuin Mac 
Forui was slain at Dun Binne. He was 

21 3 

The first day which Conchobhar gave his sons q , 

And the Derg-ruathar ChonanT, 

In which Fergus, — noble the deed, — 

Took the three Maels of Meath s . 
Seven battles around Cathair Conrui c , 

The plundering of Fiamuin, son of Forui", 

The plundering of Curoi, — lasting the renown, — 

With the seventeen sons of Deaghaidh. 
The host of Emania v , the host of Ulster, 

Have never committed woman-slaughter w , 

Excepting in the case o/Mughain, through love of her, 

And the hateful, but illustrious Medhbh. 

a Minister chieftain, and cotemporary 
with Curoi Mac Dairi. The Death of 
Fiamuin formed a distinct story. — See 

v The host of Emania. — Sluaj Garhna. 
— The ancient Ultonians, or Clanna Rudh- 
raighe, are so called from Eamhain Macha, 
the name of their ancient palace, which was 
built by Cimbaeth 309 years before the 
birth of Christ, and in which thirty-one of 
their kings resided. It was destroyed by the 
three Collas, the grandsons of King Cairbre 
LifFeachair, in the year 332, according to 

the Annals of Tighernach See list of 

the kings of Emania at the end of this 
volume. Its remains are still to be seen 
about two miles to the west of the town 
of Armagh, and are, without a single ex- 
ception, the most extensive of their kind 
in all Ireland. It was described by Col- 
gan as follows in 1647: " Emania propé 

Ardmacham, nunc fossis latis, vestigiis 
murorum eminentibus et ruderibus pristi- 
numredolens splendorem." — Trias Thaum. 
p. 6. — See Note on Craobh Ruadh, infra. 
w Have never committed woman-slaughter. 
— Ni oepnpuc bcm-ecca ban, — i. e. they 
never disgraced themselves by slaying 
women, except in two instances, namely, 
in that of Mughain, who was slain through 
jealousy, and that of Meave, Queen of 
Connaught, who was slain by her own 
sister's son, Furbuidhe, son of Conchobhar 
Mac Nessa, on Inis Cloithrinn, in Lough 
Ree, in the Shannon, to take revenge for 
the assistance she had rendered Fergus, 
the dethroned king of Ulster, in making 

war on the latter province See Ordnance 

Map of Inis Cloghran, which is now vul- 
garly called Quaker's Island, on which the 
spot where Meave was slain is shown, un- 
der the name of Inad marbhtha Medhbha. 


Noca n-áipern cén bam beo, 
ecua Ulat> o Qch 60. 
Q pi£ Cine íp lepóa nirh, 
a bile Grhna epi£. 

Gpig a. 

lp ano pm po ép^cap oll-caua Ulaó ocup allmapac co picoa, 
paebpac, popmaua, co h-apmoa, ocupco h-ai^beil, ocup co anpaua, 
pa comapcaib cpooa comep^i cau-bpopcubaca Con^ail; acc ^ép 
bo h-áipem, ocup ^ep ba ainmniu^at) aen pluai^ ocup aen-plomnci 
ap na oá cauh-pocpami cpot)a, comrenna Con^ail, poppau paine 
ploinnui ocup puiDi^n cac oeg-plua^, ocup cac De^-pocpami Oib- 
pein ap cumupc ocup ap comep^i caic pa leiú ap laraip Do'n laec- 
paio pin ; ocup ba h-amlait) po epi^ cac paep-plua^ poceneoil acu 
íp in uaip pin, .1. cac aipecc ap n-iat>ut> pa'n aipo-pi^, ocup cac 
ciriol ap cimpu^uo pa ci^epna. Ocup ba h-eat) ínpo oeirbip ocup 
fceiliugao caca Oe^-pocpaiDi Dib-pein, íuip ínnell ocup opou^ut), 
ícip copcuo ocnp copugat) caca, poppac pain ocup poppac puaic- 
nio ó each ap ceana. pál-aipbi peppoa, pip-oluich, paebap-cle- 
pach Ppan^c ap n-ep^i co h-anpaca ma each ocup ina cpó cobpaio, 
cen^ailci, cliú-popcaoac cupao, pa Daipbpé, niac n-Oopnmaip, 
plair pein pleomap, popmaca, par-corhaiplec Pparvgc. Ocup t)in 
$ép b'é plua^ púnuach, paeb-cpaioec, ppoll-meip^ec, plua^-aipbep- 
cach Saxan, ba h-ágmap a n-innell, ina coppraip claioem ocup 
cojip-plea^, ocup car-pciaú, pa (5 a pb, ™ ac Rogaipb, pi^ pein péic- 
pech, poineiriail, pluag-nepu-lírmiap Saxan. Ocup ^ép b'é plua£ 
bopppaoac, bágach, bpeac-meip^eac, bápc-libepnac bperan, ba 
pepmac a peol pein ina m-bpóin bpocla, biapcaigi, 6pecnaip-bep- 


x prop of Emania arise The last Gp iao, cap linn, íp lepoa neini, 

quatrain of this poem is very different in Q óccct epii;. 

the paper copy, thus : y The mighty battalions. The Irish word 

21 5 

I could not enumerate, during my life, 

The exploits of the Ultonians of Ath eo. 

O king of Line of most distinguished valour, 

O prop of Emania arise x ! 

Arise," &c. 

Then rose the mighty battalions y of the Ultonians and foreigners 
vehemently, fiercely, valiantly, well-armed, terribly and heroically at 
the warlike and exciting exhortations of Congal; and though the two 
brave and powerful armies of Congal were reckoned and called one 
army and one name, still various were the surnames and situations of 
each goodly host and goodly band, when each party of these warriors 
rose up separately on the plain; and the manner in which each of the 
freeborn noble hosts rose out at that time was this, viz., each host 
closed round its arch-king, and each company collected around its 
lord. And this was the difference and distinction between every 
goodly host of them both as regards order and arrangement, position 
and array of battle. The manly, close, sword-dexterous battalion of 
the Franks was different and distinguishable from all the rest, having 
risen out vigorously in a strong, close, and sheltering battalion and 
phalanx of champions under Dairbre, the son of Dornmhar 2 , the fes- 
tive, heroic, and wisely-counselling king of the Franks. And as to the 
active, vain-hearted, satin-bannered, heroic-deeded host of the Saxons, 
warlike was their array with a border of swords, spears, and shields, 
under Garbh, the son of Eogarbh, the robust prosperous king of 
Saxonland, of the strong and numerous forces. As to the warlike, 
speckled-ensigned, ship-possessing army of Britain, firm was their 


cur, which makes caret in the plural, ge- be considered a fictitious character, unless 

nerally signifies a battle, but it is some- we suppose Dairbre to have been the Irish 

times used, as in the present instance, to mode of writing Dagobert, which was the 

denote a battalion. name of the king of France when this 

L Dairbre, son o/Dornmhar. — This must battle was fought. 


lai£, booba, pa Conan l?ob, mac Gachach Qm^cip, ocup pa Dael, 
mac Caili Opuao, co n-a upi macaib, .1. Réip, ocup Ul ocup Gpcup 
a n-anmanna. Ocup tnn pop, ^ép b'é ó^-plua^ apnam-ecxlinmap, 
ecpocap Qlban, ba pap-t)luic a pumiu^ao ina cappai^ ceipc, com- 
aipo pa ceicpi macaib Gachach buioi, .1. QeO in Gppio Uaine, 
ocup Suibne, ocup Corral TTleno, ocup Domnall bpec. Ocup gép 
b'iac popne ocup popglai^i peppt)a, pomópoa, pep^-tmaibpeca 
pinu^all, ba h-allmapt)a a n-innell pein ina leiberm luipech, ocup 
laigne, ocup lebap-pciauh, pá Glaip n-Oep^, mac n-Oolaip, plaiú 
popuamail pinogall. 

Oil clanna h-lp, mic TTIilet), impaicep a^aint) ap a airli-pein : 
ba min cac meipnec, ocup ba cláic cac cea^ap, ocup ba cennaip 
cac copu^at), in airpe^aD innill ocup écoipc aoai^uhe meppfta, mi- 
t>achóa, mop-oain^en na milet) boi acu pa Gonial Claen, mac 
Sccmrilaw Sciau-leúain, aipD-pi^ uaibpec, allaua, oll-ceupat>ach 
Ulao. ^ép Oi^paip each opem, ocup $ep cpooa, cac cineo, ocup 
^ep comlan cac copu^ao, po b'iac pi^-clanna péoi, puirenoa, pi^- 
bperaca Ruopai^i ba h-uilliu, ocup ba h-aiobli, ocup ba h-opcapoa 
innell; ba cpuinne, ocup ba cpooa, ocup ba cobpaigi copu^ao ; ba 
oluici, ocup ba oam^ne, ocup ba Duaibpi^e Oeipeo ; ba glame, 
ocup ba ^epi, ocup ba ^aíbui^e cimpa, ocup car-imli ; ba cpepi, 
ocup ba ci^e, ocup ba cpenleci copac ; ba poinnme, ocup ba pan- 
cai^i pai^it) ; ba h-ellma, ocup ba h-épcaiOi ai^neo, o'iappaio na 
h-impepna, ocup Do copnum na cauh-lairpec pe clannaib Cumt>. 

CinmpCon^al ceim na cupaoaib coCnocán m copcaip, .1. aiu 
ap cpaioeo, ocup ap commaioeao copcap Con^ail, ap na poobu^ao 
n' pepaib Gpenn. Ocup po inoca a a^aió ap Ulluaib ocup ap 
allmapacaib, ocup po ^ab 5a piaonugao oppo a oi^enn booem pe 


a Race of Conn, — i. e. the descendants b The hillock of the victory Cnoccm an 

of Conn of the Hundred Battles. copcaip. — This name is now forgotten. 


array in a fiery, wounding, Welsh-speaking, majestic phalanx, under 
Conan Rod, the son of Eochaidh Aingces, and under Dael, the son 
of Caili Druadh, with his three sons named Reis, Ul, and Arthur. 
And as to the cruel, many-deeded, merciless young host of Alba, 
very close was their array as an even high rock, under the four sons 
of Eochaidh Buidhe, viz., Aedh of the Green Dress, Suibhne, Congal 
Menn, and Domhnall Brec. And as to the select, manly, Fomorian- 
like, and furious troops of the Finngalls, strange was their array in 
a bulwark of armour, spears, and broad shields, under Elar Derg, the 
son of Dolar, the valiant prince of Fingall. 

After these we have to mention the great descendants of Ir, the 
son of Milesius : tame was all courage, feeble all defence, and mild 
every array, in comparison with the fiery, lively, great, and firm 
array and complexion of the heroes who were around Congal Claen, 
the son of Scannlan of the Broad Shield, the haughty, famous, in- 
telligent arch-king of Ulster. And though every party was dili- 
gent, though every tribe was brave, though every equipment was 
complete, the ready, resplendent, kingly-judging descendants of Rudh- 
raighe were the most numerous, prodigious, and warlike in array ; 
the most compact, the bravest, and the stoutest in order ; the closest, 
the firmest, and the most terrible in the rear; the straightest, the 
sharpest, and the most terrible in the borders and flanks; the strongest, 
the closest, and the mightiest in the front ; the most successful and 
sanguine in the onset, and the most prepared and most ardent-minded 
in longing for the conflict, to maintain the field against the race of 
Conn y . 

Congal stepped aside from the warriors to Cnocan an choscair 
[the hillock of the slaughter 2 ], afterwards so called as being the place 
where Congal was overcome and triumphed over, when he was cut 
down by the men of Erin ; and he turned his face upon the Ultonians 
and foreigners, and proceeded to prove to them the cause of his own 
irisu arcu. soc. 6. 2 F enmity 


Oomnall ocup a bomun t>o oicennat) t>o clannaib Cumo Céocarai^, 
.1. a cui^eo ^an cennac ap na Oeaoail pe oepb-pwe, wunn pon 
ocup Gmain 5cm Ullcac, ocup in Cpaeb ftuao $an cupaio 00 clann- 
aib Ruopaigi '5a po-aiupeib, ocup apbepc na bpiaúpa pa ann : 

Cwnit) céim co caeh-lacaip, 

a Ullcu 'pa allmapcu, 

lnopai^io h-ua h-Qmmipec, 

aióo aip bap n-epanoip. 
Di^lai^ mo t)eipc n-t)ipat>aipc, 

ap in upiar pom' co^aib-pea, 

bepio baipe bpar-mepfra, 

1 comoail na cui^eoac. 
CopnaiD Cui^et) Concobaip, 

pe clannaib Cumt> Ceo-carraig, 

a Craebk Ruadh Cpaeb "Ruao, now 

anglicised Creeveroe ; it is the name of a 
townland situated near the River Callan, 
not far from Emania. — See Stuart's His- 
tory of Armagh, p. 578, and Ordnance 
Map of the Parish of Armagh, on which 
the site of the house of Creeveroe is shown. 

Keating writes as follows of the palace 
of Emania, as it stood in the time of Con- 
chobhar Mac Nessa and the heroes of the 
Red Branch : 

"Upi h-ápupa íomoppaoo bi a n-Ga- 
main TTlaca pe linn Choncobcnp, map 
aca, ópoinbeapg, Cpaoboeapj agup 
Cpaobpuaó. 'S an céao ri 5 do bioip a 
n-oéaip; &c. Qn oapa reach, o'a n-goip- 
rióe Cpaoboeapj, íp ann bioip na h-aipm 
agup na peoioe uaiple a 5-coiTÚéao ; 

a^up an cpeap éeac o'a n-goipcioe an 
Chpaobpuaó, íp ann 00 piapcaióe e pern 
map aon le lion a laocpao." 

Thus translated by Dr. John Lynch, 
author of Cambrensis Eversus, in his MS. 
translation of Keating : — " Palatium Con- 
chauri, Emon Machanum, in tria potissi- 
mum domicilia distributum erat, Nosoco- 
mium, Hibernicé Bronbhearg, armamen- 
tarium vulgo Craobhdhearg, quod arma et 
instrumentum omne bellicum, et pretiosa 
quseque Conchauri cimelia continebat; et 
triclinium, Craobhruadh appellatum, ubi 
cibus illi suisque apponebantur, quod 
etiam ejus hospitalis locus erat et exedra, 
cum sibi solitus esset advenas quosque 

These great houses, so famous in story as 


enmity to Domhnall, and how his kingdom was decapitated by the 
descendants of Conn, that is, how his province was left without a chief 
or head, having been taken from his tribe, which left Emani a without 
an Ultonian, and Craebh Ruadh a without a champion of the race of 
Rudhraighe ; and he said these words there : 

"Advance to the battle field, 

Ye Ultonians and foreigners, 

Attack the grandson of Ainmire, 

Revenge on him your insults. 

Revenge ye my sightless eye 

On the prince who fostered me ; 

Make a watchful, quick advance 

Towards the provincialists. 

Contest the province of Conchobar [i. e. of Ulster] 

With the sons of Hundred-battled Conn, 


the chief seats of the ancient Ultonians, or district of Creeve Roe as the place where 
Clanna Eudhraighe, in can ba po pip Ull- the regal palace stood. There is, in an ad- 
cm;?;, when in the meridian of their power, joining townland called Trea, a mound 
splendor, and glory, were in ruins in the which, in form, resembles this figure 1 — 1, 
time of Congal, and the land on which they and is universally denominated the King's 
were situated was in the possession of the Stables. Navan hill" [which is the Angli- 
Clann Colla, or Oirghialla. Dr. Stuart, in cised form of cnoc na h-Gaixina] " over- 
his History of Armagh, speaks of the ruins looks the lands of Craobh Ruadh. Around 
of these buildings as follows : — " The site this hill, betwixt the base and the summit, 
of these ancient edifices can be nearly as- there is an elliptical fosse and moat, inclu- 
certained at this present hour. There is ding eleven acres, three roods, and thirty- 
a townland near the Navan hill, westward six perches, by which two smaller circular 
of Armagh, which is yet denominated mounds or forts (one on the top and the 
Creeve Roe, a name which, in the English other on the side of the hill) are environed, 
letters, expresses the very sound desig- These had probably been formed to protect 
nated in the Irish characters by the word the royal residence." — Hist. Armagh, pp. 
Craobh Ruadh, the red branch. The uni- 578, 579. 
form tradition of the country assigns this 



o lnobep cáiO caem Colpúa, 

co Opobaíp, co Oubporaip. 
ba h-epm bap pen cui^eo, 

i pemiup bap pi^-pinnpep, 

in ran ba po pip Ullcai^, 

bap cpich-pi nip cuimpi^eD, 

pe pebup bap pip-laec-pi. 
Copmac, Cupcpaio, Concobap, 

pep^up, piaca, pupbaioi, 

pinncao, pep^na, pepaoach, 

Go^an, Gpp^i, Qmaip^in. 
TTlenn, DTIaine, ocup Tilunpemap, 

tai^pec Cannmáp, Lae^aipe, 

Celccaip, Conall Compamac, 

Ceichepn, Cu na caem-ceapoa, 

Cacbaio, Con^al Claipingnec. 
Naipi co n-a nepc-bpairpib, 

Qen^up, lpial oponi^i, 

Q5 pin tn'ne Oeg-Ullcac, 

náp pineo, nap papai^eo, 

Pubpai^ec pépeime-piun. 
TTlaip5 po ^em ó'n gappaioi pin, 

gan airpip a n-engnuma ; 


b To Drobhaois and Dubhrothair O which flows out of Lough Melvin and falls 

lnbep Colpra, co t)pobaip, co t)ub- into the Bay of Donegal at Bundrowis. 

poraip — According to all the old Irish The river here called Dubk-Rotkair, i. e. 

MSS. which treat of the ancient division the Black River, is that now called the 

of the provinces, Ulster comprised the en- River Dubh, or Duff, which falls into the 

tire of the present county of Louth, and same bay at Bunduff. Keating says, 
extended from Inbher Colptha, the mouth " Coije Ulaó o Opobaoip 50 h- lnbep 

of the Boyne, to the River Drobhaois, Colprct."— Or as Lynch renders it, " A 


From the fair beauteous Inbher Colptha 
To Drobhaois and Dubhrothair b . 

Tliat was the extent of your old province 
In the time of your royal ancestors, 
When the Ultonians were truly great, 
Your country was not circumscribed, 
From the goodness of your true heroes. 

Cormac, Cuscraidh, Conch obhar c , 
Fergus, Fiacha, Furbaidhi, 
Finnchadh, Fergna, Feradhach, 
Eoghan, Errgi, Amairgin. 

Menn, Maine, and Muinremar, 

Laighsech, Lannmhor, Laeghaire, 
Celtchair, Victorious Conall, 
Cethern, Cu na Cerda [i. e. Cuchullin\ 
Cathbhaidh, Congal Clairingnech. 

Naisi with his mighty brothers, 
Aengus, Irial the renowned, 
There is a race of good Ultonians, 
Who were not prostrated, who were not overcome, 
Nor was one Eudrician in their time. 

Alas for him who sprung from that tribe, 
Who does not imitate their valour, 


Drovisa ad fluvium Colptam extenditur" and the champions of the Red Branch, and 

[sc. Ultonia]. have been all mentioned in former notes 

c Cormac, Cuscraidh, Conchobhar. — Cop- except Laigsech Lannmor. He was the 

mac, Cupcpaio, Concobap, &c. — This son of the hero Conall Cearnach, already 

is a recapitulation of the names of the often referred to, and ancestor of the seven 

most distinguished heroes of Ulster. The septs of Laoighis or Leix, in the Queen's 

most of them were cotemporary with County, of whom the O'Mores were the 

Conchobhar Mac Nessa, King of Ulster, most distinguished. 


mciips ocm' cpich a cui^eo-pun, 

^an uuailn^iup a ruppacua; 

5cm com-cpiall a copnuma, 

ppi h-eaccpannaib aiupebup. 
Cpic comlan ^ac cuiceoach, 

£an upepbait) acu-pum, 

ca cpich ace ap cuiceo-ne 

nac h-e a pi$ 'p a parmap epiac, 

opoaigiup co h-aencat>ac, 

caipi^ ap a upen cuacaib, 

bpu^ait) ap a baileoaib, 

mic pi^ ag a po coimeo, 

ace pinne, pil l?uopai£e ? 
Conall, Gogan, Qip^ialla, 

pop^abpac ap pepanna, 

$up ob cucu in cacpeim-pi, 

t)'a cup ap ap cint>. 

Cmoit) c. c. 

Qp comepgi na caú-buioen cpotm, cen^aikn, copp-oéula cupao 
pin, po mnpai^eafcap in t>a oll-bpomi^ aiDbli, uaibpeaca, ep-itma, 
agaiprecha, anpalaió pin, co h-aen mai^in ma ppeeh-poprnb poinn- 
me, pocla, plua^-mepa, puitn^ci, pap-laec; ocup ma n-^pinneoaib 
^épa, ^aibceca, ^peim-oéula, ^poo-neimneca ^aipceo ; ocup ina 
laemannaib leúna, luaú-mepa, leitmieca, lebap-copnumac lairpech ; 
ocup ma n-t)lúmaib t)icpa, Oeppcai^úi, oemmeca, Ooppea^apra 
oebúa ; ocup ina cipeoaib cpuaioi, cotmacóa, cpaíóemla, cnep- 
cen^ailci cara, co cpi Oel^-oam^nib oluiri, tn^paipi, Dpeach-Duaib- 
peca, Oiúo^lai^i Debúa, ap n-a n-oeilb, ocup ap n-a n-oin^i, ocup 
ap n-a n-oluru^at), map ip pepp, ocup íp á^maipe, ocup íp ai^béli 
|io péoaoap a n-aipi^, ocup a n-apt)-maici 00 leich pop leich, .1. 


22 3 

Alas for him whose country is their province, 

Not to aspire to their valiant deeds, 

Not to attempt its defence 

Against the adventurers who inhabit it. 
The entire country of all the provincialists 

They possess without diminution ; 

What country is there but our province 

In which its own king and prosperous chief 

Does not appoint with full consent 

Toparchs over mighty territories, 

And brughaidhs [i. e. farmers] over townlands, 

The sons of kings guarding them, 

But ours of the race of Rudhraighe ? 
The races of Conall and Eoghan, and the Airghialla, 

Have seized on our lands, 

And against them we make this onset, 

To drive them from over us. 

Advance," &c. 

These brave, connected, impetuous bands of heroes having risen 
out, marched to one place in two prodigious, proud, compact, wicked, 
revengeful, malicious divisions, in well-looking, arrogant, swift, well- 
arranged lines of great heroes ; in sharp, terrible, haughty, venomous 
phalanxes of valour ; in broad, rapid, furious, wide-defending flames 
of the battle field; in zealous, distinguished, rapid, unopposable 
crowds of contest ; and in hard, princelike, courageous, connected 
lines of battle, with three ardent, terrible-faced, impregnable, bristling 
bulwarks of battle formed, condensed, and consolidated, as well, as 
formidably, and as terribly as their chiefs and arch-nobles were able 
respectively to arrange them ; with their hard, smooth-handled, well- 
made, warlike forest of ice-like, shining, blood-red, beacon-like, lucky 



clech caillci, cpuaioi, cpann-peoi, copai^ri, cupaca cara, oo ple- 
jaib peacoa, poi^nenca, ppub-puaoa, peol-comapuaca, penra, 
pompu caca po-oip^e pa mep^ib, ocup pa m-bpacachaib blairi, 
bpeio-^ela, bopo-nuioi, bpec-Daraca, bat)ba ; ocup clap-pceimelca 
cen^ailn, com-olúua, com-apDa, cpaeb-Dacaca, caú-pciar ap a 
cul-pein i comnaioi ; ocup pal-cipeaoa pei^i, poúai^ci, ocup puipi^ri 
caca peoma, oo racup ocup do ámpu^ao luipech cpom, co^aioi, 
caeb-upebpaiO, uaú-lom-cpuaiD, reaccai^úi cpeapa, ocup uaip- 
benua copai^ cpom gliao, ap n-a pperao, ocup ap n-a pluaig-Oi^- 
laim oo ^leipe ^aiclennac ocup ^al^ac, ocup oo compai^nib cupao 
ocup cac-mileO ; ocup caú-^appóa copai^úi t>o cupaoaib cen^ailci 
ic ooipppeopachc caca oain^m, ocup caca olum-gpinne ouaibpi^, 
Dep-apm-paebpai^ Deabúa t)ib-pein ; ap nip pupail ppaec peppDa, 
poúaigri, pál-apmoa pio-paebpac, pip-oluiú De^-apm, ocup De^-laec, 
ocup oe^-oaíne a ceu ^pmne gaca caca ceccapoa pe copcuo ocup 
pe cuppucao a cell. 

ba h-imoa, am, acu-pum eapp 05, agmap, aiolennca, apm-in- 
nillui, ^an pilliuo, ocup miDach meap-maiomec, mal-puaicnio, 
mepcnáiui mop-upepa ^an miniu^ao ; ocup leaccanach laioip, 
lonn-mep, lainoec, laec-leDaipúi luip^, ^an locpugaD; ocup car- 
cuin^io comnipu, cenn-apo, clep-apmac coúai^á comlainD, ^an 
cumpcu^aD ; ocup pi^-milio peccmap, puiúenua, penD-^aibúec, 
popc-picoa, po-blaoac, ^an popacu, ap ci cpeapa Do rennao ocup 
Do cpen-puapaic, co poual, polámai^, in aicill a peoma D'pulan^, 
ocup D'pocu^ao, ocup o'imcon^bail, co ppaecoa, popmaua, ap 
lom-ci a lama, ocup a lann-claioem Do lan-Dep^aD, co luaú-mep, 
lan-apnaiD, ap lataip in laire pin. 

Cio cpacu, in ran poppau caip^peca upom^liao a upen-pip, 
ocup poppau apmDa, innillci, oll-cecpaoac a n-anpaio, ocup poppac 
ppaecoa, pep^aca, popmaua, ppe^apraca a pénniD, ocup poppac 
poinnme,púnuaca,puioi5uhi a plua^-poipne copai^n caúa,pucpauap 



spears straight before them, bearing their flowered, white cloth, new- 
bordered, parti-coloured banners and ensigns; and lofty breast-works 

of well-secured, well-pressed, variegated battle shields permanently 
placed behind them ; and a firm rampart to sustain and arrest every 
assault, brought together and collected of heavy, well-chosen, bare- 
sided, tightly-braced, hard loricse to receive an assault, and exhibit 
the front of a heavy conflict, arranged and selected by the elite of 
warriors and heroes, and of triumphant soldiers and champions, and 
a battle guard arranged of equipped champions, door-keeping every 
fastness, and every formidable, ready, sharp-armed, battling phalanx 
of them ; because it was indispensable to have a sustaining, compact, 
furious rampart composed of good men and good heroes with choice 
weapons, in the first rank of each of the two divisions to resist and 
withstand the enemy. 

Among them was many a youthful, valorous, aspiring, well-armed 
hero without treachery; many a swift-triumphant, nobly-dressed, 
rapid-wounding, great-battled warrior untamed ; many a strong, ro- 
bust, vigorous, hero-slaughtering champion unchecked ; many a ro- 
bust, high-headed, at-weapon-dexterous, and battle-maintaining sol- 
dier unappalled ; many a royal, rightful, magnificent, spear- terrible, 
fierce-eyed, very renowned leader indomitable, who was about to 
support, sustain, and keep up his exertion fiercely and valiantly, and 
ready to redden his hand and his sword rapidly and cruelly on that 

At length, when the mighty men were ready for the heavy con- 
test, when the warriors were armed, arrayed, excited ; when their 
heroes were furious, angry, valiant, ready to meet every challenge ; 
and when the battalions were ready, active, arranged, and arrayed, 
they made a royal, legal, spear-terrible, furious rush, and a hard, firm, 
vigorous onset, without mercy, without consideration, against each 
irish arch. soc. 6. 2 G other 

2 2Ó 

puacap pi^oa, peccmap, penn-^aibúecn, puaúap-bopb, ocup carpeim 
cpuaiD, cobpaio, com-oicpa cupat>, $an ccnjill, $an compe^ao, 1 cep- 
uai^m a cell; ^up cpirnai^pec in clap caeb-cpom, cnepai^ai^rech, 
cpiaoai^i, pa copaib, ap cumupc ocup ap comoopcat) na caú-laem 
cupaua cópai^úi ap cepu-lap cpano-lTlui^i Comaip, ppipi a paicep 
lTla^puati-linnuec Rach. Ocup a^ Oian-ap^narh t>o na oup-plo^aib 
oápaccaca t>o cum Oomnaill ac bepc an laom : 

Upén ceaccaiu cara Con^ail 

cu^ainn rap at an Opnairh ; 

map reagair 1 o-cpeap na b-peap 

ni peccaic a leap a laoióeaó. 
Comapúa an map mip ITIacha, 

ppol puaicne ponnaib caéa, 

meip^e ^ac pi£ peil co pac 

op a cino pem 50 piaónac. 


g This poem, which is wanting in the was sent to the poet Moore, who has given 

vellum copy, is supplied from Mac Moris- &fac simile of it in the folio edition of his 

sy's paper copy, in the collection of Messrs. Irish Melodies, p. 84, with the following 

Hodges and Smith. The fourth quatrain note : 

of it has been quoted by Keating, in his " The inscription upon Connor's tomb 
notice of the Battle of Magh Eath, in the (for the fac simile of which I am indebted 
reign of Domhnall, grandson of Ainmire, to Mr. Murphy, chaplain of the late Lady 
and through his work it became well known Moira) has not, I believe, been noticed by 
to the Irish scholars of the last two centu- any antiquarian or traveller." 
ries. A corrupt imitation of this quatrain It is strange that our great bard should 
was inscribed on a modern tomb-stone, have received this quatrain as an epitaph 
dated 1764, in the abbey church of Multi- on Conchobhar Mac Nessa, who died in 
fernan, in the county of Westmeath, where the beginning of the first century, as if 
an enthusiastic Irishman mistook it for the that king could have been buried in the 
epitaph on the tomb of Conchobhar Mac abbey church of Multifernan, which was 
JNessa, who was king of Ulster in the be- founded by William Delamar, an English- 
ginning of the first century. As such it man, in the year 1236. And it is still 


other, so that they shook the heavy-sodded, clayey-surfaced plain under 
their feet, after the commingling and mutual rushing together of the 
hero-arrayed, fiery battalions on the very middle of the wooded Magh 
Comair, which is now called the red-pooled Magh Eath. When these 
stubborn, impetuous forces of Congal were vehemently advancing 
on Domhnall he repeated this poem g : 

"Mightily advance the battalions of Congal 
To us over the ford of Ornamh, 
When they come to the contest of the men, 
They require not to be harangued. 
The token of the great warrior of Macha, 
Variegated satin, on warlike poles, 
The banner of each bright king with prosperity 
Over his own head conspicuously displayed. 


more extraordinary that the date and of which Moore has given afac simile : 

English part of the epitaph on this tomb " £eoriian buióe ap ppól ucucne 

should have been concealed, for had the TTIeipje cup net Cpaoibe "Ruaioe 

whole been given, its true character could Q pe oo bioó 0:5 Concobap 'p a ccar 

never have been mistaken. It may be Gpiop ruapgenn'pet oibeipcGllmupac." 
well, therefore, lest the fac simile pub- Mr. Moore of course never saw this 

] ished by Mr. Moore should descend to tombstone, and his correspondent, Mr. 

posterity as the epitaph of Conor Mac Murphy, seems to have been a bad judge 

Nessa, to transcribe here the entire inscrip- of the antiquity of Irish inscriptions. The 

tion : publication of monuments of this kind, as 

" hoc tegitur saxo dominus pietate re- if of remote date, has brought our anti- 

fulgens jacobus gaynohus prognatus stem- quities into Contempt among the learned, 

mate claro. but it may be hoped that better times are 

" pray for the soue of james gaynor, now coming, and that the antiquarians of 

of eeany, who died January 15th, 1764, Ireland will in future study our monu- 

aged 66 years, also for his ancestors and ments better than to lay before the public 

posterity." an i nscr ip t i oxl f the latter part of the 

After which follow in Irish the words eighteenth, for one of the first century. 



TTleip^e Sgannlam, — p^iam co n-a£, — 
íp piacna rhoiji, ttiic baeoain, 
mop la coeu pogla tna pinn, 
aua op cmt> Con^ail cu^oinn. 

Leoman buibe 1 ppol uaine, 
corhapt>a na Cpaob l?uai6e 
map Do baoi a^ Concobap cam, 
aua a^ Congal o'a Congrhail. 

TTleipgeóa maicne Gact>ac 
l O-uopac na plua£ ppeaúac 
meipgeoa Donna map óaig 
op cpanna coppa Cpumuhainn. 

TTleipge pi£ bpeauan bpigmip 
Conan l?ou, an píg-rhilió, 
ppol peanoac, 50pm íp geal, 
co h-eangac ap na arhlaó. 

TTieipge P15 Saxon na plo£ 
ap bpauac leaúan, lan-rhóp, 
buióe ip t)eapcc, co paióbip pom; 
op cinO Oaipbpe, mic Dopnrhoip. 

TTleip^e l?i peapgna peabail, 
noca paca a íonnparhail 
op a cmt>, ni cealg 50 n-geib, 
oub agnp Deapg co oeirhm. 


h The banner of Scannlan ITleipge 5 Such as the noble Conchobhar bore 

Sgannlain, &c. — See pedigree of Congal, TTlap 00 baoi 0:5 Concobap cam — He 

at the end of the volume, from which it will was Conchobhar Mac Nessa, King of Ul- 

appear that this Scannlan, Fiachna, and ster, already mentioned in Note s , p. 226. 

Baedan were the father, grandfather, and Dr. John Lynch, in his Latin version 

great grandfather of Congal. of Keating's History of Ireland, gives the 

2 2(J 

The banner of Seannlan h , — an ornament with prosperity, — 

And of Fiachna Mor, the son of Baedan, 

Great symbol of plunder floating from its staff, 

Is over the head of Congal advancing towards us. 
A yellow Lion on green satin, 

The insignia of the Craebh Ruadh, 

Such as the noble Conchobhar bore" 1 , 

Is now held up by Congal. 
The standards of the sons of Eochaidh J 

In the front of the embattled hosts 

Are dim-coloured standards like fire 

Over the well-shaped spear-handles of Crumthann. 
The standard of the vigorous King of Britain, 

Conan Rod, the royal soldier, 

Streaked satin, blue and white, 

In folds displayed. ' 
The standard of the king of Saxonland of hosts 

Is a wide, very great standard ; 

Yellow and red, richly displayed 

Over the head of Dairbhre, son of Dornmor. 
The standard of the majestic king of Feabhail k 

(I have not seen such another) 

Is over his head (no treachery does he carry with him), 

Black and red certainly. 


following translation of this quatrain : ÍDeipjeóa mcucne Gctcocic, — i. e. either 

" Gesseret in viridi flavum bombicae leonem of the race of Eochaidh Cobha, the father 

Crebroa progenies, Conchauri symbola of Crunn Badhraighe, who was King of 

clari Ulster for twenty- two years, or of the sons 

Congallus quae nunc signis intexta viden- of Eochaidh Buidhe, King of Scotland. 

tur." k Xing of Feabhail — of Foyle, that is, 

J The standards of the sons of Eochaidh. — of Ailech. 

2 3 C 

TTleip^e Suibne, beapc bwóe 
l?i oipbepc Dal Gpaibe, 
Spol buíóe, op p eirh-peap na plo£, 
bumne mep-^eal na meaóon. 

TTleip^e Peapoorhan na b-pleao, 
P15 aipm-oeps Qipo Ulao, 
Spol ^lé-^eal pe gpein 'p pe gaoic 
óp an cpen-peap ^an caúaoip. 

Upén, &c. 

Imchupa Suibne, mic Colmam Chuaip, nrnc Cobúai^, pi^ Dal 
n-Gpaiói, ímpaiOep a^amO pe heao eli. Uancauap paennella 
pualaing pcnpioe pe ^pain, ocup pe gpuamoacu, ocup pe ^po-onrupe 
na n-J^aeOal; pe t>epcat>, ocup pe DellpaD, ocup pe Ouaibpi^e na 
n-Danap ; pe blopcao, ocup pe bopb-^aip, ocup pe buippeoai 5 na 
car-cineo conupapoa, ceccapoa, ic pocuam ocup ic pecu-innpai^io 
apaile. l?o ep^ioap eaOap-luaiTíini^ aiobli, anpopupt>a,uaúbapacha 
aeoip, copabat>ap ina cuameabap conncpacua, cumaipc, '5a com- 
buaiopeo; ocup ina uapmanaib cpoma, cait)bpecha, capc-labapra, 
ruaiúbil, ^an raipipium; ocup ina paeb-plua^aib pomnme, picalua, 
pian^oipn, peacpanaca, piabaipúi, ap pip-piubal, ic paeioib, ocup ic 
peao-gaipi, ocup ic poluainim^ ínapu, ap cac áipt), 00 meauh ocup 
t>o Tui-cuTYiOac nnt)lach ocup TTiaeuó^lác, t)o cennat) ocup do rpen- 
^pepacu cupao ocup caúmileat) ; £up ob Do con^aip in cara, ocup 
pe h-abaipib na n-appachu, ocup pe capman^ail na rpom-^on ic 
coipnium ap cupait>-pennaibcpaipech ocup ap col^-oepaib claioem 
ocup ap laechbilib lebap-pciau. T2o linaO ocup po luaú-rrieat)paD 
in paep milet) Suibne t>o cpir ocup t>o ^pam ocup t)o ^enioechr; 


1 Ard Uladh, in Latin, Altitudo Ulto- Down, lying principally between Strang- 
rum, now the Ards, in the county of ford Lough and the sea. 

2 3 l 

The standard of Suibhne, a yellow banner, 
The renowned king of Dal Araidhe, 
Yellow satin, over that mild man of hosts, 
The white-fingered stripling himself in the middle of them. 
The standard of Ferdoman of banquets, 

The red-weaponed king of the Ards of Ulster 1 , 
White satin to the sun and wind displayed 111 
Over that mighty man without blemish. 

Mightily," &c. 
With respect to Suibhne, the son of Colman Cuar, son of Cobh- 
thach, king of Dal Araidhe, we shall treat of him for another while. 
Fits of giddiness came over him at the sight of the horrors, grim- 
ness, and rapidity of the Gaels ; at the looks, brilliance, and irk- 
someness of the foreigners ; at the rebounding furious shouts and 
bellowings of the various embattled tribes on both sides, rushing 
against and coming into collision with one another. Huge, flickering, 
horrible aerial phantoms rose up, so that they were in cursed, com- 
mingled crowds tormenting him ; and in dense, rustling, clamorous, 
left-turning hordes, without ceasing ; and in dismal, regular, aerial, storm- 
shrieking, hovering, fiend-like hosts constantly in motion, shrieking 
and howling as they hovered about them [i. e. about both armies] in 
every direction to cow and dismay cowards and soft youths, but to 
invigorate and mightily rouse champions and warriors ; so that from 
the uproar of the battle, the frantic pranks of the demons, and the 
clashing of arms, the sound of the heavy blows reverberating on the 
points of heroic spears and keen edges of swords, and the warlike 
borders of broad shields, the noble hero Suibhne was filled and in- 

m White satin to the sun displayed. — end of this volume. It is strange that no 
For some account of the armorial bearings account of this Ferdoman is preserved in 
among the ancient Irish see Note H, at the the Irish Annals. 

2 3 2 

o'oillc ocup o'paennell ocup t/polumam, t>'uaman ocup n'puapcap, 
ocup o'píjvgealcacc, o'pualan^, ocup o'uachbap, ocup o'panbpopup; 
conac bui ino ale na áige, ó bunn 50 baicip, 00 ná oepna caipche 
cumupcoa cpiu-hluaimnec, pe epic na comea^la, ocup pe pcenali^ 
na pcuióeamlacua. l?o cpirnaigpeu a copa, map but) nepu ppofa 
50 pip-cuapgain ; po ruicpeu a aipm ocup a llpaebpa uat>a, ap 
lagao ocup ap luauh-pinet) a luc-^lac írupu, pe h-anaccbain^ a 
n-imcon^bala ; po learpau ocup po luaiTnni^peu a o-Doipppi eip- 
cecca pe ^abaft na ^ealuacca ; po nnclaipeu an^ala a incint>i 1 
cupalaib a cinD pe porpam na pélmaine ; po clipepcap a cpaioe 
pe ^poo-biO^ao na ^enioecua ; po opluaimnig a uplabpa pe me- 
paioecc in mirapait); po eaoapbuapai^ a amim [anam] co n-ai^net) 
ocup co n-ilpumib lmDa, uaip ba h-i pin ppém ocup pora pip-Dilep 
na pip ea^la pern. Rob é a mnpamail ann pem map bip bpaoan 1 
m-buailiD, no én ap na up-^abail 1 capcaip comoluua cliabain. Qcu 
cena nip mit)-lac ocup nip mepai^i mi-^aipcit) peine piam in ci t>'a 
cancaoap na h-abaipi ocup na h-aippOena cinopcefcail ceciD ocup 
uprpialla ím^abala pm ; ace po mallacr Ronain, .1. pancuip, o'a 
po buaiopeo ocup apo-naeim Gpenn t>'a eapcaine ap na pineat> 
ocup ap na papu^ao pa planai^ecu, ocup ruapbúa in mic clepig t>a 
muinnuep óp cmo na clapach coipeagapra, inunn pón ocup na 
pip-nppac ponn-^laim ap ap' cuipeat) cpeaDpa ocup comaino in 
Coimoeo o'uaiplib ocup o'apO-mainb Gpenn ocup Do each ap 
ceana, pe comupiall in cara. 

lmrliupa Suibne, mic Colmain Chuaip, mic Cobrai^, pi$ Dal 


n St.Ronan. — He was abbot of Druim- Lanigan was misled by Colgan (Acta SS. 

ineascluinn (now Drumiskin), in the county p. 141, n. 17), who is the real author of 

of Louth ; see Note s , p. 40, supra: where this mistake. The name Druim-ineas- 

Lanigan's error in confounding Druim- clu inn is retained to this day by those who 

ineascluinn with Drumshallon is corrected, speak Irish, and is always applied by them 

2 33 

toxicated with tremor, horror, panic, dismay, fickleness, unsteadiness, 
fear, flightiness, giddiness, terror, and imbecility ; so that there was 
not a joint of a member of him from foot to head which was not con- 
verted into a confused, shaking mass, from the effect of fear, and the 
panic of dismay. His feet trembled, as if incessantly shaken by the 
force of a stream; his arms and various edged weapons fell from 
him, the power of his hands having been enfeebled and relaxed 
around them, and rendered incapable of holding them. The inlets 
of hearing were expanded and quickened by the horrors of lunacy ; 
the vigour of his brain in the cavities of his head was destroyed by 
the clamour of the conflict ; his heart shrunk within him with the 
panic of dismay ; his speech became faultering from the giddiness of 
imbecility ; his very soul fluttered with hallucination, and with many 
and various phantasms, for that (i. e. the soul) was the root and 
true basis of fear itself. He might be compared on this occasion to 
a salmon in a weir, or to a bird after being caught in the strait prison 
of a crib. But the person to whom these horrid phantasms and dire 
symptoms of flight and fleeing presented themselves, had never be- 
fore been a coward, or a lunatic void of valour ; but he was thus 
confounded because he had been cursed by St. Konan 11 , and denounced 
by the great saints of Erin, because he had violated their guarantee, 
and slain an ecclesiastical student of their people over the consecrated 
trench, that is, a pure clear -bottomed spring over which the shrine 
and communion of the Lord was placed for the nobles and arch- 
chieftains of Erin, and for all the people in general, before the com- 
mencement of the battle. 

With respect to Suibhne, the son of Colman Cuar, son of Cobh- 


to Drumiskin, which was a celebrated mo- Irish spelling Druim-Sealai??), is a very 

nastery, and where the ruins of a round different place, not celebrated in history, or 

tower still exist. Drumshallon (in the remarkable for any remains of antiquity, 


2 34 

n-Qpaioe, impairep a^aino pe h-eaO; o rainic in t)lai poluaimnec 

pulla pin páip-pium, po lin^epcap leim luúmap, lan-éupom, conao 

ann po puipmipuap ap ^lan-aiglino pceic in cupao ba conmepa 

Do; ocup po paemupcap in c-ach-leim, conao ann po puipmipuap 

ap inDeoin cepocomapúai^ cipín caébaipp in cupao ceOna ; cio 

cpacc nip aipi^epcap pein epium ic puipmeO paip, ^ép ba coppac 

in cacaip comnaioi ap ap cinDepuap. Conao aipe pin po popbup- 

uap pum aen comaipli anbpopaio, eciallaioi, .1. opuim pe oainib, 

ocup popcnum pe piaoaib, ocup compic pe ceaéaib, ocup lmluc pe 

h-énaib, ocup peip 1 papai^ib. ConiD aipe pm, po puipmipuap in 

cpep leim luúmap, lan-éupom, conao ann po anupuap ap bapp in 

bile buaoa po boi ap mm-óipbi in muigi, aiu 1 pabaoap po-pluai^ 

ocup panopai^i pep n-Gpenn, 1 compe^aO in caúa. Po ^pécpau 

pein ime-pium ap each aipt> '5a paicpm o'a úennaO ocup oa úimpu- 

^ao 'pm caúlauap ceOna ; íp Oe pin pucpum upi upen-peao^a 

cinneanaip o'lm^abail na h-ip^aili, ocup íp é uapla Do oul 1 cenn 

na cauh-laiúpec ceOna,pe muipbell ocup pe mepaioecu in miuapaiO; 

ace cena ni calam Do úaioliuo, ace íp ap popmnaib pe]i ocup ap 

cennaib caúbapp po cinoeao. 

Uapla aipe ínopeúmi caic co coiccenn ap Shuibne pa'n pamla- 

pin, cop ub é compao each cupaD pe ceili, na uéiD, na céiO pep in 

inaip ópcumDai^ examail uaib, a pipu, bap laupun, $an uo^paim 

ocup $an cáppacain, .1. map in aipD-pi^ h-ua Ginmipech po bui uime 

pium in laiúe pm, ap na ciOnacul Oomnall Do Chon^al, ocup ap 

na úiOnacul o Chon^al Do Shuibne, Do peip map popglep Suibne a 

n-inaO eli : 

ba h-e $uú cac aen Duine 

Do'n c-plua^; Dérla oaiuh, 


Who however did not feel him It was that lunatics are as light as feathers, and 

the ancient belief in Ireland, and is still in can climb steeps and precipices like the 
some of the Avilder mountainous districts, Somnabulists — See Buile Shuibhne, al- 

2 35 

thach, king of Dal Araidhc, let us treat of him for another while; 

when he was seized with this frantic fit, he made a supple, very light 

leap, and where he alighted was on the fine boss of the shield of the 

hero next him; and he made a second leap and perched on the vertex 

of the crest of the helmet of the same hero, who, however, did not 

feel him , though the chair on which he rested was an uneasy one. 

Wherefore he came to an imbecile, irrational determination, namely, 

to turn his back on mankind, and to herd with deer, run along with 

the showers, and flee with the birds, and to feast in wildernesses. 

Accordingly he made a third active, very light leap, and perched on 

the top of the sacred tree which grew on the smooth surface of the 

plain, in which tree the inferior people and the debilitated of the 

men of Erin were seated, looking on at the battle. These screamed 

at him from every direction as they saw him, to press and drive him 

into the same battle again ; and he in consequence made three furious 

bounces to shun the battle, but it happened that, instead of avoiding 

it, he went back into the same field of conflict, through the giddiness 

and imbecility of his hallucination ; but it was not the earth he 

reached, but alighted on the shoulders of men and the tops of their 


In this manner the attention and vigilance of all in general were 

fixed on Suibhne, so that the conversation of the heroes among each 

other was, " Let not," said they, " let not p the man with the wonderful 

gold-embroidered tunic pass from you without capture and revenge." 

He had the tunic of the monarch the grandson of Ainmire upon him 

on that day, which had been presented by Domhnall to Congal, and 

by Congal to Suibhne, as Suibhne himself testifies in another place : 

" It was the saying of every one 

Of the valiant, beauteous host, 


ready often alluded to. na céio. — This verb is here repeated in 

p Let not, said they, let not Ha céio, both copies. The verb, particularly in the 


2 3 6 

na ueic uaib pa'n cael-muine, 
peap in maip maich. 

ba móitn a muipbell ocup a mepu^ao mirapaio each oa corh- 
aicne pa'n cuma pm, ocup no boi pium ap in buaiopet) booba pin 
no co uucao ciuh cpuam, mep doc pneacua — o'mncomapca ápmui^ 
o'pepaib Gpenn — ^op ^luaipepcap pum leip pin cirh pin, map $ac 
n-eaúaiD n-apmui^i ele, amail apbepc Suibne in inao eli : 

l?op é pin mo cét) pitr-pa, 
po pa luaú in pirh, 
o'ea^ upcap na goúnaióe, 
Dam-pa pep in cir. 

ConiO pe gelcacr ocup pe genioechc po cinO comaipli o pin 
amac 1 cein po pa beo. 

Cio cpacu, ^ep ba Dampen oin-apmoa, oel^-pennac cac aipo 
ocup cac aipcill oo na cauaib cechuapfta 1 ^-compa^, poppau ait> 
lenna, aimoepa, uppcailci, ap n-accuma, a n-anpao, ocup a n-^air- 
lenn n-gaipcio ; ocup poppau pceimelua, pcainnepúi, pciaú-bpipci, 
ap n-a pcaileo, a leibenna limoe, lebup-pciach, ap na lan-bpipiuD. 
Oeicbip Doib-pium ón, uaip ba ciú-anpao cuan-upacua calaiD ^an 
popcao ^an accappóic ap upen-ceacaib cuacaipfti, uapm-^aiuhe 
uuaipceprai^i in caiman, Oap ab ainm pe^ainni, painigci, pluag- 
bepla paep Gabpaioi, pabpcinOpup, amail acbepc in pile : 

Quepcap in ^aeú a neap, 

pabpcinOpup acuait) ^an ceap, 


imperative mood, is, even in the modern St. Mullin's, in the county of Carlow, by- 
vernacular Irish, often repeated for the Mongan, the swineherd of St. Moling, and 
sake of emphasis. was interred with great honours in the 

q And it was by lunacy Conio pe jel- church there, by the saint himself, who, 

race, &c. — Suibhne was, many years af- it appears, had a great veneration for this 

terwards, murdered at Tigh Moling, now royal lunatic. His eccentric adventures 


Permit not to go from you to the dense shrubbery 
The man with the goodly tunic." 

His giddiness and hallucination of imbecility became greater in 
consequence of all having thus recognized him, and he continued in 
this terrible confusion until a hard, quick shower of hailstones, — an 
omen of slaughter to the men of Erin, — began to fall, and with this 
shower he passed away like every bird of prey ; as Suibhne said in 
another place : 

" This was my first run, — 
Kapid was the flight, — 
The shot of the javelin expired 
For me with the shower." 

And it was by lunacy q and imbecility he determined his counsels 
from that out as long as he lived. 

To proceed. Though every part and division of both contending 
armies were solid, well-armed, bristly, their heroes and valiant 
spearmen were scattered, disarrayed, dispersed, and deformed ; their 
lines of broad shields being broken through were scattered, disor- 
dered, and shattered. The reason was, there was then, a shower- 
storm on the haven without shelter or harbour against the mighty 
squalls of the high, loud-howling north wind of the earth, which, in 
the copious, noble Hebrew language, is called by the appropriate 
name of Sabstindrus, as the poet says : 

" Auestar is the southern wind, 

Sabstindrus the northern without doubt, 


are minutely detailed in a curious ancient Morissy's paper copy of this tale, which 

Irish romance entitled Buile Shuibhne, i. e. has been already so often referred to. The 

Madness of Suibhne, which immediately word ^ectlcctcc is used to this day in the 

follows the Battle of Magh Rath in Mac sense of lunacy or madness. 

2 3 8 

pcépepup a map $an cam, 
ulpulanup 'n a comoáil, 
Ocup Din pop, ba mian-^lacaD mo^aD ap panD-placaib poir- 
pemla piobaiDi 5a pollpccaó, .1. poppac, ocup popcceao, ocup 
pep5-Oicpacr na péinneo, gpepacu, ocup ^eo^naD, ocup ^pipao 
na n-^aipceDac ic cennao ocnp ic cimcellao na cpen-pep. Ocup 
Din ba 5pot>5peapa ^aibm^e le h-opt>aib íomupomaib, ^le-bopba 
^abann ap cmDib caeb-bep^a, caioleca cellaig '5a rpen-cuap- 
5am, bpopcao, ocup bpuaiOpeaD, ocup bpac-aiplec na m-buioen ; 
peccaO, ocup pluai^-neapu, ocup ppainpeDac na pluag pocal-bopb, 
ic copnum, ocup ic con^bail, ocup ic compeaccao ap a cell ; conap 
aipig aipec na aipD-pi^ comúennca a capau t>o compoicpi a ceneoil, 
na popei^en pip-aicme na aen-cmio o'pacpaibe a pialupa. Ocup 
Din ni mo po moéaigpeu caem-clanna cupat) DoDam<5 a pmnpeap 
na a pap-aiúpec 5a papugaD ; ocup $ép b'iaupiDe ann nip céc- 
pai^epcap cabaip na cugnomaD a capac na a lan-aicne '5a laec- 
aiplec, ocup '5a popcceaD ocup '5a poobut) 'na piaDnaipi ; uaip ba 
h-uilliu ocup ba h-aiDbpigi le cac n-aen uaiúib a peiom ocup a 
eoualan^ booein pe Decbip na Dala pin, ná peióm ocup popeigen 
a capac 00 cummu^aD, ná a n^epna 00 cepap^am. 

CiD cpa ace, ni ^nác Depb-^ul ^an oép^uba, na íaccaD £an 
popei^en, na caú-poi gan cpó-linDci. Ocup Din pob imoa 'pa n-ip^ail 
pin puipme paena, poipcciDe, ocup Dpon^a Duaibpeca, Dian-mapbúa, 
ocup cpen-pip raeb-cippn, rpapcaipn, ocup aipi^ uacmapa, poD- 
baign, ocup pceich pcailn^chi, pcamnepúa, ocup ple^a ppub-pillci, 
peam-lupua, ocup claiDme caicmeca, cpuaiD-bpipui ; ocup ppap- 
linnci puili^e, pop-Dep^a pola, ocup polc-^penD peinneD ap polua- 


r Ulsulanus — Our author, or his inter- ruptions of the names given by Pliny, 

polator, is mistaken in supposing the names Hist. Nat. 1. ii. 47. "Auestar" is evi- 

of the winds in the foregoing quatrain to dently Auster ; " Sabstindrus" seems some 

be Hebrew; they are no more than cor- disguised form of Septentrio ; "Steferus" 

2 39 

Steferus the western without error, 

And Ulsulanus r its corresponding wind (i. e. the east)! 1 

And moreover, like the eagerness with which labourers grasp the 
feeble twigs of the forest wood in cutting them, was the stern, dark, 
intense wrath of the heroes, the exciting, slaughtering, and stirring 
up of the champions on the one side, pressing upon and surrounding 
the mighty men on the other. And like the rapid and violent ex- 
ertion of smiths, mightily sledging the glowing iron masses of their 
furnaces, were the incitements, smiting and slaughtering of the troops; 
the firmness, the strength, and the snorting of the haughty-furious 
hosts, opposing, resisting, and viewing each other; so that neither 
chief nor arch-prince perceived the assistance of his friends, nor the 
nearness of his tribe, nor the oppression suffered by his own people, 
or any part of his relatives. Neither did the fair sons of heroes per- 
ceive the difficulties of their fathers or grandfathers while being op- 
pressed, nor did they mind to aid or assist their friends or intimate 
acquaintances, while being heroically slaughtered, hacked, and cut 
down in their presence ; for each of them deemed his own exertion 
and suffering during the violence of that action too extensive and 
vast, to think of the struggle or suffering of his friends, or to protect 
his lord. 

Howbeit, true weeping does not usually occur without tearful 
sorrow, nor groaning without violence, nor a battle-field without floods 
of blood. And accordingly many were the feeble, lacerated troops, 
the horribly-slaughtered bands; mighty men side-mangled, prostrated; 
haughty chieftains hewn down ; shields cleft and scattered ; spears 
warped and rivet-bent ; warlike swords hard-broken ; rapid streams 
of red-blood flowing ; and the hair of heroes 8 flying and hovering 

is Zephyrus; and "Ulsulanus," the east rather than of the author, is probably the 
wind, is obviously identical with Pliny's source of these corruptions. 
Subsolaniis. The ignorance of transcribers, s The hair of heroes Seethe account 


main, co náp ba léip lepbaipe lapamain, lainDepoa, lan-paip-pin^ 
in aeoin uaipcib, pe h-imao pole ocup paob ocup pmnpaiD uach- 
beppra paob-pcailei an-aicnio, ap na n-up-uo^bail Do cennaib 
cupao ocup caúmileo ; conaO h-e pin aobap D'áp papapuap puar- 
nell poipecioe, pip-Dopca, o'áp ceileo in cleiúi coiucenn cliú-paippin5 
ceccapoa op a cenDaib ; ocup ^ép b'iac ponn-celrpa polc-^lapa, 
pep-oluin in caiman pa upaigáb, ni lu^u po lan-celic pe h-imao 
na n-ap ocup na n-il-échc ma eóppacaib cpuao-aiplig 1 cenn a 

l?o b'e aipt)-mep ocup innpamail a n-eicep ocup a n-olloman 
ap écopc in apmuige pin, ^op b'ecpéoip, ocup gup b'anpopupua Do 
macaib ocup Do min-Oainib céimniugaó cac aipoi ocup cac maio a 
rapla ciu^ ocup cpomlac in aipli^ ocup in apmui^e 1 cenn a cell. 
Nip b'mgnao imoppa D'écpib an c-aipD-mep pm, cm popbann le 
piallac a éipuecra a pui^ell; ap ba ppuu-aibne pilceca, paeb-Oiana 
cac claip ocup cac clao-eupi^e compeio pa copaib na cupao, ocup 
ba ppap-linnui puili^i, pip-Doimne cac pan ocup cac popao-^lenn 
poo-glap pop-leachan puirib. 

CiD rpa ace, Do baoap páiOi poillpi^ci pip, ocup poipne poraigri 
ocup piaDnaipi concpapoa, cunncabapuach, pe paO ocup pe n-a 
pip-cpuap po corai^pec na cupaiD ceccapDa, ^an cloo $an cum- 
pcu^ao pe cell, ip in cac-laraip. ConiD aipe pin pob mDepb, ocup 
pob amaippec paipcme a pellpum, ocup a pip-eolach, Do Dpeim 
Dib Do leir po leic, ap n-DiulcaD, ocup ap n-OicpeiOem Doib ap a 
n-Diabul-cepDaib DpaiDecua boDein, pe peccaD ocup pe pip-Deliu^ao 
na plua^ a^aiD in a^aiD ip in ímap^ail ; co ná paibi '5a páióib 
ocup '5a pip-eolcaib ace a peirem ocup a pupnaiDi, co pepuaip 
ca Dpem 01b ap a coipnnpeD, ocup ap a uaipippeD rupcaipúi ocup 


of the profusion of human hair which is vol. i. p. 136. The ancient Irish wore their 
said to have been cut off the heroes in the hair flowing on the shoulders, so that it may 
Battle of Clontarf, in Dublin Penny Jour., have been cut oiF by the sword in battle. 


iii the air, so that the broad, bright, brilliant lamp of heaven over 
them was invisible with the quantity of hair, scalps, and beards cut 
ofF and raised up oiF the heads of heroes and warriors. Wherefore 
a dark and gloomy cloud was produced, by which the universal, ex- 
pansive welkin over the heads of both armies was concealed ; and 
as to the green-haired, close-grassy carpets of the earth under their 
feet, they were not less concealed by the immensity of the slain 
and the numberless victims in litters of dire slaughter over each 

The estimate and comparison made by their poets and ollaves of 
the appearance of this slaughter were, that in every spot and place 
where the thick and prodigiousness of this carnage and slaughter had 
occurred, it was impossible for boys and small men to pass. This 
great estimation made by the poets, though hyperbolical to a hero's 
hearing it sounds, was not to be wondered at, for every pit and fur- 
row were flowing dire-rapid rivers under the feet of the champions, 
and every declivity and green-sodded wide glen were deep pools of 
blood under them. 

In the mean time the soothsayers, the revealers of knowledge, 
and those who had delivered predictions, were contradictory and 
doubtful, in consequence of the length of time and stubbornness with 
which the heroes on both sides maintained the field without yielding 
or giving way on either side. Wherefore the predictions of their 
philosophers and wise men became uncertain and doubtful to some of 
them on either side, they having renounced and disbelieved their 
own demoniacal sciences of magic, in consequence of the incessant 
successive rallyings and dispersions of the forces on either side in the 
contest ; so that their diviners and wise men could do no more than 
remain in a state of suspense and indecision, until they should learn 
on which party the success and prosperity of the battle would descend 
Irish arch. soc. 6. 2 I and 


coicn net n-^liat); ocup Din po pamai^peD in 6é ních-gubac Neir 
a neipc-bpi^a. 

lmunupa ceiúpi mac Gachach 6uiDi, mipaicep a^ainD pe heat) 
eli. Pucpac Da puauap Deppcnai^ui oéc pa cacaib na cuiceoac, 
po maiDpec ocup po nnapbpac céu caca cac-lairpec, map pop^lep 
OubDiaD Dpai : 

Do cuaDap cpep in cop caiDlec 
pa Do Dec, 
Do mapbpac Do plua^ na caem-pep 
Da ceD Dec. 

Gnpau íp in íp^ail íuip ^appaDaib ^ailian, ap cinneD caca 
puachaip. Oc concacap ceuhpap laech-aipech Do Lai^nib eachpaip 
na n-Glbanach ic comáiplec caic, .1. Qmlaib Uallach, pig Qua 
Cliar, ocup Caipppi Cpom, pi£ Lai^pi Cai^en, ocup GeD Gip^nec, 
pig O Ceinnpelai^, ocup Qilill CeDach, pi^ O pail.51, po laDpau 


1 The battle-terrific Beneit 6e mr-^u- among them till they intermarried with 

buc Neic She was the Bellona of the the Danes in the eighth or ninth century. 

ancient Irish. In Mac Morissy's copy she The writer, evidently without observing 

is called an Be ^ao-uicneo, and P. Connell the anachronism, had in view one of the 

explains it in the margin, the Goddess of AmlafFs or AnlafFs, who were Danish kings 

War. of Dublin some centuries after the year 

u The troops of the Gailians 5 a rP a ~ ^37 or ^3^' wnen tn i s battle was fought. 

ócub ^culicm Gailian is an ancient The Irish had the name Amhalgaidh from 

name of Leinster — See O'Flaherty's Ogy- the earliest period of their history, but 

gia, and Duald Mac Firbis's Genealogical this, though now Anglicised Awley, and 

Book. possibly of cognate origin with the Dano- 

v Amlaibh Uallach, king of Ath Cliath, — Irish Amhlaibh, Anlaf, Amlaff, Olaf, or 

i. e. of Dublin. This shows that the pre- Awley, is not identical with it. 
sent account of the Battle of Magh Rath w CairbreCrom, kingofLaighis, inLein- 

was written many centuries after it was ster. — Laighis or Laoighis, which is Lati- 

fought, for Amhlaibh is a Danish name nised Lagisia and Anglicised Leis and Leix, 

which the ancient Irish had not in use is a territory in the present Queen's county; 


and tarry, and which of them the battle-terrific Beneit 1 would more 
inspire with her vigors. 

With respect to the four sons of Eochaidh Buidhe, we shall treat 
of them for another while. They made twelve remarkable rushes 
into the battalions of the provincialists, and defeated and slew one 
hundred persons in every battle-place, as Dubhdiadh the druid tes- 
tifies : 

" They passed through the splendid army 
Twelve times, 
And slew of the host of the fair men 
Twelve hundred." 
After completing these onslaughts they stopped in the conflict 
among the troops of the Gailians 11 . Four of the heroic chieftains of 
Leinster, namely, Amlilaibh Uallach [i. e. the Haughty'], king of Ath 
Cliath v , Cairbre Crom, king of Laighis, in Leinster w , Aedh Airgnech, 
king of Ui Ceinnselach x , and Ailill Cedach, king of Ui Failghe y , per- 

but it is not co-extensive with that county, Offaly and Ophaley, is a territory not en- 

as generally supposed by modern Irish to- tirely in the present King's County, as is 

pographers, for Laighis comprised no por- generally assumed by modern Irish to- 

tion of the barony of Upper Ossory, nor pographers, but situated partly in that 

of the baronies of Tinnahinch or Portna- county and partly in the county of Kil- 

hinch, and scarcely any of the barony of dare and the Queen's County. It is gene- 

Slievemargy. rally supposed that in the reign of Philip 

x Aedh Airgnech, king of h-Ui Ceinn- and Mary the territory of Leix was formed 

sellaigh — For an account of the extent of into the Queen's County, and that of 

this territory see Circuit of Muirchertach Ophaley into the King's County ; but this 

Mac Neill, p. 36. is a very great error, for there is nearly 

y Ailill Cedach, king ofOPFailghe It is as much of Ophaley included in the Queen's 

stated in Buile Shuibhne that this Ailill as there is in the King's County, and be- 

was slain in the Battle of Magh Rath by sides, the baronies of Garrycastle, Bally- 

Suibhne Geilt. O'Failghe, which is Latin- cowan, Fercal, Clonlish, and Ballybritt, 

ised Ofalia and Ophalia, and Anglicised in the latter county, were never included 

2 I 2 


in ceúpap cupao pin upnapc nn^ona ap o^-pi^paio Qlban, 511 p 
cipppac cae^ao cupao caca pip co n-a poipnib 'na piaonaipi. Nip 
mairpeu meic Gachach a n-anbpala Oo'n ceo puacap cupao pm ; 
cepu ^abaip Corral Caipppi 'p in comlunO ; olurai^ip Oomnall in 
íp^al ap Qmlaib ; panncai^ip Suibne in ím^uin pe Qilell ; po 
opbpac in oa Qeo a n-imbualao. Roppac comoi^alca a cneaoa 
ap a cell ocuap aipec na h-imlaioi, $up maiopeu meic Gachach 
aipecup copcaip na cau-laiúpec, amail apbepu in pile : 

Uopcaip Qeo Qip^nech ímne 

la h-Qeo mac Gachach buioe, 

pe Suibne plua^ach 'p in car 

1 copcaip Qilell Céoach. 
Caipppi, pi^; Lai^pi na lenn, 

1 uopcaip pe Con^al TTlenO, 

pe Oomnall m-6peac co n-aine 

copcaip Qmlaib impaile. 

Cio rpacc, Y]}]\ mepa ocup nip miolacu meipnec ocup mop- 
gnimpao maicrie opec-oep^i Oomnaill, mic Qeoa, mic Qmmipec, 
ic oi^ail cneo in ceúpaip pin ap Ulluaib ocup ap allmapcaib, .1. 
pep^up, ocup Qen^up, Qilell, ocup Colgu, ocup Conall a coman- 
manna : ap m-buaou^ao caca báipe, ocup ap maioem caca móp- 
copcaip, ocup ap cmoeo caca cac-puachaip t>o macaib aipo-pi^ 
Gpenn, 00 compaicper, cenn 1 cenn, ocup ceiépe meic pi^ Qlban. 
Ro pai^pec ocup po pannuai^peu peipiup poinemail 00 na clann- 
maicnib pm a cell, .1. Con^al, ocup Suibne, ocup Qeo, upi meic 
Gchach buiOi, Qilell, ocup Col^u, ocup Conall, upi meic Oomnaill. 


in the ancient Ophaley. This territory, those of Portnahinch and Tinnahinch, in 

which is very famous in Irish history, the Queen's County, and that portion of 

comprised the baronies of Upper and the King's County included in the dioceses 

Lower Ophaley, in the county of Kildare, of Kildare and Leighlin. 


ceiving these sallies of the Albanaehs slaughtering the people, they 

closed a wounding circle upon the young princes of Alba, so that 
each of them cut down fifty heroes with their forces in their presence. 
The sons of Eochaidh did not forgive them their enmity for this first 
heroic onslaught. Congal attacked Cairbre in the combat; Domh- 
nall pressed the conflict on Amhlaibh ; Suibhne coveted to contend 
with Ailill, and the two Aedhs longed to come to blows. These 
eight chiefs of combat inflicted wounds with equal vengeance on one 
another, and the sons of Eochaidh gained the victory of the battle- 
place, as the poet says : 

"Aedh Airgnech was slain no doubt 

By Aedh, the son of Eochaidh Buidhe ; 

By Suibhne, the populous in the strife, 

Ailill Cedach was slain. 
Cairbre, king of Laighis of tunics 2 

Was slain by Congal Menn ; 

By Domhnall Brec with expertness 

Was Amlaibh, the mariner, slain." 

Howbeit, the courage and great deeds of the blooming-faced sons 

of Domhnall, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, were not the worse or 

the more cowardly in revenging the wounds [deaths] of these four 

on the Ultonians and foreigners, viz., Fergus, Aengus, Ailell, Colgu, 

and Conall by name. After every other goal had been won, every 

great triumph gained, and every battle-onset accomplished by these 

sons of the monarch of Erin, they and the four sons of the king of 

Alba fought hand to hand. Six of these puissant sons coveted and 

sought each other, viz., Congal, Suibhne, and Aedh, three of the sons 

of Eochaidh Buidhe, and Ailell, Colgu, and Conall, three of the sons 


z King of Laighis of tunics In the Laoighis of swords" but this, though it 

paper copy the reading is Caipbpe, pi£ makes very good sense, does not appear as 
^ctoijpi no lann, i. e. "Cairbre, king of correct as the reading in the vellum copy as 


Nip ba h-eiplet>ac in ímaipiuc pm, uaip ba comoicpa a compete, 
ocup ba comupom comaOaip a comlonn ; uaip ba comDuchcupa 
comceneoil ícip Gpinn ocup Qlbain cuin^eba caema, cpaeb-uaipli, 
cáoaip in comlamo pm ocup in compaic. 

C10 rpacc nip b'aipem aipec ícip plamb ic ple6-ol oppu a 
li-aiúli na h-imlait>e pm, ace ba meap maicne íuip mapbaib, ap 
n-a muou^at), ap na comcuinm pe cell, amail apbepu in pill : 
Ceiúpe meic Gchech buitn, 

cui^ meic Domnaill, pi$ Daipe, 

oebait) po opbpaoap oe, 

ou concaoap a ceile. 
Seipiup t>ib-pin popum n$le, 

po mapbpaoap a ceile, 

CteO, Suibne, Con^al na clann, 

Qilell, C0I511 ocup Conall. 

Uuipuecua in upip nap mapbao t>o'n maicne pin, .1. pep^up 
ocup Cten^up, t>a mac Domnaill, ocup Domnall bpeac, mac Gch- 
ach buioi. Qcu cena, pob'incompaic epem o'pep^up no o'Qengup, 
ocup pob' poplann oebaio na t>epi oepbpauhap 'n-a agait) a aenup; 
t>ai5 po upaeúpau ocup po úoipnepuap Domnall, ^up t>amaip in 
u-05-mac a up^abail ; co n-ebaipu a bpeiú 'na beuaio ap paepam 
na plaúa, ocup a aúcup ap h-ua n-Qinmipec. Ocup Do pinfteao pip 
map 00 paioiupuap; ocup pucao he o'lnnpai^io aipo-pig Gpenn, 
$upa apploint) a pialap 'n a piaOnaipi, .1. Colum Cilli, mac peio- 
limit), t>'oilemain a auhap, .1. Gchaió buioi, mac Qeoain, amail 
apbepu in pill : 

Gengup íp pepgup co beer 

po gabpauap Domnall bpecc, 


given above in the text, because the rhyme perfect. Na lenn is translated iogarum by 
with meno or íneann would not be so Colgan in Trias Thaum. p. 225, col. 1. 


of Domlmall. This was not a soft contest, for their light was equally 
sanguine and their conflict equally powerful and creditable; for the 
comely, free-born, honourable heroes of this conflict and combat were 
of equally noble descent both of Erin and of Alba, 

Howbeit, it was not the reckoning of chiefs among princes at a 
banquet was to be made on them after this conflict, but they were 
estimated as youths among the dead, for they were slain and fell 
mutually by one another, as the poet says : 

"The four sons of Eochaidh Buidhe, 

The five sons of Domhnall, king of Daire, 
Coveted to come to single combat 
When they beheld each other. 
Six of these of bright achievements 
Mutually slew each other, 
Aedh, Suibhne, Congal of thrusts, 
Ailell, Colgu, and Conall." 

With respect to the three of these sons who were not slain, viz., 
Fergus and Aengus, the two sons of king Domhnall, and Domhnall 
Brec, the son of Eochaidh Buidhe, the latter was fit to contend with 
either Fergus or Aengus singly, but it was too much to have the two 
brothers against him alone ; and they subdued and vanquished him, and 
that youthful warrior suffered himself to be taken prisoner ; and he 
requested that he might be brought alive under the mercy of the king, 
and to be handed over to the disposal of the grandson of Ainmirech. 
This was done accordingly as he had requested : he was conveyed to 
the monarch of Erin, before whom he pointed out his friendship with 
his family, viz., that Colum Cille, the son of Feidhlimidh, had fostered 
his father, Eochaidh Buidhe, the son of Aedan, as the poet says : 

"Aengus and Fergus expertly 
Captured Domhnall Brec, 


2 4 8 

co cucpac mac Gchach uill 
'n a bechaio 1 laim Domnaill. 
bliaoain oo i laim Domnaill oem, 
co cánic GochaiD O'á peip, 
gup leic Ooninall, — gaps a gluino, — 
a mac do oalua Coluim. 

CiO cpacc, map t)o cualaio Congal Claen caú-puaúap clainDi 
Gachach o'poptnbat), ba lonn ocup ba lopcao le Congal ceiupe 
uaicne oipopaca oipecaip Qlban o'poipuceao ap wcaib a enig ; 
conio aipe pin po clipepcap Congal pá na caúaib map clipep piat)- 
mil puach-péaogach, pomópoa paipgi pa mupbpucuaib mong-puaoa 
maftmannacha mm-eipc mop-mapa. l?o leanpau luce a peémi 
ocup a ímoeagla Congal t>o compaignib cupao ocup car-mileo 
Ulao ocup allmapac, pa Conari T2oO, mac pig bpeuan, ocup pa n 
caegaic car-mileo co n-iapanO blocaib Ullcachóa acu, map oo 
can Con^al in inao eli : 

Gcu-pa caegaic pep pint), 
co n-apm cupao op a cino, 
ic oigail m'olc íp mo cneao, 
ocup blocc pe cac aen pep. 

Cuapcaigip Congal cpiplac in caúa moip ap a meOon, ic coga 
epiach lcip upen-pepaib, ocup ic airne aipO-pi£ ícip anpaoaib, ic 
pluag-oiglaim na paep-clano po-ceneoil ícip na pluagaib, cumao 
ap coonacaib in caúa po cairpeo pum ceu-^pinne a pepgi, ocup a 
engnuma, ic comoigail a cneao ap cac, gup ob eaó aipmiu ugoaip 
co náp pagaib aipecu, na aicme, na apo-cmeó t>'pepaib Gpenn uile 
gan epbaio ocup gan accame ecca aipig no aipo-pig, ic comoi- 
gail clamoi Gachach opaib. Qcc cena, nip cpeicpeau celiac a 
ruppacca Congal lp in carpoín, ace capm-cloúa in cigepnaip ic 



And delivered that son of the great Eochaidh 
Alive into the hands of Domhnall. 
He was a year in the hands of bold Domhnall, 
Until Eochaidh came to submit to him, 
So that Domhnall of fierce deed 
Gave up his son to Columb's foster-child." 

Now when Congal Claen had heard that the sons of Eochaidh 
were cut off, it was grief and burning to him that the four illustrious 
pillars of the renown of Alba should have been destroyed while 
under his own protection. Wherefore he rushed through the bat- 
talions as a furious sea-monster plunges at red-finned retreating small 
fish of the great sea. His attendants and defenders, who were of the 
choicest of the heroes and warriors of the Ultonians and foreigners, 
followed Congal under the command of Conan Rod, son of the king 
of Britain, having Ultonian iron blocks, as Congal said in another 
place : 

" I had fifty fair men, 

With heroic weapons over them, 
Revenging my evils and my wounds, 
And a block with every one man." 

Congal scanned the great host from its centre to its borders, 
selecting the leaders from among heroes, and marking the arch- 
chieftains among soldiers, picking the free-born nobility from among 
the hosts, so that it might be on the chieftains of the army he would 
expend the first paroxysm of his rage and valour in revenging his 
wounds on them all ; and authors recount that he did not leave a 
party or tribe of the great tribes of the men of Erin without a loss, 
or without having to bewail the death of a chief or arch-prince, in 
avenging the sons of Eochaidh upon them. Howbeit, the attendants 
of Congal in this sally did not abandon him, but the superior renown 

IRISH ARCH. SOC 6. 2 K of 


báouo a m-blait)i, uaip écc 1 pail pi£ a puiolep, amail apbepu in 

pill : 

Gcc i pail pi$ m uapba 

00 úe^lacaib cpen-calma, 
ap na pi^aib pop po oeaO; 
bip a nop $en 50b lan-ceao. 

lp Oeipmipechu oopein comipgail Con^ail ocup Conam com- 
ímpaicep a n-oepnpac a n-t>íp amail apbepu m pile : 
^ac ap mapbaoup mapaen, 

Conán ip Con$al Claen, 

ap Chon^al ammnigúep pin, 

cuio Chonáin Oo'n coimiop^ail. 
No gop óiic Conan calma, 

mac pi^ bpecan bpac-ampa, 

pe Congal Claen noc ap bean 

po mac pig; na laec lonn-mep. 

ConiO aipe pin po epi^ imúnuú Con^ail pe Conan, pa méo po 
mapbupcap 00 pi^pait) Gpenn ma piatmaipi, ocup ^an nil a pamri 
00 cappacnain t>'á cpén-pepaib pe clep-paebpaib Conam ic up- 
pclai^i ap a ucu ; ^up pua^aip Con^al t)o Chonan ceim Do cupaoaib 
Connacc ocup co cuaúaib Uempa, co m-bepeD pum a báipe pa 
cpen-pepaib in Uuaipcipc; 'uaip níp lie leip comaO aen aipem ap 
pein ocup ap pennit) map Conan ip in caú-laúaip, amail apbepc 
piann pili : 

Qcbepu Con^al ímúi^ uaim, 

a Chonain l?uit) co pó buait) ! 


a This quatrain is supplied from Mac that there had been other accounts of the 

Morissy's copy, p. 97. Battle of Magh Rath, written before the 

b Flann, the poet This quotation shows present story was drawn up, and that the 

2 5 1 

of royalty eclipsed their fame, for an achievement performed in the 
presence of a king is his inherent right, as the poet says : 

"An achievement with a king is of no avail 
To his mighty, brave attendants, 
To the kings it will be attributed ; 
It is the custom, although not by full consent"." 

An illustration of this was the joint battle of Congal and Conan : 
what both achieved is reported of one, as the poet says : 
"What both together slew, 
Conan and Congal Claen, 
To Congal is attributed, 

Conan's part of the conflict as well as his own. 
Until the brave Conan fell, 

The son of the renowned king of Britain, 
Congal Claen was not touched 
By the great son of a king or a puissant hero." 
Wherefore Congal's jealousy with Conan arose in consequence of 
the great number of the chieftains of Erin he had slain, without 
leaving him as much as would satisfy his thirst for slaughter, such 
was the bravery of Conan in casting with his edged weapons from 
before his [Cougars] breast; so that Congal ordered Conan to ad- 
vance to the heroes of Connaught and the tribes of Tara, that he 
himself might display his valour among the mighty men of the north; 
for he did not like that his own achievements on that battle-field 
should be related in conjunction with those of such a hero as Conan, 
as the poet Flann b says: 

" Congal said, depart from me 

O Conan Rod of great triumph ! 


writer availed himself of older writings, largely on his own imagination for ficti- 
though it cannot be doubted that he drew tious incidents to fill up his descriptions. 

2 K 2 


ni ml 'p in car, a laic luino ! 
ace peiom aen ouine a^uinn. 
Lint) Conan pa plua^ Connacc, 
ocup Uempa na cpom-alu, 
t>o luio Con^al, ^ap5 a ^luinO, 
pa plua$ compamach Conaill. 

lmchupa Conain, ap n-OeaOail pe Con^al po compaicpet) cear- 
pap aipec Do pigaib Connacc pe Conan, ,1. Suibne, mac Caúail 
Choppai^, pi^ h-Ua piacpach, ocup Qeo bpeacc, pi£ lon^popuac 
Cui^ne, ocup Qeo Qllan, pi£ TTleaóa Siuil, ocup QeO buiOnec, pi^ 
h-Ua Tílaine. CiO cpacc Do pocpaoap in cecpap pin Oo cuinopcleo 
Conain, map pop^lep in c-u^oap : 

TTlac Carail Choppaig, Suibne, 
ocup Qeo 6pec, pig; Lui£ne, 
Qeo Qllan, QeO buiOnec ban, 
Oo pocpaoap la Conan. 


c Suibkne, king of h- Ui Fiachrach. — whom, in the later ages, the O'Heynes 

h-Ui Fiachrach is the name of a territory and O'Shaughnessys were by far the most 

in the south of the county of Gal way, distinguished. 

which O'Flaherty says is co-extensive with d Aedh Breac, king ofLnighne. — The an- 

the present barony of Kiltartan, but it cient territory of Luighne is co-extensive 

can be proved from the most authentic with the present barony of Leyny, in the 

topographical evidences, that before the county of Sligo, in which the name is still 

De Burgo's of Clanrickard had dismem- preserved. After the establishment of sur- 

bered the original Irish territories of this names the O' Haras, who are of Momonian 

county, h-Ui Fiachrach was exactly co- origin, being descended from Tadhg, son 

extensive with the diocese of Kilmac- of Cian, son of Olioll Olum, were the chiefs 

duagh, as laid down on Beaufort's Ecclesi- of this territory. 

astical Map of Ireland. After the esta- e Aedh Allan, king of Meadha Siuil. — 

blishment of surnames the chiefs of this The territory of Meadha Siuil, otherwise 

territory were the O'Clerys, O'Heynes, called Magh Siuil, and Magh Seola, and 

O'Shaughnessys, and Mac Gillakellys, of the inhabitants Ui Briuin Seola, was 

2 53 

There is not in the battle, O mighty hero ! 
But work for one man of us. 
Conan went to the forces of Connaught 
And of Tara of the heavy deeds, 
And Congal of fierce actions 
To the valiant forces of Conall " 

As for Conan, after his having separated from Congal four chief- 
tains of the Connacians engaged with him, viz., Suibhne, son of Cathal 
Corrach, king of the Hy-Fiachrach c , Aedh Brec, king of Luighne d of 
fortifications, Aedh Allan, king of Meadha ShnT, and Aedh, of nu- 
merous hosts, king of Hy-Maine f , and these four fell by the brave 
conflict of Conan, as the author testifies : 

" The son of Cathal Corrach, Suibhne, 
And Aedh Brec, king of Luighne, 
Aedh Allan, Aedh Ban, of numerous hosts, 
Were slain by Conan." 


nearly co-extensive with the barony of 
Clare, in the county of Galway. It ex- 
tended from Lough Corrib to the conspi- 
cuous hill of Knockmea, at Castle Hackett, 
and from Clarinbriclge to the north boun- 
dary of the parish of Donaghpatrick. This 
was the original country of the O'Fla- 
hertys, before they were driven across 
Lough Corrib into the mountains of Con- 
namara and Dealbhna Tire da Loch, by 
the De Burgo's of Clanrickard. 

f Aedh, king of Hy -Maine. — 

The exact boundaries of the territory of 
h-Ui Maine are described in O'Dugan's 
Topographical Poem, and in a MS. pre- 

served in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin (H. 3. 18. p. 412.), but it would 
be too tedious to give them here. It ex- 
tended, according to these authorities, from 
the hill of Meadha Siuil, now Knockmea, 
near Castle Hacket, in the county of Gal- 
way, to Lough Ree, in the Shannon, and 
from Athenry, in the same county, to the 
boundary of Thomond. But after the Clan- 
rickard Burkes had dismembered the an- 
cient territories of this part of Connaught, 
the territory of Ui Maine was much cir- 
cumscribed in its limits, and varied in 
extent, according to the success or misfor- 
tune of its chief, O'Kelly. 


Con^al impairep pe h-eat) eli. CinOip Con^al ceim co cupaoaib 

copnamaca Conaill, uaip ip ppiu ba h-uilliu a pep^ ocup a aininne, 

ocup ip Doib ba mo a mipcne ocup a mioucpacr;. Cio cpacu, 

^eppac cpuinne, cpot>a, comt>epa, ocup ^eppox cepua, copai£n, 

comapoa cimpa ocup caú-imli caúa copnantai^ Conaill ap cino 

Con^ail, poppau cpiniai^ci, clepapmach, ocup poppac pcuccha, 

pcailceca, pcenmapa uile iac-piOe ap cumapc t>o Con^al ap cpen- 

pepaib in Uuaipcipe; ^op oncapuap capb-cotmac cnucac, ropu- 

buillech Uopaig, .1. Conall, mac baeoam, mic NinOe6a,micpep5upa 

CenOpooa, mic Conaill J5 u ^ban, mic Neill Noi-^iallai^, o Uhulac, 

Oaúi, ocup o cpacu-popraib Uopaige lap cuaipcepc. Ip arm pin 

po cint>epcop Conall ceim cupaiD 1 5-cepc a£ait) Congail, Do coip- 

nearh a rpecam, ocup fc'ipliu^at) a uabaip, ocup 00 copnam ocup 

Do cobaip clainoi copnamai^i Conaill, ap con^alaib compep^e 

Congail. Cio pil arm cpa, o 00 compaicpec in Da cuin^iD cara 

pin ucu pe h-ucu, ocup a£aio in a£ait>, po accuippee t)a upcup 1m- 

poiccpi,pip-6ip5e,euuppu, gup bo cnep-buailce,corhnui6e t)ocent>aib 

na 5-cpaipech a 5-collaib na caú-mileo, ocup ^uppau peit>li£, patm, 

puilióe, pip-lebpa popcaóa pip-laec cpoinn-apmca, comóip^e na 

car-cpaipec compaic pin, ap na com-inOpma a cuppaib a ceile ; 

lap pm cpa po cmneprap Conall popcpait) ceime rap conaip co 

Con^al o'a eappnaiomeo, ocup o'a up^abail, cap a apmaib ocup 

rap a llpaebpaib, oip ip e po ceupamepcaip Conall nap ab áiúep 

ím^ona ocup nap b'oipceap imbuailce t>o a óalua Oo [rabaipu ap 

n-a] bilei^ip no ap n-a óiccenoaó co Domnall. Conao lapom po 

íao ocup po uppnatmmpuaip conclanna cpuaiOe, coppnaomanaca 


§ Tulach Datfii was the ancient name of h Various sharp weapons, in Irish ll- 

a hill in the barony of Kilmacrenan, in paebpaib, a word compounded of ll, which 

the county of Donegal. It is probably in composition has the force of the Latin 

the place now called Tullaghobegly. multus or the Greek ttoáv^ and pccebap, 

2 55 

Congal shall be treated off for another while. Congal advanced 
to the defensive heroes of the Cinel Conaill, for against them his 
anger and animosity were mostly directed, and for them he cherished 
most malice and hatred. And though the borders and outskirts of 
the Cinel Conaill were consolidated, brave, and well-arrayed, ad- 
justed, adapted, and equally high to meet Congal, they were all 
shaken, dislodged, scattered, and terror-stricken by the mighty on- 
slaught which Congal made on these heroes of the north ; until the 
greedy, heavy-blowed, robustic chieftain of Tory, namely, Conall, the 
son of Baedan, son ofNinnidh, son of Fergus Cennfoda, son of Conall 
Gulban, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, of Tulach Dathi g , and of the 
northern ports of Tory opposed him. Then Conall took the step of 
a hero against Congal to restrain his fury, and to humble his pride, 
and to protect and assist the defensive race of Conall against his 
furious attacks. When these two warlike champions had come breast 
to breast and face to face, they made two close straight-aimed thrusts 
at each other, so that they buried the heads of their spears in each 
other's heroic bodies, and so that the trusty, long, bloody, heroic, straight 
shafts of these battle-fighting spears were mutually socketed in each 
other's bodies. After this Conall decided to take a step beyond the 
boundary to Congal to grasp him about and hold him outside his 
arms and various sharp weapons 11 , for Conall thought that it would be 
no triumph of contest or becoming victory in him to present his fos- 
ter-son beheaded or incurable to king Domhnall. Wherefore, he 
twined his arms in hard-griping heroic grasps around the body and 


which literally signifies the edge of any the weapons with which an Irish chief was 

weapon, and figuratively the weapon itself, armed in the year 1309, were a dagger, 

It appears from Magrath's Wars of Tho- a sword hung from his belt, a dart which 

mond, of which there is a MS. in the Li- he carried in his right hand, and a spear 

brary of the Royal Irish Academy, that or lance which he bore in his left. 

2 5 6 

cujiat) rap copp ocup cap cnep-popmnaib Congail. po'n cuma ceona 
t)o Con^al Claen, íaoap ocup uppnaOmaip na ^lac-t)oit)i gap^a, 
^aibci^e, ^e^-óip^e ^aipceo, rap copp ocup rap cneap, ocup uap 
popmnail Conaill, ocup cucpacap cuppa calma, comnepua, coun- 
t>icpa o'a ceile, ocup cpaiceO neim-meipunec Do poc^ail poupen, ocup 
t>o paenpaftai^ po calma apoile, $up bo caip^pi epic, calcap, uapb- 
cnucac, cpen^leca gac cpauhao cpuaiD, corhbep compince cuipp 
ocup cnep cpiocpailme ^ac cel^, ocup copp, ocup cpuaio-^leca t>o 
cuipeeap pe ceile; 50 m-ba pamalca pe paeb-poirlen pap-muilinn 
ap pip-bleic rninapc, ocup rnipiú, ocup lrncimcellao na cupaD ap a 
ceile. Coná po p^uippeo t>o'n upeaéan, ocup t>o'n capb-^leic, ocup 
t>on enuc-bupac cpapcapca cpen-pep pin, cop bo caep-meall cun- 
pcaigcec ap na compuachat) an clap caep-rponi, cpiaDaioe, cneap- 
ai^ce, pa n-a copaib; gup bo lan-bo^ labóa, liuc-lmncec lan-Oomuin 
gac mat) uipcióe, agam-pliuc, ap ap uprhaipecap pe pineó, ocup pe 
puaúaó, ocup pe plaet)peD, pe ppap^ail, ocup pe bonn^ail, ocup pe 
bopb-cpeipecu, pe mepcaf), ocup pe lmeallgail, ocup pe mumelat) na 
mileo a^ poicleo ocup ag ponuipot) apoile. l?o cluinpm cpa po 
ceicpe h-apoaib in caca, — mena m-beiú menma caic ap comaiplec 
a ceile, — peic-pwet) a b-péir a% a b-piap-úappai^, ocup alu-^eimnec 
a n-alc a^ a n-eOappcapao, ocup cleu-cum^u^aD a cliab-apnaio 
a£ a comOpuo 1 cenn a ceile, gup bo Dicumain^ t>o na oe^-laecaib 
uparcup ocup up^abail a n-anala, ap ^-cum^achat) na 5-conapao 
coirceno a n-aoai^cip uaraib 00 ^pep la popécnech petmia na pip- 


* Violence of their exertions 5° m-ba how the Irish mind in the 19th century, 

Jamaica pe paeb-poirlen r-ap-iinuillinn. though tamer and more concentrated than 

This is not unlike Carleton's description that of the nth, has produced a some- 

of the single cudgel combat between what similar description of a single ren- 

Grimes and Kelly, in his Party Fight and counter. " At length, by a tremendous 

Funeral, from which we are tempted to effort, Kelly got the staff twisted nearly 

quote the following passage, as showing out of Grimes' hand, and a short shout, 

2 57 

shoulders of Congal, and Congal likewise folded and entwined his 
rough, dangerous, straight-armed hands of valour around the body 
and shoulders of Conall ; they gave brave, mighty, and earnest twists 
to each other, and tremendous shakes, with mighty and powerful 
twirling, so that their great efforts and struggles, twining and twir- 
ling, were active, firm, fierce, and mighty, like two bulls, and they 
might be compared to the huge wheel of a mill at rapid-grinding ; 
and they did not desist from these mighty struggles until the deep 
clayey surface of the earth under their feet was tempered and 
stripped, and until every moist spot on which they wrestled was 
soft, miry, and deep, from their stretching, struggling, and trampling, as 
they turned, swayed, and twirled each other. They would have been 
heard throughout the four quarters of the battle, were it not that the 
minds of all were intent on slaughtering one another. The over- 
straining of their sinews in their contortions, the cracking of their 
joints in dislocations, the compression of their chest-ribs in their 
pressing together, made respiration and inspiration difficult to these 
goodly heroes, from the contraction of the general passages, caused 
by the violence of their exertions' 1 . In short, since the battle of Her- 

half- encouraging, half - indignant, came twirled round with such rapidity, that it 

from Grime's party. This added shame was impossible to distinguish them. Some- 

to his other passions, and threw an im- times, when a pull of more than ordinary 

pulse of almost supernatural strength into power took place, they seemed to cling 

him; he recovered his advantage, but no- together almost without motion, bending 

thing more ; they twisted ; they heaved down until their heads nearly touched the 

their great frames against each other ; ground, their cracking joints seeming to 

they struggled ; their action became rapid ; stretch by the effort, and the muscles of 

they swayed each other this way and that ; their limbs standing out from the flesh, 

their eyes like fire ; their teeth locked, and strung into amazing tension." — Traits and 

their nostrils dilated. Sometimes they Stories of the Irish Peasantry, second edit, 

twined about each other like serpents, and p. 342. 

IRISU ARCH. soc. 6. 2 L 

2 5 8 

laec. Gcccena,ni oepnaóuap eip^leacaGpcailjinicGmphiupionip, 
ocup Qnuei, mic "Ceppae, aen gleic ocup aen coppai^ecc a h-mpa- 
TTiail pin, D015 am po ba ^aibuec in ^leic pin, ocup po ba cpuaio in 
coppaioecú, ocup po ba apname in ímpup^ail po'n innup pin. Ocup 
t>an pobcap copmaile ceupaioe na cupat) ím capcaipne caic ap a 
ceile aca íp in uaip pin: D015 arh nip cet>pait) pe Con^al aen-pep 
o'a popcao no t>a lmcon^bail po an mnup pin, .1. pe meu a menman, 
ocup pe h-uaibpige a aicenca, ocup t>no pe h-oll-cecpait> na n-Ullcac 
ap plecuaib a pinnpep. Ocup ono, ni mo po ceupaioepuap Conall 
aen-pep o'á popcab, no o'á ímcon^bail'mon innup pin, pe ci£e, ocup 
pe co^oacc, ocup pe uul-buipbe na Uuaipcepuac, íp a n-ai^neo po 
h-oilet), ocup po aiupeab ann, ocup pe Oi^ainn^ecca a ouccapa, ocup 
pe cecpait>e a ceneoil o niam-clanbaib nepumapa, nichaca, nam- 
t>ait>e Neill, ocup beop a beiú 'n-a mac aiptvpi^ Gpenn, .1. t>o 6aet>an, 
mac Ninnetja, mic Pepgupa, mic Conaill, mic Neill Nai^iallai^, 
map popple p an c-u^bap : 

Gen btiat>am pe h-ol meoa 
t>o baeban, mac Nmneoa, 
a ceúaip picceo puaip oebec 
00 boi Cteo, mac Gwmipec. 

ConaD aipe pin, po ceupait>epcap Conall ap cac cuip ap na 
compe^at), $up ab t>o bot>ein commaioem, ocup po ba t>urca buao- 
u^at) caca ba^a t>o bpeir, ocup copcap caca cam^ne t>o com- 
maioem ; conao aipe pm, cucapuaip cpen-cop uapcuipnec, calma, 
comlaiDip, caoau, comnepu, ceal^-bae^lame cupat) 1 cepu-a^am a 
colna t>o Chon^al, co uapla rpeapm na upot>a, ocup mioftac na 


J The son of Amphitryon — This allusion known in Ireland in the middle ages. It 
shows that our author had access to Lucan is curious, however, his calling Hercules 
or Statius, and that the Latin classics were the son of Amphitryon. 

2 5 9 

cules, the son of Amphitryon 3 , with Anteus, the son of Terra, no ren- 
counter or wrestling like this had taken place, for thus indeed the 
struggle was dangerous, the rencounter hard, and the wrestling vi- 
olent. And the heroes were of the same mind as regarded their 
contempt for each other at this time ; for Congal did not think that 
any one would have been able to resist or withstand him in this man- 
ner, from the greatness of his magnanimity, and the haughtiness of his 
mind, and moreover, from the high notion of the Ultonians respecting 
the glory they derived from their ancestors. Nor did Conall brook it 
better that any man should resist or withstand him in this manner, in 
consequence of the firmness, distinction, and fierceness of the nor- 
therns, and from the feeling which had been nurtured, and which 
dwelt within him, and from the native dignity of his tribe, and from 
his notion of his descent from the splendid, puissant, warlike race 
of Niall, and moreover from his being the son of the monarch of 
Erin, viz., of Baedan, son of Ninnidh, son of Fergus, son of Conall, 
son of Mall of the Nine Hostages, as the author testifies : 
"One year to drink mead k (i. e. to be in peace) 

Was Baedan, son of Ninnidh, king ; 

For four and twenty years of strife 

Euled Aedh, the son of Ainmire." 
Wherefore, taking every thing into consideration, Conall was of 
opinion, that he himself would gain the victory, for it was hereditary 
in him to gain the victory in every conflict, and to triumph in every 
struggle. Wherefore, he gave one mighty, insulting, brave, robust, 
subduing, dangerous twist of his body against Congal, so that the 


k One year to drink mead. — Qen bliaó- inform us that a king or chieftain was re- 
am, &c, oo óaeoan, i. e. A. D. 571 He markable for drinking mead or playing 

was succeeded in the year 572 by Aedh, chess, they give us to understand that he 
the father of king Domhnall, the hero of enjoyed peace, 
this tale. When the ancient Irish writers 

2 L 2 


mibcomaiple, ocup ciptn coimeca celg ocup couappnacca, ocup 
claen-corhat> 'na cpumne plaeoaigúi piú-paen, gup bo h-i a agaio ba 
h-uaccapac pe t>epcat) na n-Oul íp in coibeip ceuapba op a cionn, 
co paibe compaD cuipp in car-milet) ap na corhap h-i uulmamg na 
ralman, o piorbaca a pal co popmna a cean-mullaig ; co clop po 
ceirpib apoa in caúa cpuait)-iaccao an cupait) ocup ceann copna- 
Tiiac comegin Congail, lap n-a pineat) ocnp ap n-a rpapcpat> t)o neapc- 
copa nichaca mic bpar-buillióig baet>am. ba 1 n-ecmamg na pe 
pm, ac cuala Conan l?oo cneat)-opnaóac comeigin Congail, ocup 
po innpaig 50 mac bpac-buillitng baet)ain, ocup íp amlait) po boi 
pit>e ma bopb-ptmaig bot>ba op cmo Congail, ag cpiall ocup ac 
umfrpceual a cengail ocup a cpuao-cuibpigce t)o cpiop a cloioim, 
ocup t)o pciacpac a pceiúe. Uucapcaip eirh Conan cpuaib-buille 
cloit)im pa ceapu-comaip a cpame t>o Conall ; cit> cpacc nip 
mocaig mac bopb-neapumap baeoain an cpuaio-builli clomim pm 
no gup compomnepcaip a cliab ocup a cpaifte ap cepc t)o, gup bo 
cpecc comoplaicce copp an cupait) ag cuicim co calmam. 

Conat) 1 cobaip Conain ap Congal, ocup copuigecu Conaill ocup 
Congaill ap Car TTluige l?aú conuicci pm. 

Qcc cena, ni piacc leip m t)a pig-mileO, .1. le Conan ocup le 
Congal, copcap Conaill 00 commaibem, m ran t>o piacu cloit)em 
cobupca caic gup m car-laraip ceuna pin, .1. Celiac, mac TTIailcoba, 
Do copnam cmt> Conaill pip na cupat)aib, pepiu no bepDip a cop- 
cap uap clat) poip na pluagaib; oip íp e ammit> ugt>aip nac ap 
commaioeo copcap aen laic o'apo clanna Neill ap laraip m laice 


1 In a mighty huge arch Tna bopb- from the fact, that in the best MSS. the 

fouai^boóba — The word pouct^ or pcuaj rainbow is called poua^ neirhe, i. e. the 

certainly signifies an arch or bow, though arch of heaven. The word is also applied 

it is not so explained in any published to the arch of a bridge, as in the following 

Irish Dictionary. This appears obvious example : pil opoicec ac on caépai£ 


instigator of the battle, the contriver of the evil design, the receptacle 
of treachery and perverseness, and the fell cause of all the slaughter, 
was laid supine with his face up to view the clouds, in the wide four- 
quartered firmament over him ; so that the length of this warrior's 
body was impressed in the surface of the ground from the extremity 
of his heel to the top of his head ; so that the hard warrior-shrieks and 
violent groans of Congal, when laid thus prostrate by the robust 
and vigorous effort of the heavy-striking son of Baedan, were heard 
throughout the four quarters of the battle. At this time Conan Rod 
heard the loud groans of Congal in this strait, and he approached the 
heavy-striking son of Baedan, who was then bent in a mighty huge 
arch 1 over Congal, ready to tie and fetter him with the girdle of his 
sword, and the bands of his shield. Conan made a hard blow of his 
sword at Conall exactly opposite his heart, and the furious-puissant 
son of Baedan did not feel the blow until it had cleft his breast and 
heart in twain, so that the body of the hero fell to the ground in one 
wide-gaping wound ! 

So far the rencounter of Conall and Congal, and the aid of Conan 
to Congal in the Battle of Magh Rath. 

Howbeit, the two royal heroes, Conan and Congal, had not time 
to exhibit the trophy [head] of Conall, before the aiding sword of 
all, namely, Cellach, the son of Maelcobha, came up to the scene of 
the contest to defend the head of Conall against the heroes, and pre- 
vent them from carrying it off as a trophy eastwards across the mound 
from the hosts. Authors relate that during that day none of the 
great descendants of Niall were slain and exulted over, to whom Cel- 

pin, lmapmap eipioe ícip poua^a ocup (in the possession of the Duke of Devon- 

popcaóa, i. e. "there is abridge at that shire), fol. 107. The term poua£-óopup 

city, which is constructed of marble, both is often applied to a circular- headed door- 

in its arches and pillars." — Book of Lismore way — See the same MS. fol. 156. 


pin, 5cm Celiac Do copnam a cmD, ocup D'aife a poobaD, Do peip 
map pop^leip in c-u^Dap : 

Nip cuiu pi^ na puipe pern 

'pa laire pin, Do clainD Neill, 
nac coipenao Celiac cam 
a copcap co n-a Di^ail. 

Gn can ac connac Con^al Celiac ag a íapmoipecc, ocup D'a 
mnpai^iD, po ím^aib in c-mab pin, ocup po mopaig mat) ele 'nap 
paoil ponn map Chellac D'a coimppe^pa, no mal map mac TTlaile- 
coba Da cuppachaD. Oip ap eaD ba cecpaiD Do Con^al, Da com- 
Dunca cpo caóan na caú-laupai^ in aen maD aip ocup ap a com- 
Dalca, nac buD peap aire a anpalca, na Dio^alua a Depce na a 
DimiaDa ap Domnall, na a^pa eapbaDa popba na n-Ullcac, .1. Cpic 
Conaill ocup 605am, ocup Qip^iall ap Cenel Conaill ; conaD aipe 
pin, po arcuipepuap cum^iDecu na caú-larpai^ ap Conan 1?od pa 
comppe^pa Cellai^. CiD pil ann cpa, ba conpaDaiD Celiac ma 
Conan a£ couhaD ap a cinD íp m cach-^leo pm, lap na im^abail 
D'aipD-pi£ UlaD, uaip ba cpaD cpaiDe le Celiac in po pa D015 leip 
Do paep-clanDa poiceneoil nepu-cloinDe Neill Do cuppacaD Do 
Con^al, an cem Do beiú pium ocup Conan a$ comppe^pa a ceile. 
ConiD ann pm po canupcap Celiac, ap puipeac peicearnain D'á 
n-Dli^eann Duip-biDba Depb-piaca Duic-pi cochaD ap mo cinD-pa 'pa 
car-laraip pi, uaip baD luaD lercpuim leú-eoap^aipe laifpec 
euip Con^al ocup Conall cu, maD cop cpapca. Qmen cena, ni map 
^ac ni Do neoc a rigepna Do uepap^am ^an ciugba, na a piop-capa 
D'poipirin ap eicin ícip, a Cellai^, ap Conan. bai^im-pi bpiarap 
Dno, a pig-mileD, nac d'ic u'palaD, ma c'ainpiaca, ma u'ecpaiee, 


m No king or dexterous chief had fallen, that there was an older account of the 
— Mi ruic pij na puipe péió This shows Battle of Magh Eath than the present. 


l;ich did not come to prevent their heads from being carried away in 
triumph, and to revenge their wounds, as the author testifies : 

" No king or dexterous chief had fallen" 1 
On that day, of the race of Niall, 
Whose trophy Cellach, the comely, 
Did not protect and revenge." 

When Congal perceived Cellach in pursuit of him, and approach- 
ing him, he avoided the place where he was, and sought another 
whither he thought a bulwark like Cellach would not come to respond 
to him, or a chief like the son of Maelcobha would not subdue him ; 
for Congal thought that should he and his foster-brother [Cellac/i] 
become the centre of attraction to the brave encircling bulwarks on 
the field of battle, that there would not be a man to revenge his animo- 
sities, or to avenge the loss of 'his eye, or his indignities onDomhnall, 
or to dispute the curtailment of the Ultonian territory, namely, the 
countries of Tir Conaill andTirEoghain, and Airghialla, with the Cinel 
Conaill ; wherefore he left the leadership of the battle-field to Conan 
Rod for the purpose of responding to Cellach; but Cellach was more 
furious than Conan in pressing on the combat, after the king of Ulster 
had fled him, for it was vexation of heart to Cellach to think of the 
number of the noble free-born mighty race of Niall which he thought 
would be discomfited by Congal, while he himself and Conan should 
be contending with each other. Then Cellach said, " It is the waiting 
of a debtor who owes a bitter enemy just debts, for thee to wait for 
me on this battle-field, for thou hast just now very unjustly and un- 
fairly interposed between Congal and Conall." " Be it so indeed, O 
Cellach," said Conan ; " a person should not act in the ordinary way 
to save his lord from destruction, or to defend his true friend in diffi- 
culty ; and I swear by my word, royal warrior, that it was not to 
revenge thy animosity, thy trespasses, or thy enmity that I have come 



can^a-pa pioc-pa a pi£;-niat>, ma po corai^ep ap tjo cmt> ip in lo 
ba£a-pa aniu. bai^im-pi bpiafap eim, a pi^-milet), a Conain, ap 
Celiac, niana ica-pa u'anpolca no c'anpiaca piom-pa íp in coim- 
ep^ail caua pa íp in upar pa, noca n-icpai6 tna eip co epic cinnue, 
coiucinn, cem-eipep^i caic. 6100 a pip a^ao-pa, ap Conan, nac 
cupcap poppppaic ap peinfret), uaip ni bai^ bniarpa a^aft-pa báirep 
pep-^lonna pip-laic, ap Conan, ocup ni puachat) pui^ill aireip palao 
ap epcapaio eoip 5 ae,t)e ^ a &° oT e r- ^° petap-pa imoppo m ni 
pin, a Chonaw, ap Celiac, ocup Dno, bioo a piop a$at)-pa, an ci t)'a 
n-oli^ap an Oail, ocup ap a n-a^uprap t)eipb-piaca, ap tnop ocup 
ap 0I1510 Do upnaiOre pe h-iappait) na h-a^pa, ocup pe pep puap- 
aioe na pala ; ocup ono, a$ po cucac-pa an ceo upcap, ap pe, a^ 
cpachaD na cpaipi^e o'á h-arcop uaoa $aca cepu-tnp^e co Conan. 
Uan^aftap cpiap bparap baóac, bpairemla, bpecnac 00 cee-inuinn- 
rep Conain emp e ocup an c-upcop, .1. upi meic Depbopafap a arap, 
.1. upi lueic load, mic Q1I1 TTleaopuaio, .1. Re[», ocup Ul, ocup Qp- 
cup, a n-anmanna; ocup ran^aoup a cnuin co n-t>eipióecap t>puun 
ap fcnunm ap cepc-belaib Conam ecip é ocup an c-upcup. Ro peo- 
laD ocup po pet>et> cpuatvupcop cpaipi^e Cellai^ cuca ceca cepu- 
Oip^e, ^up bo ooippi t>ebra Oian-cpeccaca bpuinneat>a na na-bpec- 
nac, ap ^-coirhrpe^ao cuipp ceca cupat) epia n-a céile, ocup ap 
pcolcat) a pceic ap a pcar-bpumtu. Qcc cena, nip coipmepc cop- 
^ainn, rupaip, na ceccaipecua 00 cpuait)-upcop cpaipi^e Cellai£ 
an upiup pin t>o euiuim t)'a upen-^uw, no ^up $ab ^pinni na ple^a 
5peim ^abao 1 Conan ap cepc-lap a inne ocup a marap, ap pcoleao 
a pceir. lp ann pin cuimni^ep Conan a peacu pio^óa po-^upmap, 
ocup po gab in cac-cpaipec cecna, ocup accuipip 1 ap culao co 


n Person of whom the retribution is due. — ° Three sons ofldhal, the son of Ailli — 

Gn ci o'a n-oli^ap an oail This is in the Cpi mic loail mic Qille. — Are these 

technical language of the Brehon Laws. ideal personages ? 


against thee, or that I have opposed thee this day on which I have 
sworn." " I also swear by my word, royal warrior, O Conan," said 
Cellach, " that unless thou wilt pay thy animosities or debts to me 
in this contest on this occasion, thou shalt never pay them hereafter, 
until the general fate which awaits all after their resurrection." " Be 
it known to thee," said Conan, " that a hero cannot be dismayed, 
and that thy threatening words will not extinguish the manly valour 
of a true champion," said Conan, " and it is not abusive language 
that will always revenge spite on an enemy amongst the Gaels." 
" I know that thing well, Conan," said Cellach, "and be it likewise 
known to thee, that the person of whom the retribution is due 11 , and 
of whom just debts are demanded, it behoves him, and he is bound to 
petition in seeking the demand, and to seek it of the man who owes 
the spite ; and here, therefore, is the first shot towards thee," said he, 
brandishing his spear, and casting it directly at Conan. Three affec- 
tionate British relatives of Conan's chief people came between him 
and the shot, namely, the three sons of his father's brother, to wit, 
the three sons of Idhal, the son of Ailli Meadhruadh, namely, Res, 
Ul, and Arthur by name, and the three came so that they stood 
back to back before Conan, and between him and the shot. The 
vigorous shot of the spear of Cellach was directed and driven straight 
towards them, so that the breasts of these Britons were battle-doors 
of severe wounds, the body of each champion being respectively 
pierced, their shields which defended their breasts having been cleft 
asunder. Howbeit, the intended object of the vigorous shot of Cel- 
lach's spear was not checked by the fall of these three, occasioned by 
the great wounds it inflicted, nor until the head of the spear dange- 
rously entered Conan in the very middle of his entrails and bowels, 
his shield having been cleft. Then Conan, calling to mind his own 
great regal prowess, took the same battle-spear and cast it back at 
Irish arch. soc. 6. 2 M Cellach ; 


Celiac, co cangaoap cpiap uogaioe, cul-bopb, uuaipcepcac Do cineo 
Qengupa, mic Conaill, .1. Cochaioh, ocup Qnluan, ocup Qilgenan, 
a n-anmanna, ocup cangaoap na cpiuji co n-t>epit>eeap opuim ap 
tmuim, a|i cepc-belaib Cellaig, ecip e ocup Conan; ocup ]io oipgeó, 
ocup po oeg-peolat> cpuao-up cap cuca caca cepe-óipge, gup coll- 
rpegepuaip in upiup uul-bopb Uuaipcepuac, ecip coppaib ocup 
caú-pceiúib; cit) cpa acu, mp b'upcap inOipge t>o cpuao-cpaipig 
Conam an rpiup pin Do uuicim t)'a upom-gum, co n-t>echait> in Daigip 
tnubpaicci cpe eipp imcail impulaing ícuapac catr-pceiú comnepu 
caúa an caem-cupait) Cellaig, mic lilailcoba, gup cpeagftapcaip 
cpe na cpoigúe ocup 1 ualmain. Nip ba ceannpaigre Celiac an 
upiup pm t>o cuiuim gan anao gan puipec ina piatmaipe, ocup nip 
pecupuap Do cpom-guin a cpoigueó ag mnpaigio a epcapar, ocup 
pop ; nip ciunaioe Conan ag mnpaigit) Cellaig a mumcep 00 mapbao 
ocup a cpom-gum ap cup. Pucpac t>a eicim ebupoma, pip-luaua, 
1 cepu-comDail a cele, map 00 paigiuip, ocup map t>o papaigicip, 
ocup map t)o baeglaigicip t>a bpot>com bopba, biapuait>e, boobae, 
a con-maepa coimeoa ap g-coimclipet> t)'á coin-iallaib cuibpige pe 
h-ampepce a n-aicenua. Do cuait) in compac a h-mat> et>cpana ná 
h-eat)apgaipe íapcain, co nap cuimgeuop a caipDe na a ceirepnn a 
ciunugao má a ceannpugat), a cobaip ma a compopcacc, pe bpur, 
ocup pe buipbe, ocup pe biapuamlacc na m-beichpe m-bot)ba pm, 
ag combpipeo compaic ocup comlamn ap a ceile, laip na glepaib 
gapga, glomn-mepa, gaibúeca gaipcet), po gabpacap l cenDaib, ocup 
1 cacbappaib caema cumftaigue a ceile, gop bo lion-bpau leftapac, 
lan-Oepcc cemn-bepui comgela gaca cupao, do coimeagap cloiDem 
ocup cpaipec ap a ceile ; gup ab é aipmm ugOaip gup b'mcoiDecua 


p Race of Aengus, the son of Conall. — Conall Gulban See genealogical table of 

X)o cineo Qengupa mic Conaill That the descendants of Conall Gulban, at the 

is, of the race of Aengus Gundat, son of end of this volume. 


Cellach ; upon wliicli three distinguished impetuous northerns of the 
race of Aengus, the son of ConalP, namely, Eochaidh, Anluan, and 
Ailghenan, advanced, and stood one behind the other, directly opposite 
Cellach, and between him and Conan; but the vigorous shot of Conan 
was aimed and directed straight towards them, so that the three fierce 
northerns were pierced, both bodies and shields, yet the shot of the 
hard spear of Conan was not diverted from its line of motion by the 
fall of these three men by its wounds, nor was it stopped until the 
projected blade passed through the narrow lower extremity of the 
strong warlike shield of the comely hero Cellach, son of Maelcobha, 
and piercing his feet stuck in the ground. Cellach did not become 
the more tame on account of the rapid and sudden fall of these three 
in his presence ; he did not look to the deep wounds of his feet in 
attacking his enemy ; nor was Conan the calmer in facing Cellach, 
because that his people had been wounded and killed in the first 
place. They made two light and rapid springs towards each other, 
as two fierce, monstrous, blood-thirsty hounds would advance on, 
overpower, and endanger their watchful keepers from the animosity 
of their nature, after having broken the thongs that bound them. 
The battle soon after went beyond interposition or intermeddling, so 
that their friends or kerne s q were unable to quiet or calm them, or 
assist or relieve them, such was the impetuosity, fierceness, and dex- 
terity of these sanguinary bears in pressing the conflict and combat 
on each other, with the fierce, vigorous, dangerous passes of valour 
which they made at each other's heads and beautiful defensive hel- 
mets, so that the bright headpiece of both heroes was like a mangled, 
blood-stained piece of linen, from their mutual hacking of swords and 


q Kernes were the light-armed ancient VIII., written A. D. 1543, by the Lord 
Irish soldiers. For a curious description Deputy St. Ledger, see note I at the end 
of the Irish kernes, in the reign of Henry of this volume. 



t)'pepaib Gpenn ocup Qlban po óai£in peirme, ocup po^luma, ocup 
aicpipi peime, ocup po-ppepuail, ocup ppea^apca na pi^-milen pin 
op apoile, pe cpuap, ocup pe cpooacu, ocup pe cobpaoacx a 
5-comlomn; pe upeipe, ocup pe upuime, ocup pe calcaipecu a 
o-cpooae; pe h-oll acc, ocup pe h-oibni, ocup pe h-aúloime na 
h-imgona ; pe h-eirhe, ocup pe h-uploirhe, ocup pe h-apnaioecu an 
imbuailce ; pe t)lup, ocup pe oiocpacc, ocup pe OuaibpiOe tieabca 
na t>eipi oe^-laec pin; uaip nip b'airhippec Ulait> ocup allmapai^ 
co m-bao pompa buo paen, t>a mao é Celiac conciuclaipoi ; pip 
Gpenn t)no, ba lan-oeimin leo-pioew co m-baD e Con^al t>o cloio- 
piOe, t>a mat) e Conan conciucluipci. ConaO aipe pm, po puipi^erap 
Gpennai^ ocup allmapaig cen imbualat) t)'pobaipu na o'imluao 
ecoppa, cenmora Con^al Claen nama; 51b eipiDew, nip ba ciunaioe 
caú-lairpeca Con^ail ag mnpaige ui Gwmipec, t)o tn^ail a óepce, 
ocup a óimiaoa, cac Do compcup t>'a 5-comlannaib, pe compecchao 
an compaic pin. 

lmuhupa na t>eipi De^-laec pin, o cup a i>cpot>a co oipccup na 
tmabca, conaó paibe a^ ceccap t)ib pin pip in pe pin impopcpait> po 
b'waipme, na cinOeó comloinn po b'ma^pa, na po b'mcommaiome t>o 
car>milet>aib ap a ceile, cenmora ceo-upcap Chellai^ ap Conan, 
ocup in c-inao in po puipeó ppub-^pmne pleiji Conam t>a cet>-upcaip 
ap Cheallac. Qcc cena, ni bi ouwe ap ooman gan a poo upt>alua 
aipcennca oióeóa o'upmaipi, 5m 50 paibe caca, capaiO, ná epbaioe 
en^nama aip, Oo peip map popglep an c-u^Oap, amail pem-epepr- 
maip : 

Upi pooain nac pecancap, "]c. 

Conao aipe pin, cac twine t>ana oepb-cmmt) a pot> upOalca aip- 
cinnci oit>et>a o'upmaipi, cen co paibe caca, capait), na uipeapbaiD 
engnarha aip, cea^aio bet^-appóena báip a^a buaiOpet), ocup a^a 
bpac-aimpiu^aD, t)o peip map íp comapca cmnci pe cam oepbao na 



spears 011 each other; so that authors relate that it was worth the 
while of the men of Erin and Alba to come to observe, and study, 
and imitate the parryings, guardings, and responses of these royal 
heroes to each other, such was their hardiness, valour, and firmness 
in the combat; the strength, weight, and puissance of their fight; the 
expertness, rapidity, and activity of their fighting; the swiftness, 
readiness, and severity of their blows ; the closeness, diligence, and 
vehemence of the struggle of the two brave heroes. For the Ulto- 
nians and foreigners did not doubt, but that they themselves would 
be triumphant should Cellach be defeated; and the men of Erin 
were certain that Congal would be defeated if Conan should be 
conquered. Wherefore the men of Erin and the foreigners desisted 
from the battle to look on at the combat between them, except Con- 
gal Claen alone ; but he was not the calmer in making his way 
through the battle-field to attack the grandson of Ainmire, to revenge 
the loss o/his eye and his indignity upon him, because all the others 
had ceased from their encounters to look on at the combat. 

With respect to these two great heroes, from the beginning of the 
contest to its termination, neither of them had, during all that time, 
a superiority worth mentioning or an advantage worthy of being 
claimed or boasted of by warriors, except the first shot made by 
Cellach at Conan, and the injury inflicted by the head of Conan' s 
spear on the place it struck Cellach in the first shot. But as the 
author testifies, and as we have said before, there is not a man in the 
world for whom his certain and fixed place of death is not pre- 
ordained, even though he should have no want of vigour, or lack of 
valour : 

" Three things cannot be shunned," &c. 

Wherefore, every one for whom his certain and fixed place of 
death is predestined, even though he should have no want of vigour 
or lack of valour, is visited there by the startling omens of death 



caingni pin, .1. aippuena ocup íóna aimpi^úi Conam ip in compac 
pin, D'ap pan, ocup D'ap íaDupcap poiu-nell pop^-oibepúa paoainc 
rap imooippib a ímcaipi. Gcbepaic apoile ^up ba h-iau apD-naim 
Gpenn Do bepeD pinn a paDaipc ocup a puipc o Conan, 00 cobaip 
Cellai^ íp in compac pin. Qcu cena ni h-amlaiD pin puapaoap 
au^Daip cuma ocup compuiDeD an compaic pin 1 lai-^leanDaib 
leabap, ocup 1 UemiD leú-gealaib liuepóa lan-com^iDiui ^aca 
cain^ni, acu gop ab iaD eiplmni, mm, ocup wacaip Conam ap na 
cpiaúpaD ocup ap na comtollaD t>o ceD-upcop Cellaig ip in com- 
pac, ocup caipi, ocup caim-nella D'a aimpiu^aD ap a lop, D'ap pap, 
ocup Dap íaDapcap popbaipc popccioe, pipDopca Dap puinneo^aib 
popooippiDe paipcpena na plaúa. 

CiD cpacu, po aipi^piuap Celiac ap Conan a beiú co Dall- 
popcac DipaDaipc, ni DepnaiD pium ace a úeachuaD ocup a cim- 
cellao, a poipcceD, ocup a apm-aiplec po comup ocup pa comDil- 
maine a cuipp, gup úuic in cac-miliD Conan ma lechib leaoaipúi, 
gup ob ina lai£i laech-mileD po cippao ocup po colg-DicennaD 
Conan la Cellach. 

Conao é pin aen compac ip pepp mnipir eolai^ ap caú TTlui^i 
l?aú. Oeichbip on Doib, ap ip D015 ip Do Dípcup Debúa na Depi 
De^-laec pin pucaD Da epian a n-epnDmaip ocup a n-en^numa o 
allmapacaib map au conncaDap cenD Conam '5a cpacaD ocup a 
copcap 5a commaiDem oc Celiac, Do peip map pop^lep in c-u^Dap: 

Do cuaiD d' allmapcaib a n-^pain 
a h-airli mapbra Conam, 
map buD é a n-engnum uile 
Do cuipúea a copp aen-Duine. 

a r 

' Omens and pangs Many similar anec- believed in fatality or predestination. — 

dotes are told in different parts of Ireland, See also p. 172, note q , where there is 
which tend to show that the ancient Irish another strong allusion to the belief in 


which disturb and attack him, as was illustrated here by the omens 
and pangs 1 " which attacked Conan in this combat, for whom a whirling 
cloud grew and closed around the inlets of his sight and observation. 
Others assert that it was the chief saints of Erin that took away his 
sight and power of his eyes from Conan, to assist Cellach in this 
combat. But, however, it was not thus that authors have found 5 the 
form and arrangement of this combat on the poetical pages of books, 
and in the plain context of the written narrative of each event ; but 
that it was the bowels and entrails of Conan that were riddled and 
pierced by Cellach's first shot in the combat, and that in consequence 
mists and death-clouds came upon him, which closed a dark and 
gloomy veil over the open inlet windows of that prince's sight. 

Howbeit, when Cellach observed that Conan was dim-sighted 
and blind, he did nothing but close upon him and press him by the 
mighty force of his arms and body, so that the warrior Conan fell 
down a mangled corse, and as he lay, a conquered champion, he was 
mutilated and beheaded by Cellach. 

This was the best combat which the learned mention during the 
Battle of Magh Rath, and the reason is, that it is certain that it was 
in consequence of the combat between these two great heroes that 
the foreigners lost the two-thirds of their bravery and vigour, when 
they saw the head of Conan shook, and exultingly carried off as a 
trophy by Cellach, as the author testifies : 

" From the foreigners departed their valour 

After the killing of Conan, 

As if the valour of them all 

Had been centred in the body of one man." 


predestination. passage proves that the writer had several 

s Not thus that authors have found. — H 1 and conflicting accounts of this battle, from 
h-ariilcno pin puapaoap augoaip This which he drew up the present account. 


Qp arm pin Do piaccacap Da coDnac cleap-apmaca Do lucu 
peinme pceic pi£ UlaD Do caiúearh a ^-coirhpeip^e pe Celiac, .1. 
peapmopc TTIiaDac ocup Giccneac Oip^iallac, ocup cucpac a 
b-peiDm 1 n-empeacu, ocup Do paireaDap Da plea£ 50 5-caelaib a 
5-cpann 1 Celiac, ^up bo leip ínDpmaóa na n-apm cpe eppanaib na 
n-álaó íp in caeb ba paiDe o n-a ^op-^omaib. Ppitailip Celine na 
cneaóa pin, £up pa^aib a pleapa 50 plea^-roll ocup a cinn 50 cpecc- 
nai^tn, ocup a cuipp corhcpea^úa, ocup Do pinni copaip cpó Do na 
cupaóaib D'a eip. 

T?o eip^eacop lapum Diap coDnac cpuú-alomn eili do cairearh a 
coirhpeip^e pe Celluc, .1. Opcup Qua in eic, ocup TTiupchaó, mac 
ÍTlaenai^, ocup po paiúeaDap na pleapa Dain^ni Duaibpiuca inn, gup 
b'ionparhail clein cpe cupcaip peanna na plea£ tipeY an pliop 
apaill Do Chelluc. Ctiap Celluc na cneaóa pin D'imlaiD aulaim, 
aini^neac, ocup Do p^ainnip piocDa apmac, amDpeanDa, ocup Do 
cuip a cmD íp in copaip caca ceDna. lap pm pamic TCia^an, pi l?uip 
Cille, ocup Duban Ouiblmne, cup in laúaip 1 m-boi Celluc, ocup 
can^aDap le Da £uin amrhine ainiapmapúaca paip m einpeacr ; po 
ppea^aip Celluc comain a £ona Do $ac aen Dib. lap pm pamic 
Upealrhac na cpoDa ocup Ceapnac Cop-paDa íp in caú-laraip 
ceDna co Celluc, ocup uu^aDap Da ^uin ceapua, comDaingne ap an 
car-mileD, ocup Da pop^am ainiapmapcaca ap an aippiD, ocup Da 


1 Fermorc, Miadhach, and Eignech, the count of this Orchur in any other autho- 

Airgiallian. — peapmopc, TTIiaóac, ocup rity. There are many places in Ireland 

Gi^neach Oipgiallach. — These are not called Ath an eich, which signifies ford of 

to be found in the Annals or Pedigrees of the horse, but nothing remains to deter- 

the Clanna Rudhraighe. mine which of them is here referred to. 

u Orchur, of Ath an eich, and Murchadh, v Riagan, king of Ros Cille. — "Riccgjctn 

the son of Maenach Opcup Qra an Gic, pi "Ruip Cille. The Editor has not been 

ocup TTIupchaó, mac Hlaenaij. — The able to find this Riagan in the authentic 

Editor has not been able to find any ac- Annals, and therefore suspects that he is a 

2 73 

It was then that two chieftains, dexterous at arms of those who 
at tended on the shield of the king of Ulster, came on to expend their 
anger on Cellach, namely, Fermorc, Miadhach, and Eignech the Air- 
giallian*. They made their attack together, and thrnst two spears to 
the narrow parts of their handles into Cellach, so that the joining of 
the iron to the shafts of the spears was to be seen through the ex- 
tremities of the wounds in the side farthest from the strikers. Cellach 
responded to these thrusts, so that he left their sides pierced with 
his spear, their heads wounded, and their bodies rent, and he after- 
wards made a gorey heap of carnage of these heroes. 

After this, two other chieftains of beautiful form rose up to ex- 
pend their rage on Cellach, namely, Orcur, of Ath an eich u , and Mur- 
chadh, the son of Maenach, and they thrust their firm and terrible 
spears into him, so that the points of the spears passed through Cellach's 
other side, like stakes [thorns?] through a bulrush [ciinccup?]. Cellach 
revenged these wounds by an expert and venomous exchange of wounds, 
and by a fierce and furious onset, and laid their heads into the same 
carnage of battle. After this Biagan, king of Ros Cille v , and Dubhan, of 
Dublin w , advanced to the spot where Cellach was, and inflicted two 
fierce and terrible blows at him together; and Cellach returned to each 
the favour of his wound. After this Trelmhach of the Fight x and 
Cernach the Longshanked y advanced to Cellach to the same spot of 
contention, and made two direct firm blows at the warrior, and two 
tremendous thrusts at the chieftain, and two hard-levelling strokes at 


fictitious character. It should have been Dubhan of Dublin is also probably a nc- 

mentioned in a note, which was accidentally titious character, at least no other monu- 

omitted, on the word " bulrush" above, ment of his existence has been discovered 

that in all the Irish dictionaries cupecup but this story. 

is explained hair, a bulrush; but it is to be x Trealmhach of the Fight. — Upealriiac 

feared, from the simile above made, that net Upooa, is not to be found in the au- 

the word had some other meaning. thentic Irish annals. 

*' Dubhan of Dublin t)ubcmt)ublinne, y Cernach the Lcngshanked. — Ceapncrch 



cfiiiam-béim cpap^apúa oo'n upén-peap. ppirailip Celiac na 
cneaóa pin, 50 pop pa^aip na o-carhnaib p^ailre pcioc-poinnce 
íao, ocup 00 cuip a cinou íp in copaip caúa cecna. TCan^aoap 
íapuam na peace rilailmai^niu ocup Daipbpi, mac Dopprhaip, pi$ 
Ppangc íp in caú-laúaip cerna co Celiac, ocup cucat>ap occ n-^ona 
rpici o'a úoipneaó, ocup ocu t)-coimóeana ceanna o'a cpaechaó. 
l?o cpomupnap Celiac a cenn, ocup po puaip^ t>an an íp^ail ppip 
an anpoplann, ocup po úeap^apm na laeic o'á luaiú-beimeant>aib, 
^op bo bpopna bobba, bioú-ammeac, ^ac col^ ocup ^ac cpuaó-£a, 
ocup $op bo combpuici ^ac copp, ocup $op bo coirhcioppra ^ac 
uaeb, ocup nip bo h-iat> na cmo no corhopbaóa ceuna pop comluió 
pop cula 00 pitnpi, uaip pugupuap Celiac a 5-cmn ap na 5-comai- 
perh, ocup a ^-copgaip ap na 5-commaióem laip co h-aipm 1 paibe 
pi£ Gpeann, ocup po úaippeanapcap a cpeap ^an uuipeal D'á úpiar, 
ocup a bea^an bae^ail o'á bpaúaip, ocup aipipip pein a^ Dion ocup 
a^ ouip-peiúerh pceiú pi$ Gpenn ap a h-aiúli. 

ba ip in la pin 00 pala Do banncpacu Uluain Larh-paoa, pig 
Chaeilli na 5-Cupaó, ppip a n-abapúap Oipueap 'p arl aTT1 F a ' a o" ^ 6 " 
num pliuccaernna poilcúi ocup poúpaicn 1 n-Dun Gómamn 1 o-Uip 
O' m-6peapail, ocup ap amlait> po boí mac pip an baile ina obloip, 
ocup ma eippecc, .1. Cuanna, mac Ulcain Lam-paoa, ocup po ba 
t>alca t)o pi£ Gpenn é, .1. t>o Oomnall, mac Qet)a, mic Qinmipec, 
no 50 o-uu^aó aiuni ^up bo h-oinmit> e, ocup an ran cugaó, a t)ub- 
paó pip oul 00 ci£ a aúap, ap nip rhiaó lap an pi£ Oalua ommiDe 


Cof-paoa, is not to be found in the au- Probus, in the second book of his Life of 

then tic annals, and is probably a fictitious St. Patrick, calls this territory Regio Ori- 

personage. entalium, which is a literal translation of 

z Seven Mailmaighne's. — NctrechrTTlail- its usual Irish name Cpioc na n-Oipreap. 

mai^niu. — The Editor has found no ac- It was so called because it was in the east 

count of them in any other authority. of the country of Oirghialla. 

a Caill nag-Curadh. — Now the barony of b Tir m-Breasail. — This territory is 

Orior, in the east of the county of Armagh, frequently called also Claim Breasail. It 


fche mighty man. Cellach responded to these wounds, and left them 
mangled, mutilated trunks, and cast their heads into the former heap 
of carnage. After this the seven Mailmaighne's 2 and Dairbre, the son 
of Dornmar, king of the Franks, advanced to the same spot of con- 
tention to fight Cellach, and quickly inflicted eight wounds to pull 
him down, and eight firm blows to subdue him. Cellach stooped 
his head, and pressed the fight on the unequal number, and so plied 
the heroes with his rapid strokes, that their swords and hard darts 
were a bloody, broken heap, and every one of their bodies was bruised, 
and every side mangled, and they were not the same heads or repre- 
sentatives that had come first that returned back again, for Cellach 
carried off their heads with him after having counted them, and their 
trophies after having exulted over them, to where the king of Erin 
was, and exhibited the fruits of his honourable exploits to his lord, 
and the inconsiderable injury he had received to his relative, and 
he afterwards remained protecting the king of Erin and attending on 
his shield. 

On this day it happened that the women of Ultan the Longhanded, 
king of Caill na g-Curadh a , which is now called Oirthear, were pre- 
paring a bath for washing and bathing, at Dun Adhmainn, in Tir O 
m-Breasail b , and the son of the proprietor of the place, namely, 
Cuanna, son of Ultan Lamhfhada, was an idiot and an orphan. He 
had been as a foster-child with the king of Erin, Domhnall, son of 
Aedh, son of Ainmire, until it was discovered that he was an idiot ; 
but when this was observed, he was told to go home to his father's 


is shown on an old map of Ulster, pre- Iveagh, and on the north-east and east by 

served in the State Paper Office, as situated the territory of Killulta, now included 

in the north-east of the county of Armagh, in the county of Down. In the reign 

and bounded on the north by Lough of Queen Elizabeth, Turlogh Brassilogh 

Neagh, on the west by the Upper Bann, O'Neill was chief of this territory, 
on the south by Magennis's country of 

2 N 2 


Oo beic cn^e. Q Dubaipc imoppo a leap-maúaip pe Cuanna Dul 
rap ceann cuaile connaiD Oo cum an poilció an la pin. Do chuaió 
lapum Cuanna po'n 5-coill, ocup cue leip cual 00 rhaepcan, ocup 
Do cpionpluic, ocup Do bapp beiúe, puaip a laúachaib ocup in oc- 
pachaib, ocup Do cuip popp an ceinneb an chuail, ocup ^ep b'olc 
an ueinneó poime, po bab meapa laporh. Olc an uupcupra an 
cual uuccaip leac, a Chuanna, pop na mna, ocup ap cubaió cop- 
mail ppiu pein; ocup a upuai£ ! ap piaD, ni cu an mac pan^up a 
leap ann po aniu, acu mac Do cuw^enao le a acaip ocup le a oioe 
ip in lo ba£a pa, uaip acá Con^al co n-a Ullcaib ocup 50 n-a allmu- 
pacaib D 7 á mapbaó ocup o'á muóuóaó pe pe lain, ocup Do u'auaip-pi 
painic caúu^aó an laoi ané, ocup ni peaDamaip-ni an eepna app no 
nac D-uepno. T?o piappaiD Cuanna cia Do bepaD eolup Dam-pa co 
TTIa^ IRat? Ctp be$ an meipneac Ouic-piu eolup Do bpeiu ann, ap 
piaD, .1. Dul co h-lobap Cmn Coice, rhic Neaccam, ppip a paicep 
lobap cmn upaga an ran pa, ocup po ^eba plicu paióbip na poch- 
aióe ann, ocup lean 50 lTIa^ IRat e. 

Pamic Cuana poime ma peim po-peaua ap plioce paiDbip na 
plo^, co pamicc TTla^ IRat, ocup az conaipe na caca commopa 
ceccapDa a^ coimeip^e 1 5-ceann a ceile. Q m-bauap pip Gpenn 
ann ac concaDup an c-oen Duine D'a n-ionnpoi^e ip in maj a n-iap- 
Deap ^aca n-Dipeac, ocup po puipiópeu ppip ^up áiúmgecap e. 
Cuanna obloip, ol peap Dib, Cuanna oinmiD ann, ap an Dapa pep. 
Ni po be^ o'aóbop puipiD ann, ap an upep peap. ^epp be£ upar, 
painicc Cuanna 50 h-aipm a poibe pi£ Gpeann. peapaip an pi£ 
pailtre ppip. Tílair, a anam, a Chuanna, ap pe, ciD ima uangaip 
cu^amn aniu ? Do con^nam leac-pa, a aipD-pi, bap Cuanna, ocup 


c Iobhar Chinn Tragha. — lobap Chinn west of the county of Down, and is well 
«Cpaja. — This is the present Irish name of known in every part of Ireland where the 
the town of Newry, situated in the south- Irish language is spoken. It is understood 

2 7 7 

house, for the king did not think it becoming to have an idiot as a 
foster-son. His step-mother told Cuanna on this day to go for a 
bundle of fire-wood for the bath. Cuanna went to the wood and 
brought with him a bundle of green twigs, and of dried sticks, and 
the top branches of birch which he found in puddles and ordures, 
and put them on the fire ; and though the fire had been bad before, 
it was worse after this. " The fire-wood thou hast brought with thee 
is a bad present, O Cuanna," said the women, " and it is becoming 
and like thyself; and alas !" said they, " thou art not the kind of a 
son we stand in need of having here to-day, but a son who would 
assist his father and his fosterer, on this day of battle ; for Congal, 
with his Ultonians and foreigners, has been killing and overwhelm- 
ing them these six days ; and it was thy father's turn to fight yes- 
terday, and we know not whether he has or has not survived." 
Cuanna asked, " Who will show me the way to Magh Eath ?" " It 
requires but little courage in thee to find out the way thither," said 
they ; " go to Iobhar Chinn Choiche mhic Neachtain, which is now 
called Iobhar Chinn Tragha , where thou shalt find the abundant 
track of the hosts, and follow it to Magh Rath." 

Cuanna came forward in rapid course, on the strong track of 
the hosts, till he arrived at Magh Rath, where he saw the great 
forces of both parties attacking each other. As the men of Erin were 
there they saw one lone man in the plain approaching them exactly 
from the south-west, and they ceased till they recognized him. " He 
is Cuanna, the idiot," said one of them ; " he is Cuanna, the fool," 
said a second man ; " it was no small cause of waiting," said a third 
man. In a short time Cuanna came on to where the king of Erin 
was. The king bade him welcome. " Good, my dear Cuanna," said 

he ; 

to mean the yew at the head of the strand — Choiche, is used in the Annals of the Four 
The more ancient name, Iobhar Chinn Masters, at the year 1236. 


Do cpap^aipc ap Congal, ciD comalca Dam é. Qp coip Duir-pi 
ci6 a b'peapcapa, bap pi^ Gpeann, do cum Do'n car pa Do cpuab- 
u^aD ina a£aiD, uaip do mapb Con^al c'araip ap caru^ab an laei 
ané. l?o h-imDep^aó ím Chuanna a$ a cloipcecc pm, ocup a 
peab po paib, uabaip apm Dam, a aipD-pi, ocup bpiauap Darn 50 
n-Dm^ebaD peap comloinn ceD D'a b-puil 1 e'a^aib aniu. Uucpac 
cac gáip rhop panamaicc op apD a^ cloipcecc Chuana. Qcbepu 
Cuanna ppiu, Do beipim pám' bpeirep, ap pe, Da D-uea^maDaip 
aipm no ll-paebaip uplama a^om, 50 u-Di^eolainn ap Dpeim ei^in 
a^aib panarhaD Do beanum pum. Qcc íuip, ap Oomnall, na cu^ 
Do e'uib no Do e'aipe iao, ocup a^ po an Dapa ^ai ueilccn puil 
a^am-pa Duic, ocup 'p 1 an upeap plea£ ap peapp aca 1 n-6ipmn i, 
.1. an c-plea£ a za 'na pappaD, ocup an ^a ^eapp Con^ail, oip ni 
rabapcup upcop n-impaill Do ceccap Dib. ^abap an oinmiD an 
c-plea£, ocup cpaiúip 1 1 b-piaDnaipi an pi^, ocup acbepc co n-Din$- 
nab ecc bub mair leip an pi£ bi. lonnpoi£ 50 h-aipm a b-puil 
TTiaelDuw, mac QeDa beannan, mac pi$ Dei£-peiceamanca Deap- 
muman, a^ a b-puilic a aipm pem ocup aipm a bpacap po mapbab 
le Gonial ap caúu^ab na CeDaine po Do chuaib ropamn, uaip ap 
corhbalca Duiu pein é, ocup Do bépa puilleb aipm duic ap mo 
5pab-pa, ocup ap mipcaip Con^ail. Qp ann pin painic Cuanna 
poirhe co h-aipm 1 paibe TTlaelDuin, mac Qeba beannan, ocup cu$ 
puilleb aipm Do 1 cécóip. 

l?o eipi£ an laec laiDip, laimrenac luaú-^onac, ocup an beirip 
beoba, fcpaiú-béimmuch, .1. Con^al Claen, 50 D-uapla cui^e Ceann- 
paelab, mac Oilellae, ocup uu^ beim cuimpib cpuaib-leDaprac 


d Maelduin, the son qfAedh Bennain. — paelao mac Oilellae He is wellknown 

maelouin, mac Qeóa óeannáin. — See to the lovers of Irish literature as the 

note w , pp. 22, 23. author of Uraicept na n-Eiges, or Primer 

e Cennfaeladh, the son of Hell. — Cenn- of the Bards, and as the commentator on 

2 7 9 

he; "wherefore hast thou come to us to-day?" "To assist thee, 
monarch," said Cuanna, " and to lay Congal prostrate, though he is 
my foster-brother." " It behoves thee," said the monarch of Erin, 
" though thou knowest it not, to press thy share of this battle against 
Congal, for he slew thy father in yesterday's battle." Cuanna grew 
red as he heard this, and said, " Give me weapons, O monarch, and I 
pledge my word that I will repel any fighter of a hundred men, who 
is against thee this day." All gave a great shout of derision aloud on 
hearing Cuanna. Cuanna said to them, " I swear by my word," said 
he, " that if I had arms or edged weapons at hand, I would revenge 
on some of you your having mocked me." " Not so," said Domhnall; 
" take no heed or notice of them ; and here is for thee the second 
missile javelin which I have to spare, and it is the third best spear 
in Erin, the other two being the spear which is along with it, and 
the javelin called Gearr Congail, for an erring shot cannot be given 
with either of them." The idiot took the lance and brandished it in 
the presence of the king, and said that he would achieve with it a 
deed which would be pleasing to the king. " Go," said the king, "to 
the place in which is Maelduin, the son of Aedh Bennain d , the son 
of the good-protecting king of Desmond, for he has his own weapons 
and those of his brother, who was slain in last Wednesday's battle, 
and he is a foster-brother to thyself, and he will give thee more 
weapons for love of me and hatred of Congal." Then Cuanna went 
forward to the place where Maelduin, the son of Aedh Bennain, was, 
who gave him more weapons at once. 

Now the robust, sanguine, rapid-wounding hero, and the lively, sure- 
striking bear, Congal Claen, went forth, and was met by Cennfaeladh, 
the son of Oilell e , to whom he gave a mighty, hard-smiting stroke of 


certain laws, said to have been originally in the third century. His death is record- 
written by the monarch Cormac Mac Art, ed in the Annals of Tighernach at the 


cloióirh Do, ^up bpip an cacbapp, ^up ceapg an ceann po a corhaip 
co n-uppamn oo'n inocinn ína poipleanmum; acc ceana t>o cuirpeaó 


year 679. Copies of his Uraicept are pre- 
served in various Irish MSS. of authority, 
as in the Leabhar Buidhe Leacain, in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin (H. 2. 
1 6.) and an ancient copy of his Commentary 
on King Cormac's Laws is preserved in a 
vellum MS. in the Library of the Duke 
of Buckingham, at Stowe, of which Dr. 
O'Conor gives a minute account in his Ca- 
talogue. But it is to be regretted that Dr. 
O'Conor, who had no vernacular knowledge 
of the Irish language, has entirely mistaken 
the meaning of an interesting passage re- 
lating to the poet Cennfaeladh, occurring 
in that valuable MS. It appears to have 
been taken from an ancient version of the 
Battle of Magh Eath, for it mentions in 
nearly the very words of this text, how 
Cennfaeladh lost a portion of his brain in 
the battle, the consequence of which was 
that his intellect became more acute, and 
his memory more retentive. But Dr. 
O'Conor, not conceiving that there was any 
thing wonderful in the matter, translates 
the word inncinn, which means brain, i. e. 
the matter of the brain, by the word unskil- 
fulness (by a figure of speech which looks 
very unnatural) ; and the word oepmaic, 
which is still used in every part of Ireland 
to signify forgetfuhiess, he metamorphoses 
into Dermot, a man's name, thus changing 
one of the three wonderful events which 
the bards constantly recorded as having 

happened at the Battle of Magh Rath, into 
an occurrence about which there seems 
nothing remarkable. 

I shall here quote the entire passage, as 
far as it relates to Cennfaeladh, as it is de- 
cyphered and translated by Dr. O'Conor. 

"6occ Don liubhappa tDaipe 6ubpan 
ocup aimpep do cumpep t)omnaill ma 
Qeoa mc. Ginmipeach ocup peppa do 
Cenopaela mc. Gill. Ocup cac. a oen- 
ma a hincino do bein a cenn chinopaela 
1 k. TTIaige "Reich. 

"Ceopa buaoha in k. a pin .1. maimo 
ap Conjal in a gae pia n TDomnall in a 
phipinoe ocup Suibne jeilc do oul pe 
jelcachc ocup a incinn oepmaic do bein 
a cino dnopaela 1 k. ÍTIaige "Rach. 


"lp e in p apnao buaioh maimo ap 
Conjal in a jae pe n-t)omnall ina pi- 
pinoe, uaip buaroh maimo ap in anpipen 
piap an pipen. 

" Ip e in p. ap nabuaioh Suibne JJeile 
do oul pe geleachc .1. ap ap pacaibh do 
laiohibh ocup do pjelaib ag appici each 
pin llle. 

" Ip e an p. apnaobuaioh a incinn 
oepmaic do bein a cino cinopaela, uaip 
ip ann do pijhneo a leigap 1 cuaim ope- 
cain 1 compac na epi ppaicheo ic. cigh- 
lbh na epi puao .1. pai penechaip ccup 
pai filechca ocup pai leijino ocup 00- 
neoch po chanoaip na epi pcola canlai 


his sword, so that he broke the helmet and cut the head under it, so 

that a portion of the brain flowed out, and Cennfaeladh would have 


[cac lai] po bioh aicepium cpia jeipe always be conquered by truth. The cause 

a inoclecca cannaiohche \jecte each n- of the victory gained by Subne the Mad's 

aiohche] ocup ineoch ba hmcaippenca turning mad, was, that he lost some poems 

lep oe pob. eo jlunpnaiche pin ocup po and narratives, of which others availed 

pcpibhchct cuce 1 conic liubcup. themselves after. The cause of the vic- 

"No cumao hi in ceachpamaoh buaio tory of Dermot's unskilfulness yielding to 

.1. pep opepaib Gp. ocup pep opepaib Cennfaelad's skill, was that he (Cennfae- 

alban oo out caipip poip ^anluin^, jan lad) was educated at Tuam-Drecan, at 

eachcup .1. t)uboiaoh mac Domain ocup the meeting of the three roads, between 

pep 00 jaioelaib." the houses of three learned men — that is, 

Translated by Dr. O' Conor thus : a man skilled in genealogies, and a man 

" The place of this book (i. e. where it skilled in poetry, and a man skilled in 

was written) was Daire Lubran (i. e. the difficult reading ; and whatever these 

oak grove of Lubran), and its time was three schools taught in the day, he, by the 

when Donnald, the son of Aod, son of Ain- acuteness of his intellect, pondered over 

mire, was king of Ireland ; and the per- each night, and whatever was most diffi- 

son (i. e. the writer), was Cennfaelad, the cult, he unknotted, and wrote down in his 

son of Ailill; and the occasion of composing book of hard questions. We must not 

it was because Dermofs ignorance yielded omit a fourth victory gained at that time, 

to Cennfaelad's skill at the battle of Mo- that is, that a man of Ireland, and another 

raith. man of Albany passed over to the east 

" Three victories were gained there, without a ship of burthen, without a ship 
Congal the Crooked was defeated in his of war — namely, Dubdiad, the son of Da- 
falsehood by Domnald in his truth ;* and man, and another of the Gael." — Stowe 
Subne, the Mad, ran mad on that occa- Catalogue, vol. i. p. 285, sq. 
sion ; and the unskilfulness of Dermot This passage is not only incorrectly de- 
yielded to the skill of Cennfaelad. The cyphered from the MS., but also still more 
cause of the victory of Donnald over Con- incorrectly translated. The following is 
gal, in truth, was this, that falsehood must the true version, as the Irish scholar will 

* He observes in a note, that " This seems to have been a religious war between the Christian 
king Donnald, and tho Pagan Congal," an observation which is sufficient to show that Dr. O'Conor 
never read, or at least never understood, the Battle of Magh Rath. 


Cecmnpaelaó le Congal 'p a n-ionat) pin, mina cnnceó Cpurmrhael, 
niac Suibne, ocup TTIaelcmap TTlaca é, ocup ap na anacul t>oib po 
íobncnceauap e co Senach, 50 Comapba paupcnc, ocup po íonripaió- 
eauap pein 00 con^bail a 5-coDa Oo'n cac. Ocup po íoónaic 
Senac Cecmnpaelaó lap pin 50 6picin Uuama Opeaccan, ocup 00 
bi aicce 50 cecmn m-blia6na a^a leigeap; ocup 00 pila íncinn cúil 
ap pip an pe pin, co nac bi ní t>a 5-cluineaó 5cm a beiú 00 ^lain- 


at once perceive : 

" The place of this book is Daire Lubran 
[now Derryloran, in Tyrone], and its time 
is the time of Domhnall, son of Aedh, son of 
Ainmire, and its person [i. e. author] was 
Cennfaeladh, the son of Ailill, and the cause 
of its composition was, because his brain 
of forgetfulness [the cerebellum~\ was taken 
out of the head of Cennfaeladh, in the 
Battle of Magh Eath. 

" Three were the victories of that bat- 
tle, viz., 1 . the defeat of Congal Claen [the 
wry-eyed] in his falsehood, by Domhnall 
in his truth. 2. Suibhne Geilt's going 
mad ; and, 3. his brain of forgetfulness 
being taken from the head of Cennfaeladh. 

" The cause of the defeat of Congal in 
his falsehood by Domhnall in his truth, is, 
that the unjust man is always defeated 
by the just. 

" The reason why Suibhne Geilt's going 
mad is called a victory is, from the num- 
ber of poems and stories he left to the 
amusement of all ever since. 

" The reason that the taking of his 
brain of forgetfulness out of the head of 
Cennfaeladh is accounted a victory is, be- 

cause he was afterwards cured at Tuaim 
Drecain [Tomregan], at the meeting of 
three roads between the houses of three 
learned men, viz., a professor of the Fene- 
chas law, a professor of poetry, and a pro- 
fessor of literature, and whatever the three 
schools repeated each day he retained 
through the acuteness of his intellect each 
night, and whatever part of it he deemed 
necessary to be elucidated he glossed, and 
wrote down in a Cailc [ ?] Leabhar. 

" Or that there was a fourth victory, 
that is, a man of the men of Erin and a 
man of the men of Alba passed eastward 
[i. e. to Alba] without a ship or vessel, 
namely, Dubhdiadh, the son of Daman, 
and one of the Gaels." 

The task of thus pointing out the errors 
of Dr. O' Conor is very painful, but the 
Editor feels it his duty always to notice 
whatever tends to corrupt or falsify the 
sources of Irish history. 

That Cennfaeladh's intellect was im- 
proved by losing a portion of his cerebel- 
lum in this battle is very difficult to be- 
lieve on the authority of this story ; but 
the advocates of the modern science of phre- 

28 3 

fallen by Congal on the spot, had he not been protected by Crunn- 
mael, the son of Suibhne, and Maelodhar Macha; and after protecting 
him they conveyed him to Senach, Comharba, [i. e. successor] of St. 
Patrick', and returned to maintain their part of the battle. After this 
Senach conducted Cennfaeladh to Bricin of Tuaim Dreagan g , with 
whom he remained for a year under cure, and in the course of this 
time his back brain had flowed out, which so much improved his 
memory that there was nothing which he heard repeated, that he 


nology have recorded several instances in 
which similar changes of character have 
been produced by injuries inflicted on the 
head. On this subject hear Dr. Coombe : 
"A very striking argument in favour of the 
doctrine that the brain is the organ of the 
mind, is found in the numerous cases in 
which changes of character have been pro- 
duced by injuries inflicted on the head. 
In this way the action of the brain is 
sometimes so much altered that high ta- 
lents are subsequently displayed where 
mediocrity, or even extreme dulness ex- 
isted before Father Mabillon had 

a very limited capacity in early youth, in- 
somuch that at the age of eighteen he 
could neither read nor write, and hardly 
even speak. In consequence of a fall it 
became necessary to trepan his skull : du- 
ring his convalescence a copy of Euclid 
fell into his hands, and he made rapid 
progress in the study of mathematics." 
Dr. Gall mentions also the case of a lad, 
who, up to his thirteenth year, was incor- 
rigibly dull ; having fallen from a stair- 
case and wounded his head, he afterwards, 


when cured, pursued his studies with dis- 
tinguished success. Another young man, 
when at the age of fourteen or fifteen, was 
equally unpromising, but fell from a stair 
in Copenhagen, hurting his head, and sub- 
sequently manifested great vigour of the 
intellectual faculties. Gretry tells of him- 
self, in his Memoirs, that he was indebted 
for his musical genius to a violent blow 
inflicted on his head by a falling beam of 
wood. " In one of the sons of the late Dr. 
Priestley" (says Dr. Caldwell) " a fracture 
of the skull, produced by a fall from a 
two-story window, improved not a little 
the character of his intellect. For a know- 
ledge of this fact I am indebted to the 
Doctor himself." 

f Senach, Comharba of St. Patrick. — He 
died in the year 610, and the introduction 
of him here is an evident anachronism. 

g Bricin Tuama Dreagan, — now Tom- 
regan, near the village of Ballyconnell, and 
on the frontiers of the counties of Cavan 

and Fermanagh See Note in the Feilire 

Aengus, at the 5th of September, in the 

Leabhar Breac. 


28 4 

meabpae ai^e ; D015 am an c-aiceapc Do nib bpicin Do cpi pcolaib 
Do bioó pin Do £lain-meabpa ai^e-pium, $up bo peap cpi pcol íaporh 
Ceannpaelaó, mac Oiliolla, ^up ab é do acnuaDaió Upaiceapc na 
n-Giccep, i n-Doipe Cupain íepucain. 

lmchupa Con^ail, po cpomupcoip 'mon 5-cac 1 5-cpioplac a 
pceiú uipDeipcc, imel-cpuaib, $up cpapccoip cpeona 'na D-copac, 
ocup ^op muóaió miliD 'na meáóon, ocup gop cop^aip cupaió 'na 
5-cpioplac a pceic, £up bo cumac cnam, ocup ceann, ocup colann, 
^ac leip^ ocup ^ac lacaip map luaióepcaip; co D-capla cui^e an 
peap bopb, baec, écceillióe, Cuanna, mac Uluam Lam-paDa, mac 
pig Caeilli na 5-cupaD, ppip a n-abapuap Oipceap an can pa. 
páilci£ip Con^al pe paicpm a Ó015I1 ocup a comalca, ocup aubepc, 
ap Dicpa an Dibepg, ocup ap laecDa an leip-cea^ap po Depa baoic 
ocup buipb Do comluab caca um a^aiD-pi a n-alc na h-uaipe pi. 
Ni pemrn plara na pip-laic Duiu-pi am, bap Cuanna, aipcc peiceam- 
naip Do cabaipc ap mac Dei^-pip no Dea£-laic Da D-cicpab Do ca- 
baipc a lai ba£a le a bunaó cemeoil a n-imap^ail apD-caca. Na 
peap^ai^ceap cu, ícip, a Chuanna, bap Congal, uaip po peacappa 
nac Do 5mm ^aip^eD, ná D'imluaD ecca na ean^narha can^aip co 
TTIa£ l?ac Do'n puacap pa. Ni h-innpcin aipD-pig Duic-pi pin Do 
paóa, bap Cuanna, cm im nac D-ciobpainn-pi m'peiDm caca lem 
aicme ocup lem aipD-pi£. Gcccena, ap upa lim-pa aip^ D'pulan^ 
na ^an cun^nam le mo caipDib íp in lo ba£a pa aniu. Qp ann 
pin cainic Con^al peac an omrhiD. Do DpuiD Cuanna a bonn pe 
caca ocup pe ciu£ na caiman, ocup Do cuip a rhép 1 puainearh na 
plei^i plmn-leicm, ocup cu^ upcop Dana, Duaibpeac, Dea^-calma, 
a£map, ai£meil, upbaóac D'innpai^ió Con^ail, co n-Deachaió peac 


h Doire Lurain, — now Derryloran, near Doire Lurain, which signifies the " oak 
Cookstown, in the barony of Dungannon, grove of Luran" (a man's name), is the 
in the north of the county of Tyrone, name of an old church and townland, and 

28 5 

had not distinctly by heart, and the instruction which Bricin had 
delivered to his three schools he [Cennfaeladh] had treasured up in 
his clear memory; so that Cennfaeladh, the son of Oilell, afterwards 
became a man [i. e. a teacher] of three schools, and it was he that 
afterwards renewed Uraicept na n-Eges, at Doire Lurain h . 

With respect to Congal, he turned to the battle with his famous 
hard-bordered shield, and prostrated mighty men in the front, over- 
whelmed soldiers in the middle, and triumphed over heroes on the 
borders, so that every spot and place to which he passed was a broken 
heap of bones, heads, and bodies ; until the furious stolid simpleton 
Cuanna, the son of Ultan, the Longhanded, i. e. the son of the king 
of Caell na g-Curadh, now called Oirthear, met him. Congal, on 
seeing his companion and foster-brother, bade him welcome, and said, 
" Terrible is the malice, and heroic is the muster when fools and 
madmen are at this moment of time waging battle against me." " It 
is not the act of a prince or a true hero in thee, indeed," said 
Cuanna, to " cast reflections on the son of any good man or good 
hero, who should come to give his day of battle to assist his relatives 
in the struggle of a great battle." " Be not enraged, O Cuanna," said 
Congal, " for I know that it was not for martial achievements, or to 
perform feats of arms or valour thou hast come to Magh Rath on this 
expedition." " It is not the saying of an arch-king for thee to say so," 
said Cuanna ; " why should I not lend my aid in battle to my tribe 
and my monarch ? But, however, I can more easily bear a reproach 
than forbear giving assistance to my friends on this day of battle." 
Then Congal passed by the idiot. But Cuanna pressed his foot 
against the support and the solidity of the earth, and putting his 
finger on the cord of his broad-headed spear, he made a bold, furious, 
brave, successful, terrible, destructive shot at Congal, and it passed 


also of a parish which is partly in the rony of Loughinsholin, in the county of 
county of Tyrone, and partly in the ba- Londonderry. 


uillinn an pceié commoip cata, ^up roll an larh-^ai an luipeac, co 
n-oeachaió íp in apamn, ^up bo cpea^Dai^n na h-inne uile, co paibe 
poppac pip Da poi^pen upe óam^en na luipijsp ocup upe compap 
ocup epe coirhueann a cuipp oo'n leae apaill. Decaip Corral 
eaipip ocup cue t)'a uió ^up b'e an omrhit) po ^uin e, ocup po bai ap 
cumup t)o-porh an oinmiO oo rhapbao mo, ace nap rhiaó laip puil 
oinrhioe o'paicpin ap a apmaib, ocup Do lei£ a laec-apm ap lap, 
ocup rug eepeb ocup upen-cappan^ ap an plei£ ma } piremg ^en 
$up peoapcap ; ocup uug an oapa peace, ocup nocap peo ; cue an 
upeap peace a abac ocup a íonaúap amac ícip a cneap ocup a 
cean^al caéa, ocup eaierhi^ip Con^al a bap corhDam^ean caca 
ocup cue oam^ean an cpeapa O'upp^lai^i an alaó cap t>ibeps 5a- 
baibna ^ona, ocup eo^baió a apm t>o lap, ocup geibeab a^ a^ollom 
na h-oinrhit)i, ocup a pe po paió ppip: tmppan learn, a Chuanna, bap 
Con^al, nac cpiaú cpén-coirhpeac, no cliaé beapna cet) caplaicc an 
e-upcop pin t)om 5 cimóibe ; poec learn pop nac e an cumgiD calma, 
cac-lwmap Ceallac, mac TTlailcoba, rhaióip mo copp t>o cet> 511111 ; 
ole learn pop nac é an cuaille cac-lmmap Cpunnmael, mac Suibne, 
oip bli^eap m'popoeap^at), uaip po opeap a acaip ap aplac aipt)-pi 
6penn, con aipe pm nac t)li£ peiceam pioc pe palaó. Lei£ ap ale, 
a Chon^ail, bap Cuanna, ap cian aea an pean-pocal, 1 5-ceann ^ac 
baíé a bae^al. Mi h-mann pin am, a Chuanna, bap Con^al, ocup 
^momapra obloip ail^eanai^, gan ai^neat) n-bamgean, ocup ^an aó- 
bop com' ceapbaó. Uu^Con^al t>'a uió lapcain ocupo'a aipe nap 
bo pi^ Ulaó na Gipenn é a h-airle na h-aen£ona, 015 an ommiD paip ; 
ocup po ^abupcap a^ á óí£ail pein cocpoóa, comóana, coirhéeann ap 
peapaib Gpenn, ag pot)baba ^aca pini, ocup a^ uachaóab gaca 


1 Crunnmliael, the son of ISiiilhne was slain by Congal. 

Cpumr.ael, mac Suibne, — i. e. the son of J Old is the proverb. — The Irish writers 

Suibhne Meann, who was monarch of Ire- are so fond of putting proverbs into the 

land from the vear 615 to 628, when he mouths of their characters that they scru- 


beyond the angle of his great shield, so that the hand-spear pierced 
the armour of Congal and entered his abdomen and pierced all the 
viscera, so that as much as would kill a man of its blade was to be 
seen at the other side of his body and of the armour which defended 
it! Congal looked on one side, and observed that it was the idiot that 
wounded him ; and it was in his power to slay him on the spot, but he 
did not like to see the blood of an idiot on his arms ; he laid his he- 
roic weapons on the ground, and made a drag and a mighty pull to 
draw back the spear, but he failed; he made a second effort, and 
failed ; but in the third effort he dragged out his viscera and bowels 
between his skin and his warlike attire ; and he extended his strong 
warlike hand and drew his belt to close the wound, and took up 
his arms off the ground, and proceeded to address the idiot, and said 
to him, " Wo is me, O Cuanna," said Congal, " that it was not a 
mighty puissant lord, or a hundred-killing champion that sent that 
shot to destroy me. It grieves me, moreover, that it was not the 
mighty, many-battled, populous champion, Cellach, the son of Mael- 
cobha, that has to boast of having first wounded my body. I lament 
that it was not the pillar, numerously attended in battle, Crunnmhael, 
the son of Suibhne 1 , that chanced to wound me, for I slew his father 
at the instigation of the monarch of Erin, so that a debtor might not 
owe the death of enmity." " Desist, Congal," said Cuanna, " old is 
the proverb 3 that ' his own danger hangs over the head of every rash 
man.' ' " That is not the same, O Cuanna," said Congal, " as that I 
should fall by the deeds of an imbecile idiot without a firm mind, and 
without a cause for destroying me." After this Congal recognized that 
he was neither king of Ulster nor Erin after this one wound, which 
the idiot had inflicted upon him ; and he proceeded to revenge him- 
self bravely, boldly, and impetuously on the men of Erin, by slaugh- 

pie not, as in the present instance, to make opponent, but this is probably from want 
a fool wield them in argument against an of skill in the writer. 


h-aicmeaó, ocup a^ Oioúu^aó ^aca t)ei£-ceineoil; t)oi£ arh po ba 
ciompu^aó panncac ap pairnpiachaib an piubal pin, ocup po ba 
bualaó mo£aió ap rhin-t>éapaib, ocup po ba pgaíleab peapcon pip 
ain^ió ap cpefraib Oapaccaca, Oian-luaimneaca, ocup po ba capca- 
pal mapa Tnuipnig, moip-^eapanai^ ap cpuaó-£aeuhaib calaó, an 
cocapoa ceann, cwneapnac uuc Gonial ap na caraib ; 50 náp pá^- 
baó liop ^an luar-gul, na ápD gan ecaíne, na mai^ean ^an moip- 
eapbaió, 00 na ceirpib coi^eaftaib bat)op ína a£aió an uain pm, t)o 
na h-ápaib ocup 00 na h-ainiccnib cucupcaip poppae; tjoi^ ap eaó 
po ac pocaip leip 00 corhaipearh pi^, ocup puipeac, ocup uoipeac, 
cenmora arhaip, ocup anpaib, ocupo^laic lium, ocup laic leaoapra, 
ocup buipb, ocup baoir, ocup buileaóai£: ceo Qe6, cet> Geóan, ceo 
lollann, ceD Dorhnall, cet) Gen^up, cet) Oonnchaó, cae^a bpian, 
cae^a Cian, cae^a Concobap, cpioca Copc, cpioca piann, cpioca 


k Against the strong streams from the The name Aedh, which is translated ig- 

lanal. — Qp cpuaó-gaeraib calaó. — The nis by Colgan, has been Latinized Aidus, 

word jjaoc or jaer, which is not explained Hugo, and Odo, and is now always An- 

in any Irish Dictionary, signifies a shal- glicised Hugh. 

low stream into which the tide flows, and m One hundred Aedhans. — Céo Qeóan. 

which is fordable at low water. It fre- — This name, which is a diminutive of the 

quently enters into topographical names, preceding, has been Latinized Aidanus, 

as5 ao ^S al ^ e > i n Erris, J) ao ^ ^ U, IS near but it is now nearly obsolete as the Chris- 

Killalla, and J) ao ^^óip and J) ao ^ óeapa, tian name of a man, and it does not enter 

in the west of the county of Donegal. into any surname, as far as the Editor 

1 One hundred Aedhs Ceo Geo — This knows. 

enumeration of the persons slain by Con- n One hundred Illanns. — Ceo lollann — 

gal, after having received a mortal wound This name is now obsolete, though for- 

himself, must be regarded as pure romance ; merly very common. 

but it is curious as giving us an idea of the ° One hundred Domhnalls. — Ceo t)orh- 

names which were most commonly used nail. — The name Domhnal has been Latin- 

in Ireland in the time of the writer. Of ized Domnaldus, Donaldus, and Danielis, 

these names some are still in use as Chris- and Anglicised Donell, Donnell, Donald, 

tian names of men, many are preserved in and Daniel, and it is almost unnecessary 

surnames, but several are entirely obsolete, to state, that it is still very common in 


tering every tribe, thinning every sept, and overwhelming every nol 
family; and indeed the onslaught made by Congal and his < it ten- 
th nits on the battalions on this occasion, was like the greedy gathering 
of summer ravens, or the threshing made by a labourer on small ears 
of corn, or the letting loose of a truly furious hound among wild and 
swift herds, or like the pressing of the loud-moaning boisterous sea 
against the strong streams 1 " from the land, so that there was not a 
house left without weeping, or a hill without moaning, or a plain 
without great loss, throughout the four provinces which were against 
him at that time, in consequence of the slaughter and destruction 
which he brought upon them; for, besides soldiers and heroes, youths, 
warriors, clowns, fools, and madmen, he slew the following num- 
ber of kings, princes, and chieftains : one hundred Aedhs 1 , one hun- 
dred Aedhans m , one hundred Illanns", one hundred Domhnalls , one 
hundred Aengus's p , one hundred Donnchadhs q ; fifty Brians 1 ", fifty 
Cians s , fifty Conchobhars* ; thirty Cores 11 , thirty Flanns v , thirty Flai- 

thes's ; 

Ireland as the proper name of a man, the O'Haras and a few other families, but 

always anglicised Daniel. always Anglicised Kean, which is not very 

p Aengus's. — Gengup. — This is also incorrect. 

still in use, but generally under the La- t Conchobhars Concobap, is still in 

tinized guise of iEneas. It was Anglicised use, but under the Anglicised form Conor, 

Angus in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. or the Latinized form Cornelius. In the 

q Donnchadhs. — t)onnchao, — has been old English records it is sometimes An- 

Latinized Donatus, and Dionysius, and glicised Cnogher and Conogher. The late 

Anglicised Donogh, Donat, and Denis, in Mr. Banim, in his celebrated novel, writes 

which last form it is still in common it Crohoor, which nearly represents the 

use in every part of Ireland, that is, the corrupt manner in which it is pronounced 

person who is called Donnchcto in Irish in the county of Kilkenny, 

is now always called Denis in English. u Cores Cope, is now entirely obsolete 

1 Brians. — ópian This is the same as as the Christian-name of a man, but its 

the Brienne of the Normans ; it is still in genitive form is preserved in the family 

use in every part of Ireland, but generally name Quirk, formerly O'Quirk. 

Anglicised Bernard and Barney. v Flanns — piann, is obsolete as a Chris- 

s Cians Cicm, is still in use among tian name, except among very few families, 



plaiúep; fteic Neill, t>eic n-Gmlaib, oeic n-Qimip^in ; nai m-bpea- 
pail, nai TTIuipjpp, nai ÍTluipeaóai^; occ n-Go^am, occ Conaill, 
occCobrai^; peace l?eochain, peace "Rifreap^, peace Pionai^; 
pe bpeapail, pe baeftain, pe blaémic ; cin^ n-Ouib, C1115 Oeinain, 
cui^ Oiapnnaua; ceiúpe Scalaió, ceirpe Sopaió, ceirpe Seacnapai^; 
rpi bopcam, upi Ln^aió, cpi bae^aipe ; t>a 6apc, t>á paelan, t)á 


but its genitive form is preserved in the 
family name Flynn, formerly O'Flynn, in 
Irish letters O'piomn. 

u Flaiihes's plcurep, is now obsolete 

as a Christian name, and it does not enter 
into any surname as far as the editor 

v Nialls Nictll This name is Latin- 
ized Nigellus by St. Bernard, in the Life 
of St. Malachy ; it is still in common use 
as the Christian name of a man, and An- 
glicised Neale. 

w Amhlaibhs Qriilcub. — This name, 

which is written, according to the modern 
orthography, Qrhlaoib, was never in use 
among the Irish until about the close of 
the eighth century, when they adopted 
it from the Danes, with whom they then 
began to form intermarriages. It occurs 
for the first time in the Annals of the 
Four Masters, at the year 851, and its in- 
troduction here as a man's name common 
in Ireland proves that this account of the 
Battle of Magh Rath was written after the 
settlement of the Danes in Ireland. The 
only name like it which the ancient Irish 
had among them is Grhalgcuó, but they 
are certainly not identical, though proba- 
bly of cognate origin. Both are now An- 

glicised Awley in the surname Mac Awley. 

x Aimergins. — Qmipjin, now obsolete 
as the Christian name of a man, but re- 
tained in the surname Mergin, corruptly 
Bergin, formerly O'Amergin. 

y Breasals ópectpcd, was very com- 
mon as the name of a man in the last cen- 
tury, but it is now nearly obsolete ; it is 
Anglicised Brassel, and sometimes Brazil 
and latterly Basil among the O'Maddens. 

z Muirgis's. — TTIuipgip This name was 

very common among the ancient Irish be- 
fore the Anglo-Norman invasion; but the 
present name Maurice seems to have been 
borrowed from the English, though evi- 
dently cognate with TTIuip^ip. It is still 
undoubtedly preserved in the family name 
Morissy, which is Anglicised from its ge- 
nitive form in OTlIuip^eapa. 

a Miiireadhachs. — lTluipeaóach, L e. 
the mariner, now obsolete as the Chris- 
tian name of a man, but its genitive form 
is preserved in the family name Murray, 
formerly O'Rlu ípeaóct 15. It is Latinized 
Muredachus by Colgan and others. 

b Eoghans 605cm, which is explained 

in Cormac's Glossary, the good offspring, 
or the goodly born, like the Latin Euge- 
nius, is still in use as the Christian name 

9 i 

thes's", ten Nialls v , ten Amhlaibhs w , ten Aimergins x ; nine Breasals F , 
nine Mnirgis's 2 , nine Muireadhachs a ; eight Eoghans 5 , eiglit Conalls , 
eiglit Cobhthachs d ; seven Reochaidhs 6 , seven Eideargs f , seven Rio- 
naiglis*; six Breasals h , six Baedans 1 , six Blathmacs j '; five Dnbhs k ; 
five Demans 1 ; five Diarmaits m ; fonr Scalaidhs n ; fonr Soraidhs G , four 
Seehnasachs p ; three Lorcans q , three Lnghaidhs 1 ", three Laeghaires s ; 



m Diarmaits. — t)iapmcnc, still in use 
in every part of Ireland. It is usually 
Latinized Diermitius, and Anglicised Der- 
mot, Darby, and, latterly, Jeremiah, which 
is the form now generally adopted. 

n Scalaidhs Scalaió, now obsolete as 

the Christian name of a man, but pre- 
served in the surname Scally. 

° Soraidhs. — Sopcnó, now obsolete. 

p Seachnasachs. — Seacnapctch, now ob- 
solete as a man's Christian or baptismal 
name, but preserved in the family name 

q Lorcans. — ^opcctn, obsolete, but re- 
tained in the surname O'Lorcain, which 
is now always Anglicised Larkin. 

r Lughaidhs. — £/UJcuó, still retained, 
and Anglicised Lewy and Lewis. It is La- 
tinized Lugadius and Lugaidus by Adam- 
nan and others, who have written lives of 
Irish saints in the Latin language. It is 
cognate with the Teutonic name Ludwig, 
Ledwich ; which is Latinized Ludovicus, 
and Gallicised Louis. 

s Laeghaires 6ae^aipe, now obsolete 

as a man's Christian or baptismal name, 
but retained in the surname O'Laeghaire, 
which is Anglicised O'Leary. 

of a man ; it is Anglicised Owen and Eu- 
gene, and Latinized Eoganus andEugenius. 

c Conalls. — Concdl, is still in use among 
a few families as the proper name of a man, 
but most generally as a surname, though 
it does not appear that the surname 
O'Connell is formed from it, that being 
an Anglicised form of the Irish G'ConghaiL 

d Cobhthachs — Cobrctc, i. e. Victorious, 
now obsolete as a Christian name, but pre- 
served in the surname Coffey. 

e Reockaidhs. — "Reocaio, now entirely 

f Rideargs. — T^ioeapg, obsolete. 

g Rionaighs. — Rionaij, obsolete. 

h Breasals. — ópeapal. — See Note y , p. 

1 Baedans. — óaeocm, now obsolete as a 
man's Christian name, but preserved in 
the surname Boyton. 

J Blathmacs. — ólaéiriac, now obsolete. 
This name is translated Florigenus by 
Colgan, Acta, SS. p. 129, n. 3. 

k Dubhs. — t)ub, i. e. Black, is now ob- 
solete as a man's Christian name, but pre- 
served in the surname Duff. 

1 Demans TDectmcm, obsolete as a 

man's Christian name, but retained in the 
surname Diman and Diamond, formerly 



pionnchaó ; Ouban, Oeman, Oirpeabctc, Tílaenac, lTluipgiup, TTIin- 
peaóac, Cope, Coipeall, Concobap, Oian^up, Oomnall, Omncac, 
pep^up, pallorhain, Uaó^, Uuacal, Oilioll, Gnna, lnpeaccac. 

lp é innpin Oo pocaip laip t>'á bpeipim bpume, ocup t)'á úupru^- 
aó cpoc, ocup t)'á eapbaóaib aim^ni, ap peapaib Gpenn, a^ tno^ail 
a en 5011a opchaib. 

Gp popbao caca petrnia, ocup ap cinnet) caca cpuaD-comlamt) 
t)o Gonial Claen íp m caé-lacaip pin, ar conaipc pium cui^e a 
capa, ocup a coicli, ocup a comalra aen cige, ocup aenlepúa, ocup 
aen cogbala, t>alca péin fteiúioec, oepb-uaipipi 00 Oomnall, mac 
Gefta, mic Qmmipech, .1. TTlaelouin, mac QeDa bpacbuilli^ ben- 
nam, ocup map ac conaipc pium epit>em '5a ínnpaijpó peac cac 
apcena, acbepu na bpiaupa pa : Conaip cinnmp in muat>-macaem 
mop 00 TTIhuimnecaib ale mp, bap Congal Claen. l?e caipoeilb 


1 Earcs. — Gape, now obsolete, but its as a man's name, but retained in the sur- 

diminutive form Gctpccm is retained in name O'lTlaenai^, which is Anglicised 

the surname O'h-Gctpcáin, now Anglicised Mainy and Mooney. 

Harkan. a Coireall. — Coipeall, now obsolete as 

u Faelans paelán, now obsolete as a a man's Christian name and surname, but 

man's Christian name, but retained in the its diminutive form is preserved in the 

family name O'Pctelcnn, Anglicised Phe- family name O'Coipeallam, which is An- 

lan and Whelan. glicised Carellan, Carland, and Curland, 

v Finnchadhs pionnchctó, now obso- and sometimes Carleton. 

lete. b Diangus. — tDicmgup, now obsolete. 

w Dubhan — Dubán, now obsolete as a c Dinnthach. — Oinnéctch, obsolete, 

man's Christian name, but retained in the d Fergus. — peapjup is still used as the 

family name 0't)ubain, which is Angli- Christian name of a man, and correctly 

cised Duane, Dwan, Divan, and very fre- Anglicised Fergus, 

quently Downes. e Fallomhan. — Pallomcnn, now obso- 

x Deman. — TDeman See Note l , supra, lete as the proper name of a man, but 

y Dithrebhach. — 'Diépeabac, now obso- retained in the surname, O'pallomcnn, 

lete : it signifies a hermit or eremite. now Anglicised Fallon, the O' being ge- 

z Maenach TTIaencch, now obsolete ner ally, if not always, rejected. 


two Earcs 1 , two Faelans u , two Finnchadhs v ; one Dubhan w , one Do 
inan x , one Dithrebhach y , one Maenach 55 , one Muirghius, one Muireadh- 
ach, one Core, one Coireall a , one Conchobhar, one Diangus 5 , one 
Domhnall, one Dinnthach , one Fergus d , one Fallomhan 6 , one Tadhg f , 
one TuathaF, one Oilill\ one Enna 1 , one Innrachtach j . 

Such were the names slain by his onslaught and capture, his over- 
powering of wretches, and in his spiteful taking off of the men of 
Erin, in revenging his own wound upon them. 

After having finished every exertion, and terminated every hard 
conflict in that field of contest 1 ", Congal saw approaching him his 
friend, companion, and foster-brother of the same house and same 
bed, and same rearing, the diligent and truly affectionate foster-son of 
Domhnall, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, namely, Maelduin, son of the 
warlike Aedh Beannain, and as he saw him approaching, himself 
beyond all, he spake these words : " Wherefore does the large, soft 
youth of the Momonians come hither," said Congal Claen. " To show 


f Tadkg ^aój, which is interpreted 

a poet by the Glossographers, is still in 
use as the Christian name of a man in 
every part of Ireland. It has been La- 
tinized Thaddaeus and Theophilus, and 
Anglicised Thady, Teige, and Timothy, 
which last is the form of the name now 
generally used. 

g Tuathal. — Cu achat, i. e. the lordly, 
now obsolete as the Christian name of 
a man, but retained in the family name 
O'Uuacail, now Anglicised O'Toole, and 
sometimes Tuohill. 

h OHM. — Oil loll; this, which was the 
name of a great number of ancient Irish 
chieftains, is now entirely obsolete as the 

Christian name of a man, and it does not 
appear to enter into any family name. It 
was pronounced Errill in some parts of 

1 Enna. — Bnna, now obsolete as the 
Christian name of a man, but retained in 
the family name of Mac Enna, generally 
Anglicised Makenna. 

J Innrachtach. — Inpeaccach, now ob- 
solete as the Christian name of a man, but 
retained in the surnames O'h-lnpeaccai^, 
and íTlac Inpeaccaij, the former of which 
is Anglicised Hanraghty in the north, and 
the latter Enright or Inright in the south 
of Ireland. 

k After having finished, fyc. — There is a 


oo riug-bá, ocup pe h-imluab h-aimleapa, ocup |ie h-innapba h-an- 
ma a cuap-ipcaOaib Do cuipp, in at)baiO a n-ai^épúap uippe a 
li-uilc, ocup a h-anpeich, ocup a h-ecopa uile, in aen inat>, .1. 05 
opoch-mumt>cep t>uaibpi£, t)pe^anua, tnconnipcli^ oiabail. lp ano 
pin cibip ocup ceupaioip Gonial Claen a gean ^lan-aiobpenach 
^áipe, 00 compaiuib a coicli, ocup a comDalca, ocup acbepu na 
bpiacpa t)o cuilleo in cobeime ocup do ropmach na uapcaipi : lp 
at)bap aine t>o c'eapcaiptnb, ocup lp Oamna oo^pa 00c' caipoib 
ocup oou compoicpib in cupup cangaip, áp ip luch-clepa leimm 
^an ceill, no mná ap na meaOpat) Do móp et> Ouiu-piu, buam pe 
bparleacaib bot)ba na pe coonacaib ciippai^ri cupao na car-laif- 
pec-pa ; óp t>oig ípau cpaeb-pa nap cpaireat) pa cno-meap, ocup 
ipau maech-plac nap mannpaD pe mop-t>ocaip ; oai^ ip oampa ip 
aicnit) íapum t>o muaó-^aipceo malla, macaemt>a maeuh-lean- 
mai^i-piu, gan á£, ^an accaip, ^an upcoio, $an pip-nuabaip, a n-ao- 
pao h'apm, na h'peaoma, na h'en^numa. D015 ip pe Oolb-^nimaib 
tncleaca Dal-ingabala oebra Oomnaill t)o cuaOap 00 cepc-clepa 
compaic-piu, uaip t>a cpian Ouúchupa pe oalca á h-epnail na 
na h-aioeachua, ocup á h-aigneO na h-ailemna, ocup á Ourchup na 
oalcacua booepin. 

bpiacpa bambe, ocup uplabpa amaioi, ocup uuaú-ban-glóp 
cápc-labapéa epoch po úa^paip, ocup po úupcanaip, a Chongail 
Chlaem, ale, bap e-pium. Clp ip mi pi poc pubúa cpe meaOpao, ocup 
cpe micomaipli Do mallaccnai "e; ocup nip ba t)ú ouie-piu in u-aen 
oume ip pepp a n-Gpinn ocup in Ctlbam, ocup ni h-eao amain, acu 
Oo'n cineo coiccenn cpich-puweoach ap chena, Oo raúaíp ocup t>o 


chasm here in the vellum copy, and the is not properly explained in any published 

matter has been supplied from the paper Irish Dictionary, is used throughout this 

one from p. 107 to p. 115 of that copy. story in the sense of wretch, or one given 

1 Reprobate. — Upoc. This word which up to a reprobate sense. 


thee thy final destiny, to expedite thy misfortune, and to drive thy 
sc ml from the latent recesses of thy body into an abode where sa- 
tisfaction will be taken of it for all its evils, ill-debts, and injustice in 
one place, by the even, terrible, dragon-like people of the Devil." 
Then Congal burst into a clear, tremendous fit of laughter, at the 
sayings of his comrade and foster-brother, and he said the following 
words to add to the insult and increase the offence : " The embassy 
on which thou hast come is a cause of delight to thine enemies, and 
of anguish to thy friends, for it is but the dexterous feats of a child 
without sense, or of a woman after being disturbed by deep jealousy, 
for thee to attempt to cope with the mighty heroes or the well-arrayed 
chieftains of this battle-field ; for thou art indeed a branch which has 
not been shaken for its fruit, and thou art a soft twig that has not 
been hardened by great hardships. For to me the soft, slow actions 
of thy childhood and boyhood are known; thou wert without gaining 
victory or inflicting venom, injury or oppression by thy devotion to 
thine arms, thy prowess, or thy valour. For indeed thy first warlike 
feats were imitations of the dark, mysterious, battle-shunning contests 
of Domhnall, because two-thirds of a foster-child's disposition are 
formed after the nature of the tutorage, rearing, and fosterage he re- 

" The words which thou hast spoken and argued hitherto, O 
Congal Claen," said the other, " are the words of a scold, the language 
of an idiot, and the perverse, woman-like talk of a reprobate 1 . And 
it is I who shall wound thee m in consequence of the insanity and evil 
tendency of thy wickedness; it is not becoming in thee to revile and 
traduce the very best man not only in Erin and Alba, but the best 
of all the men of the western world in general. I therefore delight to 


m It is I who shall wound thee In the meipi noc om^ebae, i. e. for it is I who 

paper copy, p. 1 16, the reading is ucnp ip shall check or resist thee. 


rainpiumaD. Conió aijie pin íp lích lim-pa Do comlann, ocup 00 
compac o'pajail, a h-aicli na h-iplabpa pin; 0015 am, buó ap^ain ^an 
apm-copnum Duic-piu cobaip nó con^nomaD Do copp 'gou' corhpulan^, 
nó Do larh '50c' luaínaipecu, nó h-apm, nó h-en^nunaa Doc' mnoíoen, 
D015 po Diulepac, ocup po Dilpi^peu cu-pa t)o'n cupup pa ; ocup 
acbepu na bpiaúpa pa. 

Q Congail, ni coin^eba, 

Cepu comlainD paeu conrmlua; 

£7epcawe ocup c'anDligeD, 

Opc biD buapach bpaeh-boDba, 

'<5 0C cental, 'gou cuibpec-pu. 

Uaip nvp eppp aen maioen, 

Nip luí£ip ac'laech-irnDaiD, 

<5 an eapcaine oll-ceDa, 

Do c'uaiplib, Do c'aiDeaDaib, 

Oo chuillem 5cm reapap^ain. 

Qp Tíi'iTíiDaiD nip ep^iu-pa, 

lm lebaiD nip lui^ep-pa, 

(5an céD n-ó^lác ri-iimcoTnlainD, 

Do clannaib Neill nepu-calma, 

Dom' bpuinniuD, Dotyi' beannachaD. 

Urnum-pa biD apm-lúipeach, 

Do™' íniDÍDen opur-pu, 

bennacxa na Tn-buióne pm, 

QipD-pi^ Gpenn c'aiDe-piu. 

UiTYicell epoch a rainpiuTYiaD, 

puil punn Dalca Di^elap, 

Qp canaip a Chlaen Chon^ail. 

CiD rpacr, in ré nac cláúai^DÍp cecupca uailgenn, ocup nap peD- 
par pau-comaipleóa pellpaííi Do cup ap céill, ná ap cuioDep, na 


2 9 7 

meet thee in battle and combat after the speech thou hast spoken ; 
for it will be destruction beyond the defence of arms to thee, that thy 
feet should help to sustain thee, or thy hand to guide thee, or thy 
arms or valour to protect thee, for indeed they have refused and de- 
serted thee on this occasion ; and he said these words : 

"0 Congal, thou wilt not maintain 
A just contest with thy foster-brother ; 
The curses, and thy lawlessness 
On thee will be as a mighty fetter, 
Tying thee, binding thee. 
For thou didst not rise any morning, 
Thou didst not lie in thy warlike bed, 
Without the curses of many hundreds 
Of thy nobles and fosterers 
Being deserved by thee without reserve. 
From my bed I rose not, 
In my bed I lay not, 
But an hundred warlike youths 
Of the strong, valiant race of Mall 
Caressed me and blessed me. 
About me shall be as armour, 
To protect me against thee, 
The blessings of this people 
And of Erin's monarch, thy tutor. 
About the wretch his own censure will be, 
There is here a foster-son to revenge 
What thou hast said, false Congal !" 

Howbeit, lie whom the instructions of saints did not render gen- 
tle, whom the wise admonitions of philosophers could not bring to 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 6. 2 Q his 

2 9 8 

ap comaencaiO, ocup ap náp lai$ la^aó na lan-rheipuean pe h-oilc 
na pe h-airpecup Oala, ná Opoch-^nírria oá n-OepnaiO pirn co h-uoacc 
na h-uaipe pin, ip é áipinic ú£oaip ria h-elaóan, co pucao t)á cpian 
a uapaiD o Con^al íp in cepu-inao pm, .1. pip na bio^-labapcaib 
bóóba po canupcap a chaicli ocup a conialea, íc uuba, ocup íc 
caipelbat) a uilc, ocup a eapcaine, ocup a anoligio ína a^aio-pim. 

Cio upacc, ciD h-e TClaelouin po puapaic, ocup po poillpi^iup- 
rap in paebap-clep peicemnaip pin, ip é bpaú pop^ell bennaccan 
Oomnaill, a óeaj-aioi, po bpiachpai^epuap apábeol, cpe cpabao, 
ocup cpeioium, ocup caein-£nímaib aipO-pi^ Gpenn, po ailepuap 
h-é; uaip ní Decaio Oomnall ó chpoip ^an cpomaó, na ó ulaió ^an 
ímpoó, na ó aluóip ^an eaOap^uiOi. 

5 u pct pauh-^leo peicemnaip Con^ail ocup TílaelaOuin comce 
pin. Comlann ocup compac na oepi oepb-comaleat) pm mpo 
amach booepua. 

lp anO pin pucpao pum t>a rpen peo^ upice, úapm-cpuaioi, 
cnúc-comapraca cacaip 1 cepu-comóáil a cell, map Oo peiuhoíp 
ocup oo puarapai^míp oá páp-úapb puamanca, po-cpéna, íc bpip- 
íuó búpaig, ocup íc cpuaó-comaipc comeip^i ap a cell ; ocup po 
claeclaDap t)a cepu-beim cpuaioi, com^ap^a, comoicpa, ^an pall- 
pachc, ^an pialcaipe, gan compé^aó comalcaip, a cepu-a^aib a 
cell, $up beanupcap claiDem Con^ail 1 cluap aiolmo cacbaipp a 
comalua in aen-pipc, ocup in aenpecu, co uappaio col^-Oep in 
claióirh ceona 'na cloi^enn, gop leoapcap m leiu-cenn ocup in leú- 


n According to the account given by the which often occurs in ancient MSS., is 

authors — If é aipmio újoaip na h-eala- still understood in the west of Ireland to 

ban — This is another proof that the wri- denote a penitential station at which pil- 

ter had several accounts of the battle be- grirns pray and perform rounds on their 

fore him. knees. The word is in use in Inishmurry, 

° Penitential station. — Uluió, a word in the bay of Sligo, where it is applied 

2 9 9 

his senses, reason, or to agreeableness, and. on whom no depression or 
sinking of spirits had come from horror or repentance for the evil 
deeds which he had committed up to this time, lost on that spot 
(according to the account given by the authors' 1 of the treatise), the 
two-thirds of his vigour, in consequence of the startling and cutting 
words which his companion and foster-brother had spoken in pointing 
out and showing against him his evils, his curses, and his lawlessness. 

Howbeit, although it was Maelduin that showed forth and ex- 
hibited this feat of accusation, it was in reality the influence of the 
blessing of his foster-father king Domhnall which caused such words 
to issue from his mouth, in consequence of the piety, faith, and just 
deeds of the monarch of Erin ; for Domhnall never went away from 
a cross without bowing, nor from a penitential station without 
turning round, nor from an altar without praying. 

So far the relation of the recriminating quarrel of Congal and 
Maelduin. The combat and fight of these two foster-brothers shall 
next be treated of. 

Then they made two powerful, agile, hardy, eager, warlike springs 
towards each other, as would rush and spring two impetuous, in- 
furiated, powerful bulls to wreak their vengeance and fury on each 
other; and they exchanged two direct, hard, fierce, vindictive, veno- 
mous strokes without treachery, or friendship, or regard to fosterage, 
right against each other, so that the sword of Congal struck the side 
of the helmet p of his foster-brother, and its edge wounded the side of 
his head and one ear, and hewed his breast and side down to the 
leather belt of war, so that all the youthful, bright-deeded warrior's 


to a stone altar surmounted with a stone at Kilgobnet, in the county of Kerry, 
cross, and on the table of which many p Side of the helmet. — Cluap aiolino 

round stones are ranged in chimerical caébcupp. This reference to the helmet 

order, so as to render them difficult of being would seem to savour of more modern 
reckoned. This word is also understood times than the real period of this battle. 



cluap, ^up leaoaip in leaú-uce ocup in leaú-bpuinne ^up in cpip 
C010I151 cacha an n-ichuap, ^up ba h-aen bel, ocup £up ba h-aen 
alab upoplaicci, imaicbeil cnepbpuinne in cuilein caerh-^nimai^i 
fin ó n-a 050 a imlinD ; coná paibe ace a cpip C010I151 cara ic 
con^bail a inne ocup a lnatrcnp ap n-icuap, ap pcaluao a pceiú 
^up in cobpaiO moip meoonais ocu p o" u F ln cp 1 !^ * 1 ^ cpuwO cen- 
^ailci cpuan-ea5apúi cpeoúma. lp ant» pin po Im^iuprap in lann 
limúa, lapamain, luaú-pincech, lan-caicnerhac, .1. claioem Con^ail, 
ap a alcaib, ocup ap a imOopnncup cpe micupcaipci, ocup cpe 
miceacmaipib a mípaiú, ocup a mallaccan, peib po ímcloipeo aip 
íp in uaip pin, ^oma h-aipoinp pe h-én ic ep^i op bapp bile, a n-in- 
baió eppai^, pe coip a ceilebapfa, cpuao-lann claitnm Con^ail, 1 
n-aép, ocup 1 pipmaminu op a cmt>, íp in comlann, ocupip in compac 

CpuaO-buille cloioim TTlaelaOuin impaicep a^amD ap ah-airli: 
íp ann po peolaD ocup po péoai^eo a cloioem comapcac compaic 
pioe o luamaipecu láma a n^epna '5a upen-imipu, ocup oucpac- 
caib Oilpi, oligreca, Oepb-Oeiáoeca Oomnaill '5a oip^uo, ocup '5a 
Oeipiu^ao peac pcác-eaoapnai^e pceiú Con^ail Claem, no pip 
Oibpai^epcap a OoiD n-Oian-builli^ n-oeip 5a luicib Oo'n laech-milio. 
Do ponpac pum map aen lamac oa laec-mileo ap in lacaip pm: co 
cappaio Con^al cpuao-lann a claiOim co h-imaclam ecapbuap, gop 
paio ocup 5up pooepi^epcap h-i ap a aicli ina h-aluaib ocup ina 
h-imoopncap, ocup uucupuap cpi upen beimenna 00 cpuaO-alcaib in 
claioim Oo lucpoimiccm a lama, t/a n-Oin^e ocup o'á n-olucuguó 1 
ceann a cell. UappaiO TTlaelouin caem-oóiu Con^ail eaoapla 
eaoapbuap ^an cibpiuo pe calmam. lm^abaip TTIaeloum Oin, a 
inaD ímlaíoe ap a airli, ocup pucapcup leip in lám o'á co^bail, 
ocup t)á caipbénaió o'ú Qmmipec co n-apD-plaicib 6penn íme. 
Ocup map acconaipc Con^al a caicli ocup a comalca ic cpiall 
a úechio ocup in upo a ím^abala, acbepu na bpiacpa pa: lp béim 



side, from his ear to his navel, was one wide, gaping, awful wound ; 
and that there was nothing but his battle belt confining his viscera 
and bowels below, his shield having been cleft to the great central 
boss, and to the circular, red-bordered rim of brass. Then the sharp- 
flaming, quick-striking, brilliant blade, namely, the sword of Congal, 
flew from its joints and from its hilt, through the mishap and mis- 
fortune of his ill fate and his accursedness, which worked against him 
at this hour, so that as high as a bird rises from the top of a tree in 
the season of spring, for the purpose of warbling, so high did the 
hard blade of Congal fly in the air and firmament over his head in 
that contest and combat. 

Let us next speak of the hard sword-stroke of Maelduin : his 
death-dealing sword of combat was aimed and directed by the gui- 
dance of the hand of its lord, which mightily plied it ; and by the 
lawful and upright worthiness of Domhnall, which aimed and con- 
ducted it clear of the sheltering interposition of the shield of Congal 
Claen, so that it shot his rapid- striking right hand off the sinews of that 
warlike hero. Both exhibited the dexterity of true warlike champions 
on this spot: Congal expertly caught the hard blade of his sword in 
its descent, and thrust and fixed it in its rivets and hilt, and made 
three mighty blows of the hard knobs of his sword at the sinews of 
his arms to press and close them together" 1 ; Maelduin caught the fair 
hand of Congal while it hovered in the air before it could reach the 
ground. After this Maelduin deserted his post in the conflict, car- 
rying with him the hand, to raise and exhibit it to the grandson of 
Ainmire and the arch-chieftains of Erin, who were along with him. 
When Congal perceived his companion and foster-brother preparing 
to flee from him and to shun him, he spoke these words : " It is 


q To press and close them together, — i. e. as to stop the blood. The writer should 
to press the veins and arteries together so have added that he tied them. 

3° 2 

ap mcaib na h-arapDa, am ale, bap epium, ocup íp Diall peD Duch- 
cupaib Dilpi boDepin Duic-piu, na h-ábaipi, ocup na h-aippóena pm, 
.1. mmpcainnpe mellua, maiDmeca, moc-im^abala na lXluimnech 
D'airpip ocup D'píp-aópaó ; uaip cm ag Let CumD t)o cleccaipiu 
t)o ceD-^nimpaba, ocup Do mebpai^ip Do mac-cleapa, íp a Leú 
TTIo^a Do rhainDpip Do cuiDi^ Do'n comlanD pin, ocup t>o'n compac ; 
Dai^ íp céim macaim TTluimnig ap a mac-cleapaib a olbDacc, ocup 
a énarúlacc po pa^baip c'maD lmlaiDi pe h-áiáup aen-béime ? p 
an ímaip^ pea. dec íp pnár-£eppaó pae^ail, ocup íp aireppac 
aimpipe Dam-pa in Dume náp D015 doííi' níchaD, ocup Dom' nepc- 
ppea^pa, Dom' pobpa, ocup Dom' aimpiu^aD pá'n pamla pin, ocup 
apbepu na bpiauhpa pa : Clot) copcaip ann po, ale, bap Con^al 
Claen, aireppac aimpipe pe h-imcloD m'aibeDa-pa ; pabaD po- 
^aipi D'o^aib aichénup. Cia pip nac comapra caiDbpi riu^-bapa 
Dam-pa íp Debaib pea léob ma leauh-láma ap coll mo cloióirh-pea, 
mo copcap clópeoap ! CloD. 

lp ant) pin po íaopau ocup po mmllpeuap móp-cara TTIuimnech 
D'éip na h-ip^aili pin, ma TTlaeloúin pá'n uapal, ocup pá'n aipD-pi£. 
ba Dirhain ocup ba Dirapba Doib-pium pin, uaip ba painnpe 00 nap 
pe^ab pop pear, ocup ba h-eaDapnaiói íp^aili po pai^eaó ocup po 
papaigeó co péió, ap n-a poccain. Qcc cena, po impcairepcap 
pum 'na úprimcell íau comoaip caeb-pcailci uul-maela colla na 
cupaó ap n-a comruicim. 6a h-m^naD, am, na h-abaipi ocup na 
h-aippbena Do niD pum ; ni poóbaigeó pannpai^i, ocup m lai^eD ap 
leaú-baínib, ocup ni Dirai^iD Dponga na Daepcup-pluag. 

CiD cpacc, ba Die pine ocup plaiciupa Do mop-cachaib TTluman 
ap mapbupcap Con^al Claen D'á n-uaiplib, ocup D'a n-apD-maiuib 
ip in uaip pm; ^up ob eaó áipmiu u^Daip co nach mo po mapbpac 


r Leath Chuinn, — i. e. Conn's half, or s Leath Mhogha, — i. e. Mogha's half, or 

the northern half of Ireland. the southern half of Ireland. 


treading in the footsteps of thy fathers," said lie, " and it is clinging 
to tli)* own true ancestorial nature thou art, when thou exhibitest 
these symptoms and tokens, viz., thou dost but imitate and worship 
the smooth, treacherous, retreating, flying skirmishes of the Momo- 
nians; for although it was in Leath-Chuinn r thou didst practise thy 
first deeds and learn thy juvenile military exercises, it was in Leath- 
Mhogha 5 thou hast practised the part thou hast taken in this combat; 
for the suddenness and speed with which thou hast abandoned thy 
post of combat in this rencounter in the exultation of thy one suc- 
cessful stroke, is certainly the part of a Momonian youth treading in 
the path of his early military instructions. But it is the cutting of 
the thread of life, and a change of time to me, that the person from 
whom I least expected it should thus attack and mutilate me ;" and 
he said these words : " This is indeed the reverse of triumph," said 
Congal Claen, " a change of times with my reversed fate ; it will be 
a warning of wisdom to the youths who will recognize it. Who 
would not recognize an omen of my death in this contest, in the cut- 
ting off of my hand after my sword had failed. My triumphs are 
over ! A change," &c. 

After this combat the great battalions of the Momonians closed 
and arranged themselves around Maelduin under the noble and 
the monarch ; but this was idle and profitless for them, for it was 
the unrespected sheltering of weakness, and it was the interposition 
in battle which was easily assaulted and subdued, when arrived at. 
However, they flocked around him until the bodies of the champions 
were left in side-gaping and headless prostration. Wonderful indeed 
were the omens and appearances they exhibited, they did not disarm 
feeble men, nor did they overwhelm the dregs of the army. 

Howbeit, the number of their nobles and arch-chieftains slain by 
Congal Claen at this time was ruin of tribes and of kingdoms to the 
great forces of Munster; so that authors recount that the men of Erin 



pip Gpenn o'Ullcaib ac cup in cara pin, ina no mapbpum t)o 
Tíluírhnecaib anuap conice pin ; no co pacaió pium Celiac, mac 
lTlailcaba, íc íappaió, ocup ic íapmopacc TTIaeloúin, mic Qeoa 
benain, t>'á peúiurh, ocup o'a ímóíoen an cumftp^leo Con^ail íp in 
cac-ip^ail, man fterhni^ep inopci Dorhnaill bot>em, ap comep£i in 
cara : 

TTlaelt)uin ocup Cobrac cam, 

pinncat> íp paelcu, mac Con^ail, 
no co m-bpipcep m car cam, 
uaim an comaipci Chellai£. 

lp ann pin po ^abupcap ^pain Con^al pe compe^aD Chellai^, 
conaó aipe pin po pepupcap pum páilci ppi Celiac, t>o ceannpu^aó 
in cupaó, ocup Do cpaeúaó a cpom-pep^i ; ocup apbepu na bpiarpa 
pa : 

TTlo cean Celiac compamac, 

Cuin^ib cara cac-laiúpec, 

Cobaip clann Neill nepc-buillec, 

Qp áóbal ap Ullcacaib, 

Qp 171 1115 paú na pí^paióe. 

Qp in cógbáil cucpaoap, 

Opm-pa clanna caerh Chonaill, 

pell-pm^al ná popbac pum 

Opm-pa á h-aichle rh'ailerhna, 

"Re h-ucn-bpumoi h-ui Qmmipec ; 

GL\\ caipftiup, ap comalcup, 

Léic eat>pum íp oll-TTIhuimni^, 

Co ná bia páú ppe^apúa, 


1 The words ofDomhnall himself.— TTlap This quatrain is quoted from an older ac- 
oeiThnijer- mor-ci t)omncull bo oein. — count of the battle. 


had not slain more of the Ultonians during tlie battle than Congal 
had slain of the Momonians up to that time, when he saw Cellacli, 
the son of Maelcobha, seeking and searching for Maeldnin, the son 
of Aedh Bennain, to shelter and protect him against the onset of 
Congal in the combat, as the words of Domhnall himself \ spoken at 
the first commencement of the engagement, testify : 

"Let Maeldnin and Cobhthach, the comely, 
Finnchadh, and Faelchn, son of Congal", 
Until the great battle be won, 
Be from me under Cellach's protection." 

Then Congal was filled with horror at the sight of Cellacli, and 
he therefore bade Cellacli welcome to soothe that hero and abate his 
violent anger, and said these words : 

"My affection to Cellacli, the valorous, 
Leader of the battle in the lists, 
Shield of the mighty-striking race of Nial. 
Great is the slaughter on the Ultonians 
On Magh Rath of the kings ! 
On account of their having fostered me, 
The fair race of Conall, 

Fratricidal treachery let them not exert against me 
After my having been nursed 
At the very bosom of the grandson of Ainmire. 
For the sake of friendship and fosterage 
Leave it between me and the great Momonians, 
That they may not have the power of revenge 


u Faelchu, son of Congal. — Here king some of them were arrayed in deadly 

Domhnall is represented as anxious to pre- enmity against him See also Note w , 

serve the lives of his foster-sons, although p. 1 60. 


3° 6 

Dom' éip acu ap Ullcctccub. 

Ni biú pepca a^ peap^ú^aó, 

l?e clannaib Cuint) Ceo-cachai£ ; 

Qirpec lium ap lnaú-rhapbup 

OonV uaiplib, Oom' ameaóaib, 

Q n-cnrhpéip, a n-epcaine 

pa t>eapa mo oóiu-cippaó 

Do rhac Qéóa an^lonnaig, 

Máp pail neac t>om' nepc-ppe^pa, 

Oá n-anaó pem' aiúbi-pea, 

D'a éip ni buó aú^iiinec 

TTlo coicli 'p ttio comalca. 

Cibé báp pom' bépupa, 

1 n-trí^ail Tno óepb-palaó, 

Qp các; ip mo cen Cellach. 

ÍTlo cen. 

Qcu cena, ní h-aipcit) capao ap capait) in coma pin cuingipiu, 

a Con^ail, ale, bap Celiac, ace mat) bpaú-coma bióbaó t>'aplac 

a airhlepa ap a eapcapaic. Qcu cena ni o'pupcacx an n _epcapac, 

na o'imluab ap n-airhlepa cancat>ap Tlluimni^ ip in map-pluai^eo 

pa, ace ip o'aúcup UlaO ocup o'mnappa allmapac ; ocup acbepc 

na bpiarpa pa : 

CÍ Con^ail, na cuint>i£-piu 

Opm-pa in comaiO cel^-fruaibpi^, 

Oilpiu^ao pluai£ paep-iiriurnan, 

UancaOap pa'p co^aipm-ne, 

O'ap cobaip, o'áp comoip^iut), 

O' popíúin h-ui Ginmipec, 

1 n-a£aió a eapcapaD. 

Ni o'imluaó áp n-airhlepa 

Uancabap m eupupa, 



After me [i. c. my death~\ on the Ultonians, 

I shall not henceforth be angered 

With the race of Hundred-battle Conn. 

I regret the number I have slain 

Of my nobles, of my fosterers, 

It was my disobedience to them and their malediction 

That caused the mutilation of my hand 

By the unvaliant son of Aedh [Bennari], 

Who no one thought, would be able to respond to me. 

Had he waited for my response 

He would not be a great slaughterer, 

My comrade and my foster-brother. 

Whatever kind of death shall overtake me, 

In revenging my just animosity 

On all ; my affection to Cellach. 

My affection," &c. 

" Howbeit, this request is not indeed the entreaty of a friend from 
a friend, Congal," said Cellach, " but the treacherous entreaty of 
an enemy pressing his misfortune on his foe. It was not surely to 
support our enemies, or to effect our misfortune, that the Momonians 
have come into this great hosting, but to put down the Ultonians 
and expel the foreigners ;" and he said these words : 
"0 Congal, do not ask 

Of me the treacherous request, 

To oppress the noble host of Munster, 

Who came at our summons 

To assist us, to set us to rights, 

And to aid the grandson of Ainmire 

Against his enemies. 

It is not to effect our misfortune 

They have come on to this expedition, 

2 K 2 But 

3 o8 

Gcc pe luaó áp leapa-ne 
1 caúaib, 1 con£alaib. 

Q Con^ail. 

TTlaich,a Con^ailjale, bap Celiac, ppepuail-piu mocomlann-pa, 
ocup mo compac bot>epca, áp ip lóp lim-pa ap léi^iup t)' uaiphb 
ocup t>' apD-rhairib Gpenn o'poipccet) ocup t>'pot)bu£at). Qcc am 
ale, bap Corral, ní comaóaip áp compac ; uu-pa co h-apmba ocup 
co h-imlan, mipi, umoppo, ap n-arhleóó co leac-lámach. Qcu cena, 
in puil a pip a^uu-pa cá h-áóbap páp' reiciup-pa cú maó ^up cpapca? 
Mi peaoap umoppo, a Con^ail, ap Celiac, ace mun ub ap caipowe 
in comaluaip, no t)'uaipli na h-aioechca. Leic ap ale, a Chellaig, 
ap Gonial; bái£im-pi bpiarap cumat) peppoi lim-pa ^ac lepoachc 
ocup cac linmaipecc t>o bet)ip m'aioeóa ocup m'ailemnopaig popu- 
ciOi, paen-rhapba pa col^-Oeip mo claíóirh ; ace cena, ip uime po 
rechiup-pa ap each mat) t>'mat>, ocup ap cac cach-laraip 'na ceili, co 
n-aicint> m'anpalua ap uaiplib ocup ap apt)-rhaicib Gpenn, uaip po 
peaoap nac but) peap airi a palaó ná a écpaitn cecuap uamo uap 
éip comlamt) ocup compaic a cell ; ocup muna bemt)-pi ap n-Di- 
ceannao mo oóici, ocup ap leóó mo leauh-lama Do ^ebrá-pa mo 
£leo-pa co ^áibrec, ocup m' ímlaíoi co h-aicbéil. Im^aib in ímaip^, 
no ppe^aip in compac, a Con^ail, ap Celiac; lmgébau, a Chellaig, 
ap Con^al, ocup po b'annam lim láfaip Da pánac piarh t>'pácbaíl, 
ap ím^abáil ímlaítn, ocupóic a^ ímbualab ínt)ci t>ap m'éipi ; conió 
ann apbepu in laíó : 

Qnnurh lim t>ul a each cam, 
ip 015 uap m'éip a^ ím^uin, 


T For the future óooer-ea is used cient Irish MSS. for the modern word 

throughout this story, and in the best an- f eccpea, i. e. for the future. 


But to promote our welfare 

In battles, in conflicts. 

" Well then, Congal," said Cellach, "respond to my conflict and 
combat for the future v , for I think that I have suffered enough of the 
nobles and arch-chieftains of Erin to be slaughtered and cut down." 
" Not so, indeed w ," said Congal, " for our conflict is not equal : thou 
art armed and perfect, I am mutilated and one-handed. But dost 
thou know why I have avoided thee hitherto ?" " I do not, indeed, 
Congal," said Cellach, " unless it was for the friendship of the fos- 
terage, or for the nobility of the tutorage." " Desist, henceforward 
from such observations, O Cellach," said Congal; " I pledge my word 
that the more extensively and the more numerously my instructors 
and fosterers would be slaughtered, and prostrately mangled under 
the edge of my sword, the more I would like it. But the reason 
why I fled thee, from one place to another, and from one spot of con- 
test to another, was that I might satisfy my animosity on the nobles 
and arch-chieftains of Erin, for I knew that neither of us would be 
fit to revenge his animosity or enmity after fighting and combating 
with each other. But had not my hand been mutilated and cut off 
thou shouldest now get from me a dangerous battle and terrible con- 
flict." " Fly the contention or respond to the combat, Congal," said 
Cellach. " I will fly from it, Cellach," said Congal, " though it was 
seldom with me ever to quit a spot of contention where I happened 
to come, to avoid a combat, while youths should be contending there 
after me ;" and he repeated this poem : 

" Seldom with me to depart from a fair battle, 

And youths after me exchanging wounds, 


w Indeed. — Qrh is used throughout this úcááx ; but it is not used in the spoken Irish 
story as an expletive, like the Greek h, or of the present day in any of the provinces. 


ba menca Itm anaó ann, 

fcap éip cáich a ^uin ^alann. 
Noca n-pacaió mi-pi jnarh, 

pern' pémiup péin, caip na nap, 

peap mo ppepcail, ni par pann, 

acr máó Celiac íp Oomnall. 
Nip b' ea^al lim Oomnall Oil, 

t)o upeá^oaó mo cuipp corh^il, 

aoá£up cu-pa, a laic luinD, 

ip aipe nop ím^abaim. 
pách pa uecim a caú cam, 

cu-pa pec cac, a Chellai£, 

co n-t)í;?;laint) m'palaó co h-oll, 

ap each pe n-t)ul ac' comlonn. 
6a t>emm lim, a laic luint), 

aiu l compé^Daíp áp n-^luint), 

cm cia peap uamo but) beó oe, 

nác buó tn^alcach ^peipe. 
Conall ^ulban nap £ab pmacr, 

uaint> po ^emeó in cpaeb-plau, 

ip aipe pm, ní pách pann, 

cpeipi ná cac a caém-clant). 
ln^en pi£ Ulaó ampa 

maraip Chonaill car-calma, 

ció mac peaúap puc leip uainD, 

ap n-en^num '^á claint) com-cpuaió. 


x hever. — Mocha is used in the best is generally found in modem printed books, 

MSS., and in the spoken Irish language and in the spoken language in the other 

throughout the greater part of the pro- provinces. Hoc ha generally causes eclip- 

vmce of Ulster, for the negative ni, which sis, and ni aspiration of the initial conso- 

3 11 

More usual is it with me to remain in it 

Behind all wounding heroes. 
Never x have I seen 

In my own time, east or west, 

A man to contend with me, — no silly boast, — 

Excepting only Cellach and Domhnall. 
I would not fear that the affectionate Domhnall 

Should pierce my fair body, 

But I fear thee, valiant hero, 

And it is therefore I avoid thee. 
The reason that I shun in fair contest 

Thee more than all, O Cellach, 

Is that I might revenge my spite mightily 

Upon all the rest before meeting thee in combat. 
It was certain to me, O mighty hero, 

That where our efforts would come in collision, 

Which ever of us should survive, 

That he would not be a revenger of an aggression. 
Conall Gulban, who submitted to no control 

From us the branching scion sprung, 

Hence it is, — no weak reason — 

That his fair race are mightier than all others. 
The daughter of the illustrious king of Ulster 

Was the mother of ConalF, the brave in battle, 

And though but the son of a sister, he carried away from us 

Our valour to his hardy race. 


nant of the verb which follows it. wife of Niall of the Nine Hostages, and 

y Was the mother of Congal. — In the mother of the two Conalls, andofEoghan, 

tract on remarkable women, preserved in his sons. This does not agree with the 

the Book of Lecan, fol. 193, it is stated statement in the text, 
thatlndiu, daughter of Lughaidh, was the 

3 I2 

Gngnarh Ulaó, o"ap£ a n-gal, 
upé oíiuhcup a óe£-márap, 
peac macaib Neill, uiap íp raip, 
a Conall ^lan á ^ulbain. 

Gn^nurh Conaill, cmn^ na car, 
a uá peac each a Celiac, 
á buipbi a einec, cen paill, 
a clannaib cpoóa Conaill. 

lp é po £ab pim-pa in car, 

íp in TTIáipu-pi pop Tiling T2ar, 
clann Conaill map capaio cloch, 
pern' a£aió a£ t)ích Ulluach. 

Pop muait>ecca uile, 

oo plua£ poóla polc-buíóe, 
o'peirern mo óeabúa piu pin, 
Coibt)enai£ ocnp pin^in. 

l?op muoióecca mle, 

t)o plua£ poóla polc-buíóe, 

o' peiúcem mo corhlaint) 'p in car 

ocnp Ceannpaelaó pleaóach. 

Rop mcoióecca mle, 

t>o plua£ poóla polc-buióe, 
6'peicem mo corhlamó ^an cpáó, 
ocup Conall, mac 6aet>an. 

D01I51 ná ^ach ^leó t)ib pm, 
opu noca cél, a Chellai£, 
compac in laic, puc mo lárh, 
lTlaelouin, mac Qeóa bennám. 


* Conall of Gulban It is stated in an Irish that Conall, who was the youngest of the 

romance, entitledEachtraChonaillGulbain, sons of Mall of the Nine Hostages, re- 


The valour of the Ultonians, — fierce their prowess, — 

Through the inheritance of his good mother, 

Beyond the sons of Niall, east and west, 

Existed in Conall of Gulban. 3 
The valour of Conall, prop in the battles, 

Exists more than all in Cellach, 

From the fierceness of his action, without doubt, 

Among the brave sons of Conall. 
It was he met me in the battle 

On this Tuesday on Magh Eath, 

The race of Conall, like rocks of stone 

Are against me destroying the Ultonians. 
It would have been worth the while of all to come, 

Of the yellow-haired forces of Fodhla, 

To view my conflict with 

Coibhdhenach and Finghin. 
It would have been worth the while of all to come, 

Of the forces of yellow-haired Fodhla, 

To view my combat in the battle 

With Cennfaeladh the festive. 
It would have been worth the while of all to come, 

Of the yellow-haired forces of Fodhla, 

To view my conflict without oppression 

With Conall, son of Baedan. 
More difficult than any conflict of these, 

From thee I will not conceal it, O Cellach, 

Was the combat with the hero who carried off my hand, 

Maelduin, the son of Aedh Bennain. 


ceived that cognomen from his having been Benbulbin, a mountain about eight miles 
fostered at Beann Gulbain, now corruptly to the north of the town of Sligo. 

3 X 4 

Ni h-eaó po bean trnn' tyio lairh 
en^nurh mic Qeba bennam, 
ace in airhpeip uu^up call 
an mo Dea£-aiDi, an Dorhnall. 

Ni h-eab no bean Dim' mo láirh 
en^num mic Geóa bennáin, 
acu in ci nac paibe ann, 
h-ua Qmmipec na n-apD-clann. 


lmuhúpa Ulaó ocup allmapach ímpáiuep a^amD. dp n-Dic a 
n-Deg-óaíne, ocup ap cuppú^aó a cupaó, ocup ap n-epbaió Con^ail 
gan pip a aiDeba, ocup $an aipiu^aD a peóma a^ cepap^am a 
ruach ocup íc imóe^ail allmapach, íp ann pm po h-upmaipeaD 
aco-pum ap aen-comaipli, ^ép b'in£naD Ulaió ocup allmápaig; ap 
cac áipD íp in caú-paí compaic pin D'upmaipi uile ap aen comaipli 
gan íaóaD n-ima^allma impe do óénarh Doib, ocup ^an cmDeaó 
cpuao-cam^ni ná comaipli, ocup ba h-i comaipli po cinnpeD a 
n-uaill, a n-en^nurh, ocup a n-o^lacup, a muipnn, a mipnec, ocup a 
mileauachc Do claechluD ocup Do cepu-imlaíc ap úláp, ocup ap 
rime, ocup ap úeichúige, ap miueipc, ocup ap meauachu, ocup ap 

Nip ba claechloD coim^e D'á cupaDaib-pium in claecloD pin, 
ocup nip ba h-aiúeppach bai^i na bipi^ na blab-noip d' Ullcaib na 
D'allmapacaib in ímlaíc pin ap ap popbpac in imaipec ocup a 
n-ai^ui D'impoD pip in aipD-pi^ h-ua n-Qmmipech ap ím^abail 
peann ocup puaó-paebap ocup popmnaDa a pip-laech, ocup cul- 
pean^ Dpomanna a caúmileD Do le^uD co lan-Dilep ap bpeich a 
m-biDbaD. lp d' lDnaib na h-im^abala pin po aúcuipeDap pum a 
n-aipm uppclaibe ocup a cachbepui comlamD, ^up ba h-epaip 
uarmap, uppcailci, ocup ^up ba bpopnac beo, biD^ac, boDba, ocup 

o" u P 


My hand was not cut off me 

By the prowess of the son of Aedh Bennan, 

But through the disobedience which I offered 

To my good foster-father Domhnall. 
My hand was not cut off me 

By the prowess of the son of Aedh Bennan, 

But by a person who was not there, 

The grandson of Ainmire of great tribes. 

Seldom, &c." 

Let us now treat of the adventures of the Ultonians and foreign- 
ers. After their nobles had been cut off, and their heroes vanquished, 
and after the disappearance of Congal without knowing his fate, and 
not observing his exertions in supporting his tribe and protecting his 
foreigners, they all came to one determination, though it was sur- 
prising that the Ultonians and foreigners should, from every part of 
the field, all come to one resolution without calling a meeting to 
confer in order to decide on the subject; and the resolution to which 
they came was to exchange and barter their pride, their prowess, 
their valour, their puissance, their courage, and their bravery, for 
feebleness, timidity, flight, ill-fame, cowardice, and dastardliness. 

This exchange was no exchange of advantage to their heroes, and 
this barter for which they gave up the battle was not a barter of luck 
or prosperity, or fame to the Ultonians and foreigners, viz., they turned 
their faces from the monarch the grandson of Ainmire, to shun the 
spears and red blades, and to leave the shoulders of their heroes and 
the spines of their soldiers entirely at the mercy of their enemies. In 
consequence of the precipitation of their flight they cast away their 
arms of defence and warlike head-pieces, so that the great coats of mail, 
the spears, and the broad shields which the Ultonians and foreigners 
left on the middle of the field of battle, formed a startling, horrific, 

2 S 2 and 

3 i6 

^up ba copaip cpuaiO-^ep, cpop-amlennach cumaipc, ocup $up ba 
pal pa roll pal-^rmnac pulam^ cac laem-luipech, ocup lái^neao, 
ocup lebap-pciaú po pa^pac Ulaio ocup allmapai^ ap cepc-lap na 
cauh-laichpech pin. Qcc cena, nip caipbepu ocup nip uionacul 
eni^ na engnama o'Ullcaib na o'allmapachaib epioein ; uaip cio 
aobal in éoail po pa^pac, íuip eacaib, ocup apmaib, ocup eoai^ib, 
ni h-aici po anpac, ocup ni h-uippe po puip^eoap plain puinit), na 
^lepi ^aeOel, na apt -main Gpenn, acu íp upempi po cpiallpac, 
ocup íp uaipppi po úo^aippec ic uo^paim Ulao ocup allmapac. 
Qchc cena, po pa uoiprec ocup po pa uupcaipúec ^laplách ocup 
^illannpaiD pep n-Gpenn t)' aobaib ocup o' éoálaib m apmui^i o' 
pagbail o pepaib Gpenn ap pocaint) a pá^bála. Oái£ ba roipmepc 
ocup ba cupbpoo co^puma, ocup nnnenaip o' pepaib Gpenn paob- 
t)lup, ocup popleúi na peap popccioe, paen-mapb, ina puac-lai^ib 
paena, pem^cbela, puacai^i, poúappna puiáb. Cpeara ocup cli- 
pemnac na laec leonua laoapúa lecinapb ic cuicmennai^ úiu^-ba 
a^ ímraipcpi aicep^i pa copaib na cupao. Ocup Din pe h-imao 
na n-eappac n-uaúmap, n-uppcailci, ocup na n-apm n-eoapla n-up- 
uhappna ocup na n-op-claioem n-upnocu 1 n-aicbelib m apmui^i. 
^up ba peiotn ppichnumach o'pepaib a n-imoín ap na h-aiplen^aib 
ápmui^i pe hellinacx m aicenca ic cmnenup na co^puma, ^up ob 
eao a moo co poipcip Ulaio ocup allmapai^ pa peat>aib ocup pa 
papaigib Ulao, munbao mupbellna mepai^ecca ic mall-ceimniu^ao 
m mop-plua^ ocup cuipleaoach in uinoenaip ic uaipmepc na upen- 
pep. Ui^e, ocup copcgal, ocup ruaic-belach na epoch ic com^abail 
a cell oo cappaccam nopai£ in cecm pe h-ellmacc na h-im^abala. 
Cen co beoíp na h-abaipi ocup na h-aippóeana pin ic aómillet) 
Ulao ocup allmapac, po b'imoa ilpiana upbaoaca eli ic popuao, 
ocup ic poúu^ao poipne t>'á n-ó^baoaib, ocup opoin^i t)'á n-t>e£-oaí- 
nib, .1. cac aen uaicib ap ap cuipepcap Con^al ^laip ocup ^eim- 
leca pe cup in caca, 'oo báoap ] ein na m-buaipgib bapp-cuipleoaca, 



and grand heap, and a hard, sharp, confused pile, and a barrier of 
opposition not easily passable. However, this was no gift or reward 
of protection, or quarter to the Ultonians and foreigners ; for though 
prodigious was the booty they left behind, consisting of steeds, wea- 
pons, and accoutrements, it was not at it the chiefs of the west, the 
choice of the Gaels, and the arch-chiefs of Erin, stopped or delayed, 
but they passed through it and flew over it, in pursuit of the Ulto- 
nians and foreigners. Howbeit, the recruits [hirelings] and calones 
of the men of Erin were loaded and enriched with the arms and 
spoils of the field of slaughter, which they obtained from the men of 
Erin merely for having gathered them. The men of Erin were im- 
peded in their pursuit by the closeness and extensiveness of the 
mangled bodies stretched crosswise beneath their feet in feeble, 
wounded, and loathsome heaps of carnage; by the trembling and 
quivering of the wounded, mangled, and half-dead heroes gasping in 
death, and attempting to rise, under the feet of the pursuing heroes; and 
by the many loathsome, mangled heaps, and by the weapons strewed 
about, and the gold-hilted, naked, terrific swords, on the horrible field 
of slaughter, so that it was a work of circumspection for the men to save 
themselves from the hidden dangers of the field of slaughter, their 
minds being so bent on the rapidity of pursuit ; so that their condi- 
tion was such that the Ultonians and foreigners would have reached 
the forests and wildernesses of Ulster, had not the bewildering of the 
confusion impeded the movement of the great host, and the precipi- 
tation of hurry obstructed the mighty men. The thickness, tumul- 
tuousness, and misdirection of the wretches keeping one another 
back, each striving to be first in the retreat, such was their anxiety 
to shun the battle. And even though these symptoms and indications 
should not have been confusing the Ultonians and foreigners, there 
were still many other baleful causes which impeded and obstructed 
troops of their youths and bodies of their better people, namely, all 


3 i8 

bóóbct, ocup i n-gaipcéoaib ^le-Ouaibpecha ^abaiO, 'gá popcao, 
ocup '^ct poúu^at) pe laecaib a leanrhana. Cac aen Oib t)in po 
fceli^ ocup po ftip^epcap á úopu^ail cirmenaip, ocup a cuipleaoai^ 
cuaicbil up-úopai^ na h-m^abala, Oo cuaoap 1 cenn a peca co po 
Dícpa ocup a lauaip ^an lan-coigill; uaip t>a m-beic in cpuinne co 
n-a ceúpaib ap comup cac aem uaicib-pium t>o bépaó ap poppac 
ocup ap ímapcaio lúió ocup lan-cablaió o'pá^báil cac aein ícip 
aichnit) ocup anaicmD uapa eip. T?o b'imt>a oin epnail ocup ínn- 
comapúa Tíiaoma ocnp niiuapait) ap Ulluaib ocup ap allmapachaib 
íp in uaip pin. T^o b'imoa aipec ocup apt>-plaic acupum ica pop- 
cat) ocup ica up^abail ap n-upnaiom a anala aip pe uemne na 
co^purria ; ocup pep íc popuat) a capat) ocup a comceneoil 'gá 
auac ocup 5a eaoap^moi im anao ocup im upnaiOi aici ím De£- 
jnírh, ocup im Oegúapao t>o oenam ím cobaip ocup íui cu^norhab a 
cell. Qcc cena ní ap cúip coúai^á comluinD po puígleao aen 
ouine acupuni é-pem, acc o'pá^bail a capao ocup a cumúai^; ocup 
a coiceli í n-iapnéip in ápmuigi o'á éip, comao piaiOe po poipeo 
pein a pemrri ocup a popbaipi na popéicne. Ocup t)in po b'imoa 
pep pocal, puaicnit), pap-mtnll, paep ceneoil ^an caipcpi ^an 
rapat) ^an upelmaioechc pe camnellaib m eecit), pe campemao 
na co^puma. 

Ocup t)in po b'imóa pep ^an uipeapbaió cérnie, na coipi, na 
cepc-inncecua, leime na laúaip, na lan-cablaio, ocup e íc luamam 
ocup íc lam-eicelaig t)'á £uaillib ocup o'á ^é^-larnaib íc uappac- 
cam uopai^ in ceciD, pe h-ail^iup na h-m^abala. l?ob'imt>a ant) 
tnn aen oáme mit>a eli ^an áiperh, ^an ammniú^aó oppo, íc upcpiall 
eipemailco h-ánpaua, ocup íc cmfrpcna uapaiD co cpealriiaiji, cen 
co puapat>ap a ppea^pa ím anaó acu ná h-imupnaióe íinpu. 

Gcc cena, ní camic t>o jjlame a ^aípi ná t>' paippm^e a ínD- 
clecca aen ouine t)' paipnéiópeó co h-uilíóe écua ocup ílpiana in 
áprhui^e pin, mine canuá co cumaip ; uaip ni cépna o' Ulluaib ap, 


3 J 9 

of them on whom Congal had put locks and fetters before the com- 
mencement of the battle, were now impeded and detained by them 
as dreadful up-tripping spancels and as truly oppressive snares of dis- 
tress, for the heroes of the pursuit. But such of them as had sepa- 
rated and escaped from the furious bewildering of precipitation, and 
from the awkward stumbling in the front of the flight, took to their 
heels vigorously and left the field unhesitatingly ; for should each of 
them possess the world with its cattle, he would have given it for 
superabundance and excess of fleetness and speed to leave every 
one, both known and unknown, behind. At this hour many were the 
kinds and signs of defeat and prostration on the Ultonians. Many 
a toparch and arch-chief of them was stopped and captured when out 
of breath by the rapidity of the retreat ; one man stopping his friend 
and relation, to request and beseech him to halt and make a stand, 
and display good deeds and vigour, to aid and assist one another ; but 
it was not for the purpose of sustaining the battle that any of them 
thus addressed the other, but to leave his friend, companion and 
comrade behind in the slaughter, in order that he himself might ad- 
vance the farther from the exertion, struggle, and violence of the 
pursuit. And many a haughty, nobly-dressed, well-attired, nobly- 
born man was without leap, without vigour, without attire by the 
faintness of the flight and the oppressiveness of the pursuit. 

And also there was many a man who wanted not of step or leg or 
power of motion, of leap or speed, bounding and flying with his shoul- 
ders and arms striving to be foremost in the retreat from the eager- 
ness of the flight. There were many others, however, who could not 
be reckoned or named valiantly preparing for the deeds of arms, and 
vigorously preparing for valour, although they did not meet a response, 
the enemy not having staid or waited with them. 

Howbeit, there came not any person who, either by the clearness 
of his wisdom or extent of his intellect, who could fully relate the 


3 2 ° 

ace pé cét) pa pept>omun puilech, mac lmomain, ocup ní eépna t>' 
allmapacaib app, ace Ouboiaó t>pui, ocup laec lan-mapb ina lear- 
coip, map popglep Conall Clo^ac in mat) eli : 

Ní réic beo t>o'n c-plua£ t>ap muip, 
cic le Con^al, mac Scannail, 
ace aen laec luióiup 50 h-oip, 
in pian, ocup aen 'na leaé-coip. 

1 Conall Clogach He was a brother of see Keating' s account of the Convention of 

King Domhnall, the hero of this story, Druim Ceat, in the reign of Aedh, son of 

and is generally called the píj-óinirno, or Ainmire. 

royal simpleton. For some account of him, u His leg — In the vellum copy no notice 


losses and various slaughters of that battle-field, unless it should be 
given in a summary; for there escaped not of the Ultonians but six 
hundred men who were under Ferdoman the Bloody, son of Inioman ; 
and there escaped not of the foreigners but Dubhdiadh, the Druid, 
who swam across to Scotland without ship or barque with a dead 
hero tied to his leg, as Conall Clogach 1 testifies in another place : 

" There passed not alive of the host over the sea, 
Which had come with Congal, son of Scannal, 
But one hero who went frantic 
Upon the sea, and one fettered to his leg u ." 

is given that the story ends here, but in nuije \>m, i. e. "so far the stories of the 

the paper one the following words, which Battle of Magh Bath." — See Note at the 

occur in this place, imply its conclusion: — end of the Feast of Dun na n-Gedh, pages 

Conió oo r-jélcnb carcc TTIuiji "Rar co 86, 87. 



2 T 2 

3 2 5 


NOTE A. Seepage 2. 

IN the following pedigree of Domhnall, the grandson of Ainmire, monarch of Ireland, 
and hero of the Battle of Magh Rath, the Editor has followed the most ancient 
and most authentic manuscript authorities. Whether the series from Ugaine, or 
Hugony the Great, down to king Domhnall, is a correct pedigree or not, the Editor can 
neither assert nor deny ; it appears correct, inasmuch as the number of generations, 
allowing thirty years to a generation, will be found to agree with the period of time 
stated in Irish history to have elapsed from Hugony to Domhnall. But this is not 
enough to prove its authenticity, for supposing it to have been fabricated, the forger, 
if he were acquainted with the average number of years to be allowed for each gene- 
ration, might have invented names, ad libitum, and given them the appearance of a real 
genealogical series. Whether this pedigree was so forged or not must be ascertained 
from the authenticity of the documents on which the list of the Irish monarchs rests, 
and from its general agreement with our authentic history. Indeed if the pedigree of 
any Irish line be correct it is that of the northern Hy-Niall from the period of the 
introduction of Christianity, but whether it is to be depended upon or not for the 
period before Christianity, cannot be satisfactorily proved until the question be settled 
when the Irish first had the use of letters and the power of committing their pedigrees 

to writing. 

Barnard, Bishop of Killaloe, in his Inquiry concerning the Origin of the Scots in 
Britain {Trans. Royal Irish Acad. vol. i. Antiq. p. 27), has given us the following 
opinion respecting the authenticity of the Irish genealogical tables: — "The Irish 
genealogical tables which are still extant, carry intrinsic proofs of their being genuine 
and authentic, by their chronological accuracy and consistency with each other, through 
all the lines, collateral as well as direct ; a consistency not to be accounted for on 
the supposition of their being fabricated in a subsequent age of darkness and ignorance, 
but easily explained if we admit them to have been drawn from the source of real 
family records and truth." 


Pedigree of King Domhnall. 

1. Ugaine Mor, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3619, according to O'Flaherty's Chronology. 

2 Cobhthach Cael Breagh, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3665. 


3. Meilge Molbhthach, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3696. 


4. Iarangleo Fathach, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3721. 


5. Connla Cruaidhcealgach, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3734. 


6. Olioll Caisf hiaclach, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3738. 


7. Eochaidh Foiltleathan, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3768. 


8. Aengus Tuirmeach, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3787. 


9. Enna Aighneach, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3831. 


10. Labhraidh Lore. 


11. Blathachta. 


12. Easaman. 


13. Roighne Ruadh. 


14. Finnlogha. 

15. Finn. 

16. Eochaidh Feidhleach, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3922. 


1 7. Finn Eamhna. 


18. Lughaidh Sriabh-n-dearg, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 65. 


19. Crimthann Nianar, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 74. 


20. Feradhach Finnfeachtnach, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 95. 


21. Fiacha Finnola, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 119. 

22. Tuathal Teachtmhar, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 130. 


23. Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 164. 


24. Conn of the Hundred Battles, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 177. 


25. Art, the Solitary, monarch of Ireland, succeeded A. D. 220, slain in 250. 


26. Cormac Ulfada, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 254. 


27. Cairbre Lifeachair, monarch of Ireland, A .D. 277. 


28. Fiacha Sraibhtine, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 297. 


29. Muireadhach Tireach, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 331. 


30. Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 358. 


31. Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch of Ireland, A. D. 379. 


32. Conali Gulban, chief of Tirconnell, slain A. D. 464. 


33. Fergus Cennfota. 


34. Sedna. 


35. Ainmire, monarch of Ireland, succeeded in 568, died in 571. 


36. Aedh, monarch of Ireland, succeeded in 572, died in 599. 


37. Domhnall, monarch of Ireland, the hero of the Battle of Magh Rath, succeeded in 628, and 

died in 642. 

3 2 7 

NOTE B. Seepage 19. 

Nothing is more certain than that neither Bishop Ere of Slanc, nor any of the 
other twelve distinguished saints of the primitive Irish Church, could have been living 
at the period to which this story refers, and, as has been already remarked, it is highly 
probable that some serious errors have crept into the text through the carelessness 
of transcribers. The Irish writers, however, were in the habit of ascribing acts to 
their saints centuries after they had passed from this world. For instance, whenever 
any sudden misfortune had happened to the plunderer of a distinguished Irish church, 
it Avas said to have been caused by the patron saint of that church, either through his 
intercession, or by his spiritual presence in corporeal form. Thus we are told that 
after Felim Mac Crimhthainn, king of Cashel, had plundered Clonmacnoise, in the 
year 846, he saw the spirit of Saint Kieran, patron of that church, approach him with 
his crozier in his hand, of which he gave him a thrust which caused an internal disease, 
of which the king afterwards died. It is also recorded that in the year 11 30 one of 
the Danes of Limerick robbed the altar of Clonmacnoise of several valuable cups and 
chalices, and repaired with his booty to Cork, Lismore, and Waterford, with the inten- 
tion of setting sail for some foreign country, but that Saint Kieran met him wherever 
he went with his crozier, and caused contrary winds, so that he could not pass out 
of the country. The story is given as follows in Mageoghegan's Translation of the 
Annals of Clonmacnoise, made in 1627 : — "The Jewells that were stollen from out. 
the Church and Alter of Clonvicknose were found with one Gillecowgan, a Dane 
of Limbrick, the said Gillecowgan was apprehended by Connor O'Brien, and by him 
delivered over to the Family [i. e. Monks] of Clonvicknose, who at the time of his 
arraignment confessed openly that he was at Cork, Lismore, and Waterford expecting 
for wind to goe over seas with the said Jewells. All the other passengers and shipps 
passed with good gales of wynde out of the said townes save only Gillecowgan, and 
said as soon as he would enter a Shipp-board any Ship he saw Saint Queran with 
his staff or Bachall return the Shipp back again untill he was soe taken ; this much 
he confessed at the time of the putting of him to death by the said Family." 

We also read that when the Earl Strongbow was dying, he acknowledged that 
he saw Saint Bridget of Kildare coming over him in his bed, and that she struck 
him in the foot, on which she inflicted a wound, which afterwards mortified and caused 
his death. These and several similar instances would almost induce one to believe 
that the writer of this story intended his readers to understand that these saints were 
only spiritually present ; but still it is certain, from the manner in which he speaks, 
that he supposed these saints to have been living at the period to which he refers. 

3 28 

NOTE C. See pages 33-42. 
Pedigiíee of Congal, King of Ulidia. 

1. Rudhraighe Mov, monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3845, and ancestor of the Clanna Kudhraighe. 

2. Ginge. 

3. Caipe. 

4. Fiacha. 

5. Cas. 

6. Amergin. 

7. Conall Cearnach. — See Annals of Tighernach at A. D. 33. 

8. Irial Glunmhar, king of Ulaoh, or Ulster, for forty years. — See Tighernach, ad ann. 42-82. 


9. Fiacha Finamhnuis, king of Ulster for twenty years. — Ann. Tig. ad ann. 82. 


10. Muiredhach. 


11. Finnchadh. 

12. Dunchadh. 

13. Giallchadh. 

14. Cath'bhadh. 

15. Rochraidhe. 

16. Mai, monarch of Ireland for four years, and king of Ulster for thirty -five years. — See p. 329. 

17. Ferb. 

18. Bresal. 

19. Tibraide Tireach, king of Ulster for thirty years Tighernach, ad ann. 181. 

20. Fergus Gailine. 

21. Aengus Gaibhnén, king of Ulster for fifteen years Tighernach, ad ann. 222. 

22. Fiacha Araidhe, ancestor of the Dal Araidhe, and king of Ulster for ten years. — lb. ad ann. 236. 

23. Cas.' 

24. Feidhlim, king of Ulster for seven years. 

25. Imchadh, king of Ulster for eight years. 

26. Ros, king of Ulster for two years. — Tighernach, ad ann. 248. 

27. Lughaidh. 


28. Eochaidh Cobha. 


29. Crunnbadhruighe, king of Ulster for twenty-two years. 


30. Caelbadh, king of Ulidia for fifteen years, and monarch of Ireland for one year, slain A. D. 358. 

31. Connla, who was cotemporary with St. Patrick. 

32. Foth'adh. 

33. Maine. 

34. Connla. 

35. Eochaidh, king of Ulidia for twenty years, died in the year 553 Ann. Tig. 


36. Baedan. 

37. Fiachna Lurgan, also called Fiachna Finn. 

I , 1 

38. Scannlan of the Broad Shield. Cellach. Mongan, slain in 625. 

39. Congal, who fought the Battle of Magh Rath against the monarch Domhnall in 637. 

3 2 9 

List of the Kings of Ulster who dwelt at Emania, extracted from the 
Annals of Tighernach, as published by Dr. O'Conor. 

i. Cimbaeth Mac Fintain, eighteen years, ante Christum, 305. 

2. Eochaidh Faebhur, son of Fedach, twenty years A. C. 247. 

3. Conchobhar Roth, son of Cathair, thirty years A. C. 204. 

4. Fiachna, son of Feidhlim, sixteen years A. C. 179. 

5. Daire, son of Forgo, seventy- two years A. C. 116. 

6. Enda, son of Rochadh, five years A. C. 92. 

7. Fiach, son of Fadhcon, twelve years A. C. 89. 

8. Finnchadh, son of Baicedh, twelve years. 

9. Conchobhar Mael, son of Fuith, twelve years A. C. 63. 

10. Corniac, son of Lactighe, seventeen years A. C. 48. 

1 1. Mochta, son of Murchuradh, three years A. C. 47. 

1 2. Eochaidh, son of Daire, three years A. C. 44. 

13. Eochaidh, son of Loich, three years. 

14. Fergus, son of Leide, twelve years A. C. 31. 

15. Conchobhar Mac Nessa, sixty years A. C. 25, obiit A. D. 37. 

1 6. Cumscrach, son of Conchobhar, three years. 

17. Glaisne, son of Conchobhar, nine years. 

1 8. Irial Glunmhar, the son of Conall Cearnach, forty years A. D. 44. 

19. Fiacha Finamhnuis, son of Irial Glunmhar, twenty years, slain A. D. 82. 

20. Fiatach Finn, twenty- six years A. D. 108. 

21. Elim Mac Conrach, ten years A. D. 128, 

22. Mai Mac Rochraidhe, thirty- three years A. D. 135. 

23. Bresal Mac Briuin, nineteen years A. D. 162. 

24. Tibraide Tireach, thirty years A. D. 181. 

25. Ogaman, son of Fiatach Finn, twelve years A. D. 211. 

26. Aengus Gaibhnen, fifteen years A. D. 222. 

27. Fiacha Araidhe, ten years A. D. 236. 

28. Fergus Duibhdedach and his brothers, four years A. D. 248. 

29. Ros Mac Imchadha, one year [or two, according to other authorities] A. D. 249. 

30. Aengus Finn, son of Fergus Duibhdedach, one year, 250. 

31. Fergus Fogha, the last full king of Ulster, who resided at Emania seventy-five 

years, 254 A. D., slain 332. 



List of the Kings of Ulidia, or nominal Kings of Ulster, from the Destruc- 

Rath, taken from Duald Mac Firbis's Genealogical Book, p. 528. 

These kings, as before observed, though called by the Irish writers kings of Uladh 
or Ulster, possessed only that part of the province extending from Newry to Slemmisb, 
in the county of Antrim, and from Gleann Righe and the Bann to the sea. On this 
subject O'Flaherty has written the following observation in his Ogygia, Part III. 
c. 78, p. 372: — "Quamvis autem apud scriptores patrios sic eos vocare moris sit, titulo 
tenus solum ita appellandi sunt, postquam ab Orgiellias conditoribus, et non ita diu 
postea á Nielli Magni regis Hiberniae filiis universa fere Ultonia manu potenti esset 
subacta : Rudricia gente, ac Dalíiatachia (Herimonis quidem é sobole, sed Rudriciis a 
multis sasculis inserta) intra unius pene comitatus Dunensis terminos, quam prisci 
Ulidiam dixerunt, conclusis. Hinc igitur hujus ditionis principes non Ultoniae, sed 
Ulidiae reges discriminis ergo in posterum dicemus. In qua ditione pauci e Rudriciis 
rerum summa potiti sunt prse Dalfiatachiis, qui earn ad ingressum istuc Anglorum, 
Anno 1 177, tenuerunt, sicut pauci é Dalfiatachiis reges Ultoniae erant prae Rudriciis 
ante excidium Emaniaa." 

1 . Eochaidh, son of Lughaidh, son of Aengus Finn, king of Ulidia twenty years. 

2. Crunnbadhruighe, twenty years. 

3. Fraechar, son of Crunnbadhruighe, ten years. 

4. Fergus, son of Fraechar, forty years. 

5. Caelbadh, son of Crunnbadhruighe, fifteen years. He was slain in the year 361, 

according to the Annals of Innisfallen. 

6. Saran, son of Caelbadh, twenty-six years. 

7. Eochaidh, son of Muiredhach Muinderg, twenty-four years. 

8. Cairell, son of Muiredhach Muinderg, twenty-three years. He flourished in the 

year 508 according to the Annals of Tighernach. 

9. Eochaidh, son of Connla, twenty years. He died in the year 553 according to the 

Annals of Tighernach. 
1 o. Fergus, son of Aengus, son of Oilill, son of Forgo, four years. He is mentioned 
in the Annals of Tighernach at the year 554. 

11. Deman, son of Cairell, four years. He died in the year 571 according to the An- 

nals of Ulster. 

12. Baedan, son of Cairell, twenty years. He died in the year 581 according to the 

Annals of Tighernach. He made an attempt at recovering the ancient palace 
of Emania in 578, but was repulsed by the Clann Colla. 

33 1 

i 3. Aedh Dubh, son of Suibhne, seven years. He was slain, according to the Annals 
of Tighernach, in the year 588. 

1 4. Fiacha Craich, son of Baedan, son of Cairell, thirty years. He was slain by the 

Picts in 608. 

15. Fiachna, son of Deman, son of Cairell, two years. He fled from the Battle of Cuil 

Cael in 601, according to the Annals of Ulster, and was slain in the Battle of 
Ardcoran, in Dal Riada, in the year 627. 

1 6. Congal Claen, son of Scannlan of the Broad shield, was king of Ulidia ten years, 

when he was slain in the Battle of Magh Rath. 

NOTE D. See pages 108 and 109. 
The ancient Division of Time. 

The smaller divisions of time here given have long fallen into disuse. They are to 
be found, however, in many of the ancient writers on technical chronology. 

In Bede's works (torn. i. col. 117. Basil, 1563) there is a tract entitled De Divisi- 
onibus temporum, written in the form of a dialogue between a master and his disciple, 
in which the fourteen divisions of time are thus enumerated — " Atomus, momentum, 
minutum, punctus, hora, quadrans, dies, hebdomada, mensis, vicissitudo triformis, 
annus, cyclus, aetas, seculum, mundus :" and for this the authority of Isidorus [His- 
palensis] " in Libro Etymologiarum quinto et decimo tertio" is cited. — See the works 
of Isidore, edited by Fr. Jac. de Breul. Fol. Col. Agrip. 161 7, Lib. v. c. 29, and Lib. 
xiii. c. 29. 

There is also a dialogue De Compute, attributed to Rhabanus, abbot of Fulda, who 
flourished in the ninth century, published byBaluze, Miscellan. Sacr. torn. i. p. 1, 8vo. 
Paris, 1678, or torn. ii. p. 62, of the folio edition, edited by Mansi; Lucas. 1761. In this 
work the divisions of time are thus given : — " Discipulus. Divisiones temporis quot 
sunt ? Magister. Quatuordecim. Disc. Quae ? Mag. Atomus, ostentum, momen- 
tum, partes, minutum, punctus, hora, quadrans, dies, mensis, vicissitudo, annus, secu- 
lum, getas." In the definitions, however, of the relative magnitudes of these parts of 
time Bede and Rhabanus differ both from each other and from our author. 

Bede (col. 119) thus explains the origin of the atom: — "Momentum dividis in 
duodecim partes, unamquamque partem de duodecim partibus momenti dividis in qua- 
draginta septem partes, quadragesima septima pars, quingentesima sexagesima pars 
momenti. Sic est atomus in tempore. Si autem colligis simul quadraginta septem 
duodecies invenies quingentos sexaginta quatuor atomos." That is to say, a moment 
contains 12 X 47 = 564 atoms. 


33 2 

He defines a moment to be the space of time " quamdiu palpebra? requiescunt," 
and he tells us that four moments make a minute, ten minutes a point ; five lunar, or 
four solar points an hour ; six hours a quadrant ; four quadrants a day. 

With Rhabanus, an atom is the 376th part of an ostentum : an ostentum is the 
sixtieth part of an hour : a moment the fortieth part of an hour, containing one osten- 
tum and an half, or 564 atoms. 

A part, so called " a partitione circuli zodiaci, quern tricenis diebus per menses 
singulos findunt," contains two moments and two-thirds, or four ostents, and therefore 
1 504 atoms. 

A minute, " a minore intervallo, quasi minus momentum, quia minus numerat, 
quod majus implet," is the tenth part of an hour, and is therefore equivalent to a part 
and a half, or four moments, i. e. six ostents, or 2256 atoms. 

A point (punctus) " a parvo puncti transcensu qui fit in horologio," is the fourth 
part of an hour (in certain lunar computations the fifth), and contains two and a half 
minutes, three and three-fourth parts, ten moments, fifteen astents, and 5640 atoms. 
So that an hour, in the solar computation, contains four points, ten minutes, fifteen 
parts, forty moments, sixty ostents, and 22,560 atoms. 

The quadrant is the fourth part of a day, and a day contains, therefore, twenty- 
four hours, ninety-six points, 240 minutes, 360 parts, 960 moments, 1440 ostents, and 
541,440 atoms. 

According to the Irish author the atom is the 376th part of an ostent ; an ostent 
two- thirds of a bratha ; a bratha three-fifths of a part ; a part two-thirds of a minute ; 
a minute two-fifths of a point ; a point one-fourth of an hour ; an hour one-sixth of 
a quarter ; and a quarter the fourth part of a day. 

So that the day contains four quarters, twenty-four hours, ninety-six points, 240 
minutes ; 360 parts ; 600 brathas ; 900 ostents, and 338,400 atoms. 

Upon a comparison of these tables it will be seen that the atom of Rhabanus is five 
times, and the Irish atom eight times the atom of Bede. 

It appears also that the bratha of the Irish author is in like manner eight times the 
momentum of Bede, which identifies these divisions, the Irish atom being the 564th 
part of the bratha, as the atom of Bede is the 564th part of the momentum. 

The Irish word bpara, therefore, appears to have relation to Bede's definition of a 
moment, quamdiu palpebrce requiescunt; bnaéa, bpaépct, or bpapa na pula, "the 
twinkling of an eye," is a phrase still in common use in the south of Ireland: although 
it is now more generally pronounced ppeabaó na pula, the starting of an eye ; na bi 
ppeaba na pula muic, " do not be the twinkling of an eye away." This is stated on 
the authority of Mr. Eugene Curry, who has furnished the following example from an 


ancient romance, entitled " The Wanderings of Maelduin's Canoe," copies of which 
are preserved in the Leabhar na h-Uidhre, and in a vellum MS. in the Library of 
Trinity College, (H. 2. 16.) 

Poceipoac app lappem him muip naill copmail ppi nél, ocup an oap leó-peom 
nip paelpao pein nac in cupac co n-acacap íappain po'n muip pocib anníp oume 
cumcacca ocup cip alamo, ocup ar ciac anmanna mop n-uucmap, biapcuíoe h-l 
cpuno ano, ocup cam o'almaim ocup moilib immon cpano 1m macuaipo, ocup 
peap co n-a upm In pappao in cpaino co pciac, ocup jai, ocup claioiub. Qmail uc 
connaipcpeoe in n-anmanna móp uc boi íp in cpuno, céic app pop ceceo pa cecóip. 
Simp in c-anmanna a bpajic uao ap m cpuno, ocup pupmio a ceno 1 n-opuim in 
oaim ba mo oo'no almai, ocup ppenjaip laip íp in cpano, ocup nop ireno po cécóip 
ppia bpacao pula. 

" They then turn away (from that island) into another sea, which was like unto a 
cloud, and they scarcely had turned off, as they thought, when they saw in the sea 
under them fortified mansions and a fine country ; and they perceived a great terrific 
serpentine animal in a tree there, and a flock of cattle, large and small, around the 
tree, and an armed man near the tree, with a shield, spear, and sword. When they saw 
the great monster in the tree they immediately retreated away, The monster stretched 
forth his neck out of the tree, and darting his head into the back of the largest ox 
of the herd, dragged him into the tree, and immediately devoured him in the twinkling 
of an eye" 

The dictionaries do not give the word bpaca in any of the foregoing forms : but 
we find bpeab and ppeab, a bounce, a start. Armstrong, in his Gaslic Dictionary, 
has the word ppab-puil, a blear eye, a rheumy eye : also ppiob and ppiobaó, a wink 
or twinkle of the eye. These words are probably of cognate origin. 

It may be observed, that in the system of the Irish author the ostent and the bra- 
tha are together equal to a part, or the fifteenth of an hour ; and that the ostent is 
equal to 376 atoms, as in the system of Rhabanus, although the value of the atom 
itself differs, the Irish atom being eight-fifths of the atom of Rhabanus. It is likewise 
remarkable that the bratha of the Irish author, like the moment of Rhabanus, is equal 
to one ostentum and an half ; thereby again identifying the bratha with the moment. 

Bede makes no mention of the Ostentum in the work which has been above quoted : 
but in another treatise, De temporum ratione, cap. ii., he attributes its origin to astro- 
logical speculations, and speaks of it thus : — " Attamen Mathematici in explorandis 
hominum genitivis, ad atomum usque pervenire contendunt, dum Zodiacum circulum 
in xii. signa, signa singula in partes xxx., partes item singulas in punctos xii., punctos 


singulos in momenta xl., momenta singula in ostenta lx., distribuunt, ut considerata 
diligentius positione stellarum, fatum ejus qui nascitur quasi absque errore deprehen- 
datur." — (Opp. torn. ii. p. 53.) See also the Gloss of Bridefurtus Ramesiensis on this 
Treatise of Bede. 

The following Table, exhibiting the several subdivisions of time, in parts of an 
hour, as they are given by our author, by Rabanus, and by Bede, may be convenient 
to the reader. 






























1 12F00 









NOTE E. See pages 99 and 165. 

Genealogical Table, showing the Descent of O'Canannan, O'Muldory, and Mac 

glllafinnen, now leonard. 

N. B. — The Letters R. H. signify Rex Hibernice, in this Table. The Numbers are continued from Note A. 






Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch of Ireland.— See Note A, No. 31. 

Conall Gulban, slain A. D. 464. 

Fergus Cennfota. 


Ainmire, R. H. 

Aedh. R. H. 



Saint Columbkill, 
born in 519, died 
in 596. 

Domhnall, R. H., hero of the Battle 
I of Magh Rath. 


Loingseach, prince of Tirconnell in 670, 
I and afterwards monarch of Ireland 
from 695 to 704. 

Flaithbhertach, R. H.from 727 to 774. 






St. Adamnan, 8th Abbot of Iona, born A. D. 624. 

Loingsech, slain 749. 
His descendants can- 
not be traced. 


Gilla Coluim, prince of 
I Tirconnell, died 
J 975. 

RuaidriMor, slain 1030. 
History is silent 
about his descen- 

41. Aedh Muinderg. 

42. Domhnall Ceiric. 


43. Loingsech. 

44. Flaithbhertach. 


45. Canannan, ancestor of the O'Can- 
1 annains. 

46. Maelfabhaill. 


47. Cuileon O'Canannain. 


48. Loingsech O'C. 

49. Flaithbhertach O'C., prince of Tircon- 

I nell, died 999. 

50. Ruaidhri, prince of Tirconnell, slain 

I 1071. 

51. Domhnall, prince of Tirconnell, slain 

I 1083. 

52. Donnchadh O'Canannain. His line 

disappeared from history in the 
twelfth century. 

41. Murchadh. 

42. Maelbresail, prince of Tirconnell, slain in 817. 


43. Aengus. 

44. Maeldoraidh, ancestor of O'Muldory. 

45. Maelbresail, prince of Tirconnell, slain 896. His brother FogartacH 

I died in 899. 

46. Aengus O'Muldory, prince of Tirconnell, slain 960. 

47. Muirchertach O'Muldory, slain 1029. 

48. Criochan O'M. 
.49. Gilla- Columb O'M. 

50. Niall O'M., prince of 

died 1059. 

51. Flaithbhertach 

O'Muldory. His 
descendants cannot 
be traced. 

48. Maelruanaidh Mor. 

49. Gilla-Finnen, progenitor of Mac Gilla- 

I Finnen, now Leonard. 

50. Mac-Raith. 


51. Gilla-Patruic. 

52. Conchobhar Dall. 


53. Domhnall, died 1281. 

54. William Meith, slain 1321. 




55. Raghnall, or Randal. 

56. Henry Crossach. 

57. Brian, died 1445. 

58. Toirdhelbach, died 

1492, according to 
the Four Masters. 

57. Toirdhealbhach. 

58. Donnchadh, 1429. 


59. Lochlainn Mor. 

60. Lochlainn Oge. 

61. Brian Dorcha. 

62. John Mac Gilla Finnen, flourished about 

the year 1612. The present repre- 
sentative of this family, which is one 
of the most royal in Ireland, is un- 

33 6 

NOTE F. See page 99. 
Table showing the Descent of O'Donnell, O'Gallagher, O'Doherty, and O'Boyle. 

34. Sedna — See Note E, No. 34. 

35. Ainmire, R. H. from 568 to 

I 571. 

36. Aedh, R. H. from 572 to 599. 


37. Maelcobha, R. H. from 6)2 to 
615. He was the eldest 
son of the monarch Aedh. 

38. Celiach,R. H.from642to654. 

39. Domhnall. 

40. Donnchadh. 


41. Ruaidhri. 


42. Ruarcan. 

43. Gallchobhar, ancestor 

I O'Gallagher. 

44. Maghnus. 


45. Donnchadh O'Gallagher. 

46. Amhlaoibh O'G. 

47. Domhnall O'G. 


48. Diarmaid O'G. 


49. Aedh O'G. 

50. Maelruanaidh O'G. 

51. NicholO'G. 

52. Donnchadh O'G. 

53. Fergal O'G. 


54. Aedh O'G. 

55. Gilla-Coimhde O'G. 

56. Nichol O'G. 


57. John O'G. 




Dochartach, progenitor 

I of O'Doherty. 


Donnchadh O'D. 

Maenghal O'D. 

Domhnall O'D. 

Donnchadh Donn O'D. 

Domhnall Finn O'D. 

Conchobhar O'D. 

Diarmaid O'D. 

Muirchertach O'D. 

Aengus O'D. 

Ruaidhri O'D. 

Domhnall O'D. 

Conchobhar O'D. 

Aendiles O'D. 

Domhnall, died 1342. 

John O'D., sued. 1342. 


Domhnall Og, Conchobhar an einigh 
I O'D., died 1413. 

died 1374. 

58. Aedh O'G. 

59. Ruaidhri O'G. 

60. John O'G. 

Lochlainn, 58. Donnchadh. 
Bishop of I 

Raphoe, 59. Tuathal. 

d. 1438. m „, I , 

60. Edmond, 

I chief 
d.153'4. 61 - Tuathal Balbh, chief, d. 1541. 

61. Eoghan, 62. Sir John O'G. 
I chief, I 

d.1560. 63. Cathaoir O'G., 1575. 


62. Art, fl. 1590. 


63. Eoghan. 


64. Aedh. 

60. Art. 

66. Aedh Og was living in the 
latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, and was 
the senior representative 
of the race of Conall 

64. Tuathal O'Gallagher. 

Domhnall, died 1440. 

Brian Dubh, died 1496. 

Conchobhar Carrach, 
I died 1516. 

Feidhlim O'D. 

John O'D., died 1582. 

John Oge O'D. 

Sir Cahir O'Doherty, 
slain A. D. 1608. 

35. Lughaidh, ancestor of the 

I Cinel Luighdheach. 

36. Ronan. 


37. Garbh. 

38. Cennfaeladh. 

39. Muirchertach. 

40. Dalach, youngest son, 

I died in 868. 

4 1 . Eignechan, died in 901 . 


42. Domhnall Mor, progenitor 

I of the O'Donnells. 

43. Cathbharr. 

44. Gilla-ChristO'D.diedl038. 

45. Cathbharr O'Donnell. 

46. Conn O'Donnell. 

47. Tadhg O'Donnell. 

48. Aedh O'Donnell. 

49. Domhnall O'Donnell. 

50. Donnchadh O'Donnell. 

51. Eignechan, died 1205. 

52. Domhnall Mor, died 1213. 

53. Domhnall Og, died 1264. 


54. Aedh, 1333. 


55. Niall Garbh, 1348. 

56. Toirdhelbhach an Fhiona, 

I 1415. 

57. Niall Garbh, 1437. 

58. Aedh Ruadh, 1505. 

59. Aedh Dubh, 1537. 

60. Maghnus, 1563. 

61. Aedh, died 1600. 


Baighell, progenitor of 

I O'Boyle. 


Aindiles O'Boyle. 

Gilla-Brighde O'B. 

Cellach O'B. 

Conchobhar O'B. 

Menman O'B. 

A'ndiles O'B. 

Aedh O'B. 

Menman O'B. 

Niall Ruadh O'B. 

Toirdhelbhach Mor. 

Toirdhelbach Og. 

Niall O'B. 

Toirdhelbhach O'B. 

Tadhg O'B. 

Tadhg Oge. 

Toirdhelbhach Ruadh 
O'Boyle, chief of Boy- 
lagh, in the present 
county of Donegal. 

61. Calbhach, died 1566. 

62. Aedh Ruadh, fled to Spain 62. Conn, died 1583 
where he died in the year 
1602. His brother Rory 
was created Earl of Tir- 
connell by King James I. 
He was the most power- 
ful, but not the senior 
representative of Conall 

63. Sir Niall Garbh, d. 1 626. 

64. Col. Manus, slain 1646. 

65. Roger, or Ruaidhri, m. 
I Margaret Sheile. 

66. Col. Manus, slain 1736. 

67. Hugh More. 

68. SirNeal Garbh, d. 1811. 


69. Sir Neal Beag. 

70. Sir Richard Annesley 

O'Donnell, the pre- 
sent chief of this line. 


The following Notices of the Principality of Tirconnell, translated from 
the Annals of the Four Masters, will show that the O'Donnells had lit- 
tle Sway in Tirconnell till after the arrival of the English in Ireland. 

641. Maelbresail and Maelanfaidh died, and Flann Eanaigh was mortally wounded. 

These were of the race of Conall Gulban. 
670. Dungal, son of Maeltuile, chief of Cinel Boghaine, was slain by Loingsech, the 

son of Aengus, chief of Cinel Conaill. 
762. Murchadh, the son of Flaithbhertach, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain. 
749. Loingsech, son of Flaithbhertach, lord of Cinel Conaill, died. 
8 1 7. Maelbresail, son of Murchadh, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain by Murchadh, son 

of Maelduin. 
868. Dalach, son of Muirchertach, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain. [He was the 

first person of the O'Donnell line who obtained chief sway in the territory. 

See A. D. 901]. 
896. Maelbresail, son of Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain in the battle of 

Sailtin by Murchadh, son of Maelduin, lord of Cinel Eoghain. 
899. Fogartach, son of Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, fell on his own spear, and 

died in consequence of it. 
901. Eignechan, son of Dalach, son of Muirchertach, lord of Cinel Conaill, died. [He 

was also of the line of the O'Donnells]. 
955. Maolcoluim O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, died. 
960. Aengus O' Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain by the Cinel Conaill 

962. Murchertach O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain by his own people. 
965. Maoiliosa O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain. 
974. Gilla-Coluim O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, went on a predatory excursion 

into Offaly. In the next year he was slain by Domhnall O'Neill, monarch of 

978. Tighernan O'Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain. 
989. Aedh O'Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, died. 
996. Ruaidhri, son of Niall O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, died. 
999. Flaithbhertach O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain by his own people. 
1 010. Maelruanaidh O'Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, was captured by Brian Boru. 
1026. Maelruanaidh O'Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, went over sea on a pilgri- 
mage, and died on his pilgrimage the next year. 
1029. Muirchertach O'Maeldoraidh, was slain by theO'Canannains at Rath-Canaiinain. 


1030. Euaidhri O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain at the Mudhorn [now 
the river Mourne, near LifFord] by Aedh O'Neill. 

1045. Flaithbhertach O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conail], died. 

1059. Niall O'Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, died penitently. 

1 07 1 . Ruaidhri O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain by Aengus O'Maeldoraidh. 

1075. Donnchadh O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain. 

1083. Domhnall O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain by his own people. 

1085. Murchadh O'Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, tower of the magnificence, hos- 
pitality, and valour of the north, died. 

1093. Aedh O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was blinded by Domhnall O'Loughlin, 
king of Ailech. 

1 135. Ruaidhri O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, a warlike tower of defence, chari- 
table, and humane, was slain by the men of Magh Itha [Barony of Raphoe]. 

1 153. Flaithbhertach O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was drowned, with his wife 
Duvcola, the daughter of Turlogh 0' Conor, monarch of Ireland. 

1 156. Aedh, son of Rory O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain by O'Kane. 

1 1 60. Two O'Maeldoraidhs were treacherously slain by the Aithcleirech O'Canannain, 
lord of Cinel Conaill, and the same Aithcleirech and two O'Canannains were 
slain in revenge by the Cinel Conaill. 

1 1 65, Maghnus O'Canannain, lord of Cinel Conaill, died. 

1 172. O'Maeldoraidh was defeated by the Cinel Eoghain. 

1 1 84. The monastery of Assaroe [Eas Ruaidh], was founded by Flaithbhertach 

1 197. Flaithbhertach O'Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, Cinel Eoghain, and Oriel, 
defender of Temur, heir presumptive to the crown of Ireland, a second Conail 
in valour, another Cuchullin in feats of arms, another Guaire in hospitality, 
and another Mac Lughach in heroism, died on Inis Samhaoir [now Fish Island, 
in the river Erne, close to the cataract of Assaroe], on the second day of Febru- 
ary, in the thirtieth year of his reign, and fifty-ninth of his age. Immediately 
after his death, Eachmarcach O'Doherty assumed the chieftainship of Cinel- 
Conaill, but was slain a fortnight after his inauguration by John De Courcey. 

1200. Eigneachan O'Donnell was lord of Cinel Conaill. 

1 207. Eigneachan O'Donnell, lord of Cinel Conaill, was slain. 

NOTE G. Seepage 122. 
O'Farrell, in his Linea Antiqua, and M. Lainé, Genealogist to Charles X., in his 
pedigree of Count Mac Carthy, have taken many liberties with the ancient Irish autho- 
rities in giving the descent of the Munster families. M. Lainé actually falsifies his autho- 


rities, and O'Farrell writes the following very incorrect remark under Lugadius, whom 
he makes, without any authority, the eldest son of Oilioll Flannbeg, king of Minister, 
and fourth in descent from Oilioll Olum, the ancestor of all the nobility of Minister of 
the Heberian race : 

"Lugadius, king of Munster, for three years, had a younger brother, Darius Cearb, 
ancestor to O'Donovan, O'Cuilen of Carbery, &c, and to Criomthan Mor, king of 
Dalrieda, in Scotland, from whom descended many families there. This Lugad had 
two sons by a second wife, viz., Lughach, from whom the territory of Lughach-Eile is 
so called ; and Cobhthach, a quo O'Cobhthay, of Cuil-feadha." 

But O'Flaherty, who is a far better authority than O'Farrell, agrees with the most 
authentic Irish MSS. in making Lugadius, not the first, but the third son of Olioll 
Flannbeg ; and in making Crimthann Mor, not King of Dalrieda in Scotland, but mo- 
narch of all Ireland. His words are as follows : 

'■'•Anno 366. Crimthannus films Fidachi Heberio é semine Achaio Mogmedonio 
sororio suo Temorise extremum diem quieté claudenti substituitur Rex Hibernise annis 
tredecim. Transmarinis expeditionibus in Gallia, & Britannia memorabilis erat : uxo- 
rem habuit Fidengam é regio Connactiae stemmate, sed nullam sobolem reliquit. 

" Crimthanni regis abavus Fiachus Latus vertex rex MomoniaB duos Olillos genuit 
Flannmor & Flannbeg cognominibus distinctos. Olillus Flannmor rex Momoniae sobolis 
expers Olillum Flannbeg fratrem adoptavit. Olillo Flannbeg regi Monionise supererant 
Achaius rex Momoniae, Darius Kearb, ex quo O'Donnawan, Lugadius & Eugenius. 

" Darius Kearb prseter Fidachum Crimthanni regis, & Mongfinnaa reginae Hiberniaa 
patrem genuit Fiachum Figente, & Achaium Liathanach, ex quo Hyliathan in agro 
Corcagiensi. Fiacho Figente nomen, & originem debet Hy Figenta regio olim variis 
principibus Celebris in media Momoniae planicie usque ad medium montis Luachra in 
Kierrigia ad Australem Sinanni numinis ripam ; licet hodie hoc nomine vix nota, sed 
Limericensis comitatus planities appellata." — Ogygia, pp. 380, 381. 

There can be no doubt that O'Flaherty is perfectly correct in making Crimthann 
Mor mac Fidaigh monarch of all Ireland, as his name is found in all the ancient lists of 
the Irish monarchs, and as it is stated in Cormac's Glossary, under the word TClog 61 me, 
that he also extended his dominion over North Britain and Wales, where he established 
colonies, and where many places received names from his people. The passage, which 
is one of the most curious and important in Irish history, runs as follows : 

In can no ba móp nepc na n-^cteóal pop ópeénaib, po panopac Glbain ecappa 
1 pepanoup : ocup po picip các oupaip 01a capaic leo, ocup ni ba lújae no cpeboaip 
^aeóil ppia muip anaip quam in Scocica, ocup 00 ponca a n-apapa ocup a pij- 
oúince ano ; inoe oicieup t)ino cpaoui, .1. Upeoui Cpimraino TTloip, mic pióaij, pi 
6peno, ocup Qlban, ocup comuip n-lcc; ec inoe epc ^^r^ 1 " 10 ^ na n -5 ae ° a ^' ,1# 



Cell mop pop l>pu TTiapu n-lce Jc. Ocup íp oo'n poino pin bep a ca t)ino map 
^erain 1 cipib ópecan Copn, .1. t)un mic ^iaéain ; ap íp mac in ní íp map íp in 
6pernaip. Ocup po bácap po'n curiiacc pin co cianaib lap ciaccain pacpaic. t)e 
pm, cpa, po boi Coipppe TTlupc ac acai^io paip co a rhuincip ocup co a caipoe. 

" At the time that the sway of the Gaels was great over the Britons, they divided 
Albion between them in holdings, and each knew the habitations of his friends ; and 
the Gaels did not carry on less agriculture on the east of the sea (channel) than at home 
in Scotica, and they erected habitations and regal forts there : hide dicitur Dinn Tra- 
dui, i. e. the triple-fossed fort of Crimthann Mor Mac Fidhaigh, king of Erin, Alba, 
and as far as the Iccian sea ; et inde est Glastimber na n-Gaedhal [Glastonbury of 
the Gaels], a large church, which is on the brink of the Iccian sea, &c. And it was at 
the time of this division also that Dinn Map Lethain, in British Cornwall, received its 
name, i. e. Dun mic Liathain ; for map, in the British, is the same as mac. And they 
continued in this power for a long time after the arrival of St. Patrick. It was at this 
time Coirpre Muse was dwelling in the east with his family and friends," &c. 

Eochaidh, the first son of Olioll Flannbeg, left no issue, and the line of Fidach, the 
eldest son of Daire Cearb, became extinct in Crimthann Mor, who succeeded as 
monarch of Ireland in the year 366. On failure of issue in the line of Fidach, the 
next heir, according to the law of primogeniture, was, in the line of Fiacha Figeinte, 
the second son of Daire Cearb ; and tracing this line, according to the evidence of the 
ancient genealogical Irish MSS., we find it represented in the tenth century by Donovan, 
son of Cathal, chief of Hy- Figeinte, who was slain in a pitched battle, and his allies, 
the Danes of Munster, slaughtered by the renowned Brian Boru, in the year 977. 
But after the death of the monarch Crimthann Mor Mac Fidaigh, this line was sup- 
pressed by the more powerful sept of the Dal Cais, and also by the race of Lughaidh, 
ancestor of the Mac Carthys, and was never after able to regain the sovereignty of 
Munster ; but they retained Bruree, the seat of their great ancestor Olioll Olum, and 
the most fertile territory in all Ireland, which, from respect to their high descent, 
they were permitted to possess free of tribute. O'Heerin refers to this fact in his 
topographical poem, in the following lines : 

t)ual o' O' Oonnabáin t)úm Cuipc 

Qn cíp-pi, 'na cip lonjpuipe; 

6a leip gan cíop po'n ÍTláij moill, 

Ip na cláip piop 50 Sionoinn. 
" Hereditary to O'Donovan of the Fort of Core (i. e. Bruree) 
Was this land, as a land of encampment ; 

He possessed without tribute, the lands along the sluggish river Maigue, 
And the plains down to the Shannon." 




N. B K. M. signifies King of Mun: 

i this Table, K. D. King of Damtmd, and K. T. King of Thomond. 

LIOLL OI.l'M, kinffof Murutcr.d. , 

thirlfrn yiaf II, >. 

t.| SI I'. I;, 

. i 1.1. )>:■ V\jt, int.-,] ■■ 

1 1. 

nihil t'cnafuJa. 


I Plgctate 
Atdh Roln. 


'mifacla, '1. T' 

-I. . 

. Aengus. 

. Diuneannaigh. 


Calh.l, chief of II í'. ilabi it 
I CroombyC»ll»ghnnl'a»bcl. 

'■ Iflll jhldll O'D. 

Manislaus O'D. 
», Il« Reginald O'D. 

tin 1 family n! o'Cui- 
Kiiiti, iii.w Cullim., Ik.'- 

n the county of Linie- 

I | r.llllt 

Itfuúl, of •«« In ISM. 
31. T.,lhgO'D. I d 1 >cfofhu.ruuno. 
U Mm. h.i.iii. Munogh, or Mor- 

- M Oonohobhw, Conor, or Dome- 

•I. lUmdat, or Reginald O'D. 

M. Di»rm»ido'i> ,1 i </i. ,„.-.,_ 

a:. Iwbft « Tern "i. ,>,;,: 



1 ■ 


■ ■ 

■ rid it,..- ,. r , 

Cairhrc Luachra. 

Hu.m.Ii larlaithc. 

U-.|)i lh.tnnan, K. M„ 
is family of 

''lSsccruh'J. lii'iii'i'il 
M. ii-l. linn, v.-hn fought at 

N.idfraech, K. M. 
Aengus, K. M., ill 


Failhhe Flann, K. SI. I 






(Valh.than Caisel, K, M-, 

1. Luchlainn, a quo Clann , 

I Lm.-hla.inn. 

2. Donnchadh, of Loch 

Crot. 30 

J. Cathttl O'D. 37 

I. Diarmaid O'D. 38 

I thy, killed 1015. 

\liiirf.lli;i.-|i Mat Cartliy, 

Curmac of Magh Tamil - 

i ' ' i; .... ii, . k. i ' 

Og, K. D., d 

Tadhg Mainistrech. 
lK>ni!ii-inll andana. 
Tadhg Liath. 

Connae Ladhrach, d. 1516. 
Domhnall an Drumainn. 
I.ii-'iuhnall Mac Oarthy 
created Earl oft 'l.mraíe' 

.1'' I r '-I'l''^,(r|,|i.,^/,, 

Flann Roba. 




Sullivan, a quo 

. Domhnall, died 

:i. Eochaidh, K. M., d.523. 

10. Criomhthann Srebh, K. D. 523. 

11. Cairbre Ciom, K. D.. d. 577. 

12. Aedh Flanncathracb. 

13. Cathal, K. D. 619. d. 627. 

14. Cuganmathair, K. M., born 60-1, d. 657. 

. M. 

. Fionguine, K. M-, slain 902. 
, Camnh, a quo O'Keeffe. 

2S. Aedh O'l 

24. Domhnall 

. Conchobhar 0"K. 

. Domhnall O'K. 

. Art Og O'K., of age i 
. Maghnus O'K. 

. Domhnall Og O'K., 

I Aughrim, 1691. 

. Domhnall O'Keeffe, 

Aedh Uargarbh. 
Feidhlimidh, K. D. 

Oilioll I 




i. Eochaidh. 
|. Crimthinn. 

. Laeghalrc. 
Aedh Cisrigh. 

L5. Ealaith,*; 

16. Dunluing. 

17. Ainbleithc. 

19. Aengus, 

20. Dubh.Iabhoir 

I M., slair 

21. Domhnall, s 

I Dreoain O'M. 
Diarmaid O'M. 
Finghin O'M. 

I. Cormac Ca3, K. M. 
1, Mogh Corb, 

i, Aengus Tirech, K. ft 
!, Lughaidh Menn, K. ] 
. Conall E 

i.tHei t.miihvu. 

lie command- 

].iL-7.iiii.nd .it 

I O'Donohoe. 

23. Cathal.'d. 1063. 
21. Dounchadh O'D. 

25. AeilgusO'D. 

26. Amhlaoibh Mor i 

. Conchobhar O'D., 

30. Conchobhar O'D. 

31. Domhnsll O'D. 

32. Jeffry O'D. 

33. Ruaidhri O'D. 
31. Domhnall O'D. 

35. Tadhg O'D. 

36. Jeffry O'D. 

38. Jeffry O'Donohoe, of 

. Blod, first son. 
. Carthenn Finn, 139, 
. Eochaidh Ballderg. 
. Conall. 

. Aedh Caemh, K. M-, 
| G01. 

. Cathal. 

. Toirdhelbhach, K. T. 
. M;i'li._-h.imh- 16. Fl 

. Lorcan, E. M. 
. Cinneide, K. T. d. 954. 
. Brian Borumha, monarch of 
j Ireland, a quo O'Brien, 
slain at Clontarf, A. D. 

I. Tadhg murdered 1022. 
. Toinlli.-llrliai-li <)"]?,, monarch 
I of Ireland, d. 1086. 

.. Diarmaid O'B., K. T., d. 
;. Toirdhelbhach O'B., K. T., 

jH Donnchadh f'nirbreach O'll., 
| fostered by u'Donuvaii, 
died 1348. 

29. ConchobharnaSiudaineO'B., 

30. Tadhg Caeluisge O'B,, d. 

31. TnH'llir.illihactiO'B., d. 130C. 

32. Muirchcarteach O'B., d, 1333. 
Hi. Mathghamhain 0'B.,d. 13G7. 
34. Brian CathaanAonaighO'B., 

36. Toirdhelbhach O'B., d. 1460. 

. Aengus Cinnathrach, 9, Aengus Cinn-i 

. Eoghan. 
. Dongal. 
. Artghal. 

. Co i lean. 

. Sioda an Eich I 

. l-.i--i.iha. 

'. Eanda. 

. Aodh. 

!. Meanma, died 1 

I mara,orMacNaniara. 
, DomhnaUMacN.,d.l099. 

. Cunura Mao N.Mani 1 13'l 

, Lochlainn Mac N. 
, Mac-con Mac N. 

Cu-meadha Mac N. 

34. Mac-con Mac N. 

3'i. Cumara Mac N. 
37- Cu-racadha Mao N. 
38, Tadhg Mac N.d. 1471. 

. Scnach. 

. Cu-aUta. 
. Fearraac. 

l.iniii Ii.lIIi 

. Domhnall. 
. Deiigliaiilli, 

i'1'ea. thief 
in Thomond. 

23. Donnchadh. 

24. Aicher O'Dca. 
'2. r >. Gilliigoiri O'D. 

26. Muireadhach O'D. 

27. Flaithbhertach O'D. 
2s. I.'n hlainn O'D. 

29. Flaithlwrtach Finn O'D., 

30. Gillapatruic O'D. 

31. Iiu.ii.lhri O'D. 

32. Donnchadh O'D., slain. 

33. Iii.iiihnall O'D. 

34. Conchobhar O'D., who 

10. Conall. 

11. Colraan, 

12. Gcmdclach. 

13. Uilin, orCuilin. 

14. Abartach. 

16. Ifcrnan, a quo Clann 

' *10'gia. Fart iii.c. 

17. Faelchadlu 

18. Conligan. 

. Donnchadh. 

. Conn, a quo O'Cuinn, 

Muintt-r I; 

, of I 

hief nf 

Ni.ill, was lun.h- 

rumha, in the bat- 
tle of Clontarf, hi 

ii l.i I - 


39. Donnchadh 
j Mac N. 

'. Tadhg Mac N. 
. John Mac N. 
. John Mac N. 

. John Mac Namara 

Thomas O'ft. 
Domhnall O'Q. 
Thomas OgO'Q.- 

l'i iillileear O'Quin. 

Core O'Q.. the tutor 

I" 't_ .Mmrthi.-1-t.i. Ii 
t;inie princo ol 
Thomond In I let, 

, Murchadh O'Q. 
, Donnchadh O'Q. 

27. Gilla-Scnain O'Q. 

28. Donnchadh O'Q. 

29. Domhnall O'Q. 

30. Thomas O'Q. 
.11 li-i.mlinaU O'Q. 

32. Donihnall O'Q, 

33. Conchobhar, or Conor 

O'Quin.— Sev im,iM 
Mac Firhis's 
MS. The F.arl ol 
Dunraven is the pre- 

"j O'B., d". 1540. 

. Dmogh, scton.l Marl "i 
I Thomond. 

. Conchobhar, thirdEarl. 
. Dcnogh, fourth Earl. 

. Brjan. 8«* EnTl " 
. Hairy, seventh Earl. 
. Htnry Horatio. 
. Henry, eighth F.nrl.d. 


id Baron of In- 

I FarN.r 
land II 

Donoghi of Drorao 

l'Uri-i, i. 

s Table belongs falls within the authentic portion of Irish History, i 

reasonably l* entertained of lis accuracy. 

ÍTvf,„;cPa 9 e34i), 


XOTE II. See pages 226 and 231. 

Of the Armorial Bearings and Banners of the ancient Irish. 

Dr. Keating lias written the following remarks on the banners of the ancient 
I risli, in his notice of the Battle of Magh Rath : 

lple Oomnall, mac Geóa, mic Qinmipioó, I?í Gipionn, cujaó car TTlhuije T2ar, 
aic ap mapbaó Conjal Claon, 00 bí, 'nu TCíjUlao oeic m-bliaóna; ajup ap upupu 
a aicne up in peaip-pi o'á n-gaipciop Car TTIhui je "Rac, gup ab opouijce in c-mnioll, 
ocup in c-ópoújaó 00 bíoó ap pluagaib ^aoióiol pe h-ucc ool a n-iombualaó, nó 
00 cop cara óoib; oip 00 bíoó apo-raoipioc ap in pluaij uile, a$up caoipioc ap 
^ac pluaj-buióion oá m-bíoó pá na pmacc, a^up puaicioncap a m-bpacaij jac 
caoipij pa leic, ap a n-aiéioncaoi jac pluaj-buióion 010b peac a ceile, leip na 
Seancaóaib, ap a m-bíoó o'piacaib beic 00 laéaip na n-uapal pe lin caca nó coin- 
bliocc 00 cup o'á ceile, íonnup 50 m-bíoó paóapc pul aj na Seancaóaib ap jniom- 
apcaib na n-uapal, pé paipnéip pípinnij 00 óéanarh ap a n-oálaib leac ap leac ; 
agup ap uime pin 00 bí a Sheancaió pém a b-pocaip Dhomnaill, riiic Qoóa, "Rij 
Gipionn, pe h-ucc caca fllhuije "Rac. Oip ap m-beic 00 Ohomnall ag cpiall a 
jjj-comni Chonjail, "Ri Ulaó, ajup íao 00 jac leac o' abainn, agup ap b-paicpin 
pluaj a ceile ooib, piappuíjiop Oorhnall o'á Sheancaió gac meipge 50 n-a puaié- 
íoncap pa peac oíob, agup noccap in Seancaió pin do, amail léajcap 'p an laoió 
oap ab copac " Upéan ciagaió caéa Chongaíl," map a b-puil m pann po ap puair- 
íoneap T2i Ulaó péin : 

Ceoman buióe a ppoll name 

Comapra na Cpaob "Ruaióe, 

TDap 00 bí a^ Concubop caió, 

Gca aj Conjal ap Congmáil. 

QL^ ímcian ó 00 cionnpgaóap ^aoióil gnácúgaó na puaicioncap, ap lopg CMoinne 
Israel, lé'p gnaéuijioó 'pan ^Jipc íao, pé linn 5 ao,D1 ^ °° mapcoinn, an can 00 
báoap Clann Israel ag cpiall cpep in TTiuip puaió, ajup ÍTIaoipe 'na apo-caoipioc 
oppa. t)á cpeib oéj ímoppo, 00 baoap ann, agup puacioncap ap leié aj gac cpeib 
óiob pa pech. 

Cpeab Ruben, Mandragora, 'n a bpacaig map puaicioncup, 
Cpeab Simeon, 5a, 'n a bpacaig map puaicioncup, 
Upeab Levi, an áipc 'n a bpacai^ map puairioncup, 
Cpeab Juda, leórhan 'n a bpacaij map puairioncup, 


Upeab Isacar, apal, 'n a bpacaij map puaicioncup, 

Upeab Stabulon, long, 'n a bpacaig map puaicioncup, 

Upeab Neptalcm, oealb oaim allaió, 'n a bpacaij map puairioncup, 

Upeab Gad, oealb bainleomain, 'n a bpacaig map puairioncup, 

Upeab Joseph, capb 'n a bpacai j map puaicioncup, 

Upeab Benjamin, paolcu, 'n a bpacaij map puaicioncup, 

Upeab Dan, nacaip neirhe, 'n a bpacaig map puaicioncup, 

Upeab Aser, cpaob ola, 'n a bpacaij map puaicioncup. 

G5 po puióiogaó an c-peancaioe ap puaicioncupaib Clomne Israel, amail leugcop 
a peinlebap i/eacaoin a n-Upmúmain, 'p an laoió pe piop : 

Gicne óam gac meip^e mop, 
"Ro baoi aj cloinn uallaij lacob, 
Ueapc neac ap a h-aicle ann, 
Q5 a mbeac aicne a n-anmann. 
Upeab TCubon, pac pop cobaip, 
T2o b'é a meipge liYlanopagaip, 
Y?ae buan po caic an cpeab che, 
"Ro lean pluajh, maich a meipje. 
Upeab Simeon nip piop-meipje, 
Qcc 5a ouaibpioc oíbpeípge, 
Simeon an cpiona cealgac, 
Um óiona ba oibpeapjac. 
Upeab Ceuhi, luce na h-Qipce, 
lomóa a o-cpeoio 'p a o-cpom-caince 
6u caipgió o'á pláince peo 
Paigpin na h-Gipce aco. 
TTleip^e ag cpeibh luoa ampa 
Samail leorhain lan-calma ; 
Upeab looaip a n-uaip peipge 
Sluaj óiomaip 'ma n-oeij-meipge. 
Upeab lpacap an jloip jloin, 
TTIeipge aice map apam, 
lomóa plog 50 n-oeipge n-opeac 
Urn an meipje mop maipeach. 
Upeab Scabulon na pciall n-glan 
Oealb a meipge long luccmap, 
6a gnac pop connaib cana 


Cac' net lonjuib luccmapa. 
ÍDealb oaim allaió vhaip, £ipp, mip, 
Cfj cpeib Nepculem neimni^, 
tDo'n cpeib po cleacc ppaoc peipje, 
Nip reapc laoc 'mun luaié-meipje. 
TTleipje 05 cpeib 'fcáv a n-jleo-^ail 
ITIap óeilb biop ap bain-leorhain, 
"Hocap éim pe ppaoch peipje 
^ac laoc pinn 'mun pi^-meip^e. 
íTleipje map capb 50 nop neipc 
Coip aj cpeib lopep oipóeípc, 
Snaicnioó na pipioó baóba, 
Qn cinioó o'áp comapóa. 
Upeab óemamin 50 m-bpij mip, 
No bioó a meipje op meipgib, 
ÍTIeip^e map an b-paol b-pojlac, 
Oeip^e 'p an caorh comopoac. 
Upeab t)an, ba ouaibpioc an opeam, 
Oipeacc neirhnec coi^e cuaicioll, 
Cpen pe ar^oin ba ooi£ óe, 
TTIap naépaij rhoip a meipge. 
Cpeab Ctpép, nip cpuaió ím cpaó, 
lDeip^e oap lean map locap, 
niap aon cap aill a co£a, 
lp cpaob alainn pionn-ola. 
Ro aipmiop call a o-cpeaba, 
í?o aipim me a meipjeóa, 
JTIap caio oion^na na o-cpeab o-ce, 
^an a h-iomóa a naicne. 

The MS. copies of Keating's History differ very considerably in tins passage, and 
it is therefore necessary to say that the foregoing extract has been taken from Andrew 
M'Curtin's copy (A. D. 1703), in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, compared 
with the copy written by O'Mulconry, in the Library of Trinity College. The follow- 
ing very elegant translation is from the Latin version of Keating, by Dr. John Lynch, 
of which a good copy of the original MS. is in the Editor's possession : 

" Ex Historiá Muighrathensem pugnam referente, in qua Donaldus inclitam a 
Congallo Ultoniae liege reportavit victoriam, facile percipitur quam apté Hibernorum 


acies instructs tunc fuerint, cum ad signa conferenda se accingebaht ; uni enim Impe- 
ratori totus Exercitus, ct singulis Ducibus singulae cohortes parebant: In cujuscunque 
etiam cohortis vexillis ea syrnbola visebantur quae indicabant quis cuique cohorti dux 
praeerat. Quapropter seniciorum partes crant cuique pugnse adesse, ut res ab utraque 
gente gestas ob oculos haberent, quo Veritas quae scriptis postea mandarent, exploratior 
esset. Hinc Hiberniae Regi in procinctu ad pugnam hanc ineundam posito, suus An- 
tiquarius adstitit, quern ubi exercitus uterque in fluvii ripis utrinque consistens ad 
niutuum conspectum pervenit, Rex Donaldus suscitatus est quasnam tesseras, quaeque 
liostes signa ferebant, quae ei sigillatim aperuit Antiquarius, prout eo poemate pandi- 
tur, cujus initium, Upen cictguio caéa Conjail, in quo hoc versu, Ultoniae Regis in- 
signia exprimuntur : 

Gesserat in viridi flavum bombice leonem 

Crebroa progenies, Concliauri syrnbola clari 

Congallus, qua? nunc signis intexta videntur. 

Jam inde a tempore quo Gathelici nunc Hiberni dicti, se Israelites in iEgypto sociarunt 
Gathelo gentis authore adhuc superstite, vexillis suis imaginum varietate docorandis 
incubuerunt. Israelitarum exemplo, qui per Mare Rubrum Moyse Duce, proficiscentes, 
variis figuris signa sua distinxerunt, Exercitu ex duodecem tribubus conflato, quorum 
singulis sua erat peculiaris tessera in labaris expressa, qua secerneretur a reliquis. 
Tribus Ruben Mandragoram, Simeon liastam, Levi Arcam, Juda Leonem, Isachar 
Asinum, Zabulon Navem, Neptali Araneam, Gad Lecenam, Joseph Taurum, Benjamin 
Lupam, Dan Serpentem, et Asser Olei ramum in signis pro symbolo habuerunt. Priscus 
quidam poeta, figuras istas vexillis Israelitarum additas versibus Hibernicis complexus 
est e vetusto Libro depromptis apud Leacoeniam in Ormoniá reperto : Quorum sensum 
versus Latini sequentes exprimunt. 

Grandia signa mihi sunt nota propago Jacobi 

Quae praeclara tulit, non cuivis cognita vati ; 

Mandragorae prolem Rubin simulacra praeibant 

In signis, multum validá comitante catervá. 

In labaro stirpis claro e Simone creatae 

(Qui fuit as tutus, prudens, strenuusque tuendo) 

Picta refulsit imago formidabilis hastae. 

Levitici, quibus est arcae custodia curae 

Et quibus est armentorum vis magna gregumque, 

Gestata in signo vobis tulit area salutem. 

Vexillis sobolis Judae procera ferocis 

Forma leonis erat, stirpem hanc impuné lacessat 


Nemo, lacertorum magno, nam robore prEestat. 
Isacara tribus fulgenti fulgida in auro 
In labaris Asini speciem gestabat amocnam 
Agminibus cinctam pugilum quibus ora rubebant. 
A Zabulone sati, quos ornat opima supellex, 
Immensai ratis, in signis habuere figuram, 
Qui crebró secuere leves in navibus undas. 
Crure brevi et celeri cervus spectabilis ortae 
Nephthalemo gentis vexillum pictus adornat, 
Qua3 ruit impavida in pugnas, et signa frequentat. 
Pugnacis Gadae stirpis vexilla lesenam 
Praetulerant : ea gens, pugnae veniente procellá 
Non ignava coit sub signis agmine multo. 
Percelebris soboles, a te, Josephe, profecta 
In signis tauri fortis latera ardua monstrat. 
Bengamina tribus signis melioribus usa 
Quam reliquse, robusta lupum tulit ore rapacem, 
In sacro labaro, splendente rubedine tinctum. 
Natos a Danno metuendos martius ardor 
Fecit, honoratos cauté prudentia mentis ; 
Signifer his pugnas inituris prsetulit anguis. 
Asseri soboli pecus ampla paravit honorem, 
Haec ubi se bello accinxit, populariter uno 
Assensu ramum sibi tolli curat olivse. 
Singula signorum, tribuum quoque nomina dixi 
Caetera praetereo populi decora ampla valentis." 

Without going so far back as the time of Moses and his cotemporary Gaedhal, the 
ancestor of the Milesians, we may well believe that the Irish people became acquainted 
with the Old Testament, and consequently with the standards borne by the twelve 
tribes of Israel, ■ immediately after their conversion to the Christian religion. That 
standards were in use in Ireland before Christianity, it would now be difficult 
to prove, and perhaps not fair to deny ; but it appears from the most ancient 
fragments of Irish literature which have descended to our times, that the meirge, 
or standard, was in use at a very early period, and we find references in the lives 
of the primitive Irish saints to several consecrated banners called by the name of 
Catkack. It does indeed appear from poems written by some of the bards of Ulster 
in the seventeenth century, that it was then the opinion that the Irish had, even in the 


first century, used, not only banners distinguished by certain colours and badges, but 
also armorial bearings or escutcheons. Thus, Owen O'Donnclly, in his reply to Mac 
Ward, contends that the red hand of Ulster was derived from the heroes of the Red 
Branch, and that, therefore, it belonged by right to Magennis, the senior represen- 
tative of Conall Cearnach, the most distinguished of those heroes, and not to O'Neill, 
whose ancestors, although they had no connexion with those heroes by descent, had 
usurped the sovereignty of Ulster. 

That the ancient Irish, from the earliest dawn of their history, carried standards to 
distinguish them in battle, is quite evident from all the ancient Irish accounts of 
battles, but when they first adopted armorial bearings is not perhaps now very easy to 
prove. The Editor has examined more tombstones in old Irish churchyards than per- 
haps any one now living, with an anxious wish to discover ancient Irish inscriptions 
and armorial bearings, but among the many tombs he has seen, he has not observed 
any escutcheon for a Milesian Irish family older than the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 
He is, therefore, satisfied that the Irish families first obtained the complex coats of 
arms which they now bear from England, retaining on the shield, in many instances, 
those simple badges which their ancestors had on their standards, such as the red hand 
of O'Neill, the cat and salmon of O'Cathain, or O'Kane, &c. &c, with such additions 
as the King at Arms thought proper to introduce, in order to complete the escutcheon 
after the Anglo-Norman system of heraldry, according to the rank of the family for 
whom the coat was so manufactured. 

The Editor has found the following metrical descriptions of the standards of 
O'Doherty, O'Sullivan, and O'Loughlin, in a MS. in the collection of Messrs. Hodges 
and Smith, Dublin, No. 208, and he thinks them worth inserting here, as being very 
curious, though the period at which they were written has not been yet satisfactorily 
determined. The descriptions of the two former appear to be of considerable antiquity, 
but that of O'Loughlin savours of modern times, from the language and measure. 

Sucncioncap Uh Oocapuai^. 

Upéan ra^aio caca Cuinn, 
Ui tDoccmccuj le cup corhluinn, 
Q cloioeam cpop-ópóa cara 
Op lTleipje an ápo-placa : 
£eorhan íp piolap pola, 
tDeacaip cope na cian-pojla, 
Q m-bán-Bpae píooarhail ppóill, 
í . . Oajal cpom-join a éionóil. 


" Bearings of O'Doiierty. 

Mightily advance the battalions of Conn, 
With O'Doherty to engage in battle, 
His battle sword with golden cross, 
Over the standard of this great chief : 
A lion and bloody eagle, — 
Hard it is to repress his plunder, — 
On a white sheet of silken satin, 
Terrible is the onset of his forces." 

The Editor is sorry to find that the O'Dohertys do not at present bear these sym- 
bols in their coat of arms ; the arms of Chief Justice Doherty, as shown in stained glass 
on a window in the Library of the Queen's Inns, Dublin, are entirely different. 

Suaicionuay Uí Shuileabáin a 5-caú Caip^linne. 

t)o cím cpécm ag ceacc 'p an maig 
TTleipge pleacca phinjin uapail, 
Q pleaj 50 naraip nithe 
CC pluaj 'na o-cpeóin o-ceinnnje. 

"Bearings of O'Sullivan in the Battle of Caisglinn. 

I see mightily advancing in the plain 
The banner of the race of noble Finghin, 
His spear with a venomous adder [entwined], 
His host all fiery champions." 

The O'Sullivans have since added many other symbols, as two lions, a boar, buck, 
&a, but their neighbours, the O'Donovans, have retained the simple hand, and ancient 
Irish sword entwined with a serpent, without the addition of any other symbol derived 
from the Anglo-Norman system of heraldry. 

Sucncionuap Ui Locluinn bóipne. 

CI 5-campa Ui 6ocluinn 00b' pollup a m-bláé-bpae ppóill, 
Q 5-ceann jac cpooa, le copnarii 00 láraip gleó, 
Sean oaip ropcac ap 5-copnarii le mal 50 cóip, 
Jp anncoip 50pm pa copaiB 00 cábla óip. 



" Bearings of O'Lougiilin Burren. 

In O'Loughlin's camp was visible on a fair satin sheet, 
To be at the head of each battle, to defend in battle-field, 
An ancient fruit-bearing oak, defended by a chieftain justly, 
And an anchor blue, with folds of a golden cable." 
The armorial bearings of the old Irish families, as preserved on their tombs since 
the reign of Henry VIIL, if carefully collected, would throw much light on the kind 
of badges they had borne on their standards previously to their adoption of the 
Anglo-Norman system of heraldry, and it is to be hoped that the Irish College of he- 
ralds will accomplish this task. 

NOTE I. Seepage 267. 

The most curious account as yet discovered of the ancient Irish Kernes and Gallo- 
glasses, is given by the Lord Deputy St. Leger, in a letter to the king, written from 
Maynooth, on the 6th of April, 1543. In this letter the Lord Deputy goes on to state 
that he had heard a report that " His Majestie was about to go to war with France or 
Scotland, and requests to know the King's pleasure if he should raise a body of native 
Irish soldiers to attend him in the invasion of France," and he then goes on as follows : 

" But in case your Majestie will use their servyce into Fraunce, your Highnes muste 
then be at some charges with them; ffor yt ys not in ther possibilitie to take that jour- 
ney without your helpe ; for ther ys no horseman of this lande, but he hathe his horse 
and his two boyes, and two hackeneys, or one hackeney and two chieffe horse, at the 
leste, whose wages must be according ; and of themselffes they have no ryches to ffur- 
nyshe the same. And, assuredly, I thinke that for ther fFeate of warre, whiche ys for 
light scoores, ther ar no properer horsemen in Christen ground, nor more hardie, nor yet 
that can better indure hardenesse. I thinke your Majestie may well have of them ffyve 
hundred and leave your Englishe Pale well ffurnysshed. And as to ther ffootemen 
they have one sorte whiche be harnessed in mayle, and bassenettes having every of 
them his weapon, callyd a sparre, moche like the axe of the Towre, and they be named 
Galloglasse ; and for the more part ther boyes beare for them thre darts a peice, whiche 
dartes they throw er they come to the hande stripe : these sorte of men be those that 
doo not lightly abandon the ffeilde, but byde the brunte to the deathe. The other sorte 
callid Kerne, ar naked men, but onely ther sherts and small coates ; and many tymes, 
whan they come to the bycker, but bare nakyd saving ther shurts to hyde ther pre- 
vytes ; and those have dartes and shorte bowes : which sorte of people be bothe hardy and 
cly ver to serche woddes or morasses, in the which they be harde to be beaten. And if 

35 l 

Your Majestic will convert them to Morespikes and handegonnes I thinke they wolde 
id that ffeate, with small instructions, doo your Highness greate service ; iFor as for 
gonners ther be no better in no land then they be, for the nomber they have, whiche 
be more than I wolde wishe they had, onles yt wer to serve your Majestic And also 
these two sortes of people be of suche hardeness that ther ys no man that ever I 
sawe, that will or can endure the paynes and evill ffare that they will sustayne ; ffor 
in the somrner Avhen corne ys nere rype, they seke none other meate in tyme of nede, 
but to scorke or swyll the cares of wheate, and eate the same, and water to ther drinke; 
and with this they passe ther ly ves, and at all tymes they eate such meate as ffew other 
could lyve with. And in case your pleasure be, to have them in redynes to serve 
Your Majestie in any these sortes, yt may then please the same, as well to signifie 
your pleasure therein, as also what wages I shall trayne them unto. And so, having 
knowledge of your pleasure therein, I shall endeavour my selffe, according my most 
bounden duetie, to accomplishe the same. The sooner I shall have knowledge of your 
pleasure in that behalffe, the better I shalbe liable to performe yt. 

" From Your Majesties castell of Maynothe the 6th of Aprill [1543]. 

" Antony Sentleger." 

The preceding extract is taken from a copy made several years since from the ori- 
ginal, by James Hardiman, Esq., author of the History of Galway. The document has 
since been printed, but not very correctly, in the State Papers, vol. iii. Part III. 
p. 444. London, 1834. 

Gip n-a cpíocnu^aó le Seaan, mac Gamoinn O13, rhic pein-Gamoinn, mic 
Uilliam, mic Concubaip, itiic Gamoinn, mic TDomnaill Ut)honnabáin, an cpeap 
lá oéaj 00 mi Decembep, 1842. Jj° o*- cu, I 11D ^ ,a cpioc maic oppainn uile. 




AEDH, a man's name; meaning, and 
present Anglicised form of, . . 288 
Aedh, Mac Ainmirech, monarch of Ire- 
land, 259 

Aedh, of the Green Dress, son of Eoch- 

aidh, King of Alba, 48, 49 

Aedh Slaine, monarch of Ireland, . . 8, 9 

Aedhan, a man's name, 288 

Aenach, or Oenach, meaning of, . . 67, n. 
Aengus, a man's name, now ^Eneas, . . 289 
Aengus, son of Lamh Gaibe, hero, . . 207 

Aengusaigh, who, 157 

AilechNeid Palace, where, 36 

, Palace of, blessed by St. Patrick, 146 

, King of, 204 

Amh, an expletive particle, .... 309 
Aimergin, a man's name, . . . - . 290 

Ainle, a hero of Ulster, 207 

Amairgin Reochaidh, 209 

Amhalghaidh, a man's name among the 

Pagan Irish, 290 

Amhas, meaning of the word, . . 139, 140 
Amhlaoibh, a man's name of Danish ori- 
gin in Ireland, 290 

Anrad, meaning of the word, . . . 48, 49 

Aquarius, the sign, 112,113 

Ardan, a hero of Ulster, 207 


Ard Uladh, where, 230 

Ardna himaircse, \qq 

Armorial bearings, . . . .196,348,349 

Ath an eich, 272 

Ath an imairg, , 142 

Ath-Cliath, now Dublin, 242 


Baedan, a man's name, 291 

Baedan, son of Ninnidh, 152 

Banner, consecrated, 195 

Banners described, . . 226, 227, 348, 349 

Banquet, cursed, 29 

Beann Gulbain, a mountain, where, . . 313 

Beards referred to, ....... 185 

Bearnas mor, gap of, where, . . . .158 

Bearramhain in Breifne, 143 

Bees, referred to, 34, 35, Hm 

Beneit, the Bellona of the Pagan Irish, 242 

Bells and Croziers referred to, . . 38, 39 

Bennchor, where, 26, 27, n. 

Bird of Valour, curious reference to, 32, 33 

Bissextile year, 112,113 

Birra, now Birr, 26, 27 

Blathmac, a man's name, 291 

Bodesta, an ancient form of the adverb 
feasta, 308 


Boghuinigh, extent of their territory, . 156 
Boinn river. See Boync. 

Boyne River, 7, 194 

, source of, 19 

Brain, hurt of, often improves the intel- 
lect, 282, 283 

Breasal, a man's name, 290 

Bregia, territory of, 194 

Brenainn, St., of Birra, . . . . 26, 27 
Brenainn, son of Finnloga, Saint, . 26, 27 

Brian a man's name, 289 

Bricin, a poet of Tuaim Dreagain, . . 283 

Bridges referred to, 78, 79, n, 

Bruighin Blai Bruga, 52, 53 

Bruighin da Choga, where, . . . 53, n. 
Bruighin Forgaill Monach, . . . 52, 53 
Bruighin Mic Cecht, where, . . . 52, 53 

Bruighin Mic Datho, 52, 53 

Bruighin h-ua Derga, or Bruighin da 
Berga. [The situation of this place 
was never yet pointed out by any of 
the Irish topographical writers, but it 
is described in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, 
as on the River Dothair, now the Dod- 
der, near Dublin, and a part of the 
name is still preserved in that of Boher 
na breena, a well known place on that 
river] 50, 51 


Caerthannach's, who, 156 

Cainech Mac h-Ui Dalann, St., . . 26, 27 
Cairbre Niafer, King of Leinster, . .138 
Cairbre, son of King Niall of the Nine 

Hostages 148 

Cairnech, Saint of Tuilen, now Dulane, 146 

Cairpthecha. See Charioteers. 

Callad, meaning of the word, .... 72 

Cancer, sign of, 114,115 

Carcair na n-giall, at Tara, . . . . 6, 7 


Carraic Eoghain, 104, 105 

Cath, meaning of the word, . . . .214 
Cathach or Caah, meaning of the word . 1 96 

Cathair Conrui, where, 212 

Cathaoir Mor, monarch of Ireland, fami- 
lies descended from, . . . . 124, 125 

Cathbhadh, the Druid, 209 

Cas Ciabhach, Rechtaire, . . .23, 32, 33 
Cauldrons referred to, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58, 

Cellach, son of Fiachna, .... 42, 43 
Cellach, son of Maelcobha, monarch of 

Ireland, 84, 85, 160 

Celtchar, an Ulster Hero, . . . 206, 207 
Cennfaeladh, son of Garbh, . . . . 1 64 
Cennfaeladh, son of Oilell, his brain in- 
jured, curious, 278, 279 

Cenn Maghair, where, .... 204, 205 
Cernach the Long-shanked, .... 273 
Cethern Mac Fintain, an Ulster hero, . 209 
Chains, brought to battle, . . . 178,179 

Charioteers, 193 

Chess, curious references to, . . 36, 37, n. 
Cian, a man's name, now Kean, . . . 289 

Ciaran, St., 26, 27 

Cinel Conaill, who, and where, . 8, 9, 145 

Cinel Eoghain, 8, 9, 145 

Clanna Rudhraighe, 204 

Clann Colmain, who, 8, 9 

Clann Breasail, where, .... 274, 275 

Clann Colla, 188 

Clann Enna, extent of their territory, . 156 

Cletty, palace of, cursed, 20 

Cliath Catha, meaning of, 176 

Cloidhemh. See Sword. 

Cluain Iraird, where 26 

Cluain Mic Nois, 26, 26, n. 

Cnocan an Choscair, 216 

Cobhthach, a man's name, 291 

■ , meaning of, . . . . 11, n. 


Cobhthach Caemh, son of Rnghallach, 10, 11 
Cobhthach, son of Colman Guar, . 38,39 

< Joill na g-Caradh, where, 274 

Coire Ainsecan, a cauldron of a magical 

nature 50, 51 

Coireall, a man's name, 292 

Coisir Connacht, at Tara, 6, 7 

Colum Cille, Saint, 26, 37 

Columbkille, Saint, prophecy of, . .127 
Colum Mac Crimhthainn, Saint, . . 26, 27 
Combat, single, description of, . 256, 257 
Comhghall of Benchor, Saint, . . 26, 27 
Comparative Degree, curious form of, 20, 21 
Conaire, monarch, descendants of, 122, 123 

Conaire Mor, monarch, 52, 53 

Conall, a man's name, 291 

Conall Ceamach, one of the most distin- 
guished of the heroes of the Red 

Branch, 32, 33, 206 

Conall Clogach, the royal idiot, brother 

of King Domhnall, 320 

Conall Gulban, youngest of the sons of 
Niall of the Nine Hostoges, . . .312 

, mother of, 311 

Conall, son of Baodan, 86, 87 

Conan Rod, son of the King of Britain, 82, 83 
Conchobhar, a man's name, .... 289 
Conchobhar, King of Ulster, .... 206 

, sons of, 208 

Congal Claen, King of Ulidia, ... 23 

, high descent of, 203 

, banner of, 228 

, pedigree of, 328 

Congal Clairingnech, 209 

Congal Menn, son of the King of Alba, 48, 49, 


Conn, race of, 216 

Core, a man's name, 289 

Cormac Conloinges, 210 

Craebh Ruadh, where 218 




Craisecba. See Lances. 

Crichan Scail, 132, 133 

Crimhthann, King of Leinster, . . 22, 23 
Crioch na n-Oirthear, now the barony 
of Orior, in the East of the county of 

Armagh, 274 

Cruachan, now Rathcroghan, in the 

county of Roscommon, . . . 125, 188 
Crunnmael, son of Suibhne, . 144, 145, 286 
Cuailgne, a mountainous district in the 
present county of Louth, formerly in 

Ulster, 121,128,129 

Cuan of Cliach, 44, 45 

Cuanna, the idiot, 275 

Cuchullann, hero, 206 

Cumhscraidh, son of Conchobhar, King 

of Ulster, 210 

Curcais, meaning of, 273 

Curoi Mac Daire, 138 

Curse, Irish notion respecting, . . 30, 31 


Dairbhre, King of France, 
, son of Dornmhar, 

82, 83 
. 215 

Daire, now Derry, 174 

Daire in latha, 174 

Dairfhine, race of, who, . . . 122, 123 
Dal Araidbe, extent of, . . . . 39, 40, n. 

Danardha, meaning of, 184 

Dechsain, modern form of the word, . 24, n. 

Deman, a man's name, 291 

Deoraidh, meaning of, 163 

Derg Druimnech, meaning of, . . . .153 

Dergruathar Chonaill, 212 

Dergrubha Chonaill, 177 

Diangus, a man's name, 292 

Diarmaid, a man's name, 291 

Dingna, meaning of, .175 

Dinnthach, a man's name, 292 

Disert, meaning of the word, . . 10, II, 7*. 

35 6 

Dishes, silver and wooden, . . . 30, 31 
Dithrebhach, a man's name, .... 292 

Dobhar, stream, 156, 158' 

Doire Lurain, where, 284 

Domhnall, a man's name, now Anglicised 

Daniel, . . . • 288 

Domhnall, son of Aedh, monarch of Ire- 
land, pedigree of, . . . . 25, 325, 326 

, magnificence of, described, 1 14, 1 15 

, families descended from, 98, 99 

, pedigree of, . . . 98, 99, 326 

, his ancestors, peculiar qualifi- 
cations of, described, . . . 116, 117 

, address, to his army, . 122, 123 

, sons of, 165 

Domhnall Brec, son of the King of Alba, 

48, 49, et seq. 54, 55, 56, 57, 85 
Donnchadh, a man's name, now Denis, . 289 
Down, now Downpatrick, in the county 

of Down, battle of, 192 

Dream, interpreted, 10, 11 

Drobhaois, river, where, . . . 131,220 
Druid, or Druideog, a stare or starling, 125 

Druid, verses of, 170,171 

Druidical incantation, .... 46, 47, n. 
Druim Dilair, a place on the river Erne, 

near Belleek, 10, 11, w. 

Druim Ineasglainn, a famous monastery 

in the now county of Louth, . . 40, n. 
Drumiskin, ancient name of, . 40, n. 

Dubh, a man's name, 291 

Dubhan, a man's name, 292 

Dubb an of Dublin, 273 

Dubhdiadh, the Druid, 46,47, 50, 51, 58, 59, 

84, 85 

, verses of, 170, 171 

Dubhthach Dael Uladh, 208 

Dublin. See Duibhlinn, 273 

Dubhrothair, where, 22 

Duibh-inis, 131 

Duibhlinn, i. e. the black pool or river, 

now Dublin, 27:5 

Duirtheach, meaning of the word, . 16, 17 

Dumha Beinne, battle of, 211 

Dun Balair, where, 174 

Dun Celtchair, where, 207 

Dun da lach, in Britain, .... 82, 83 
Dunlavan. See Liamhain. 
Dun Monaidh in Scotland, . . .46, 47, n. 
Dun na n-gedh, where, ... 6, 7, 16, 17 


Eachrais Uladh, at Tara, 6, 7 

Eamhain. See Emania. 

Earc, a man's name, 292 

Earl of Ulster, 198 

Eas Ruaidh cataract, situation of, . .105 

, verbose description of, . .105 

Edar or Howth, battle of, 211 

Eidhnech river, where, .... 156, 158 

Eignech, 272 

Einech, meaning of, 191 

Emania palace, where, 213 

Enna, a man's name, 293 

Enna, son of King Niall, 149 

Eochaidh Aingces, King of Britain, . 44, 45, 

Eochaidh^Buidhe, King of Alba or Scot- 
land, 44, 45, n. 

Eoghan, a man's name, 290 

Ere, bishop of Slane, . - . . 18, 19, n. 
Ere Finn, son of Feidhlimidh, . . .139 


Faelan, a man's name, 292 

Faelchu, son of Congal, 305 

Fallomhan, a man's name, 292 

Feimin, plain of, . . * 189 

Fenagh, Book of, quoted, . . . 157, 158 
Ferdoman, son of Imoman, . . . 84, 85 
, called the Bloodv, . . . .201 



Fergus, a man's name, 292 

Fergus Mac Leide, 209 

Fergus Mac Roigh, King of Ulster, . . 20G 

Fermorc, 272 

Fiamuin Mac Forui, 212,213 

Finghin of Cam, 164 

Finn river, where, 142, 143 

Finn, son of Ross, 136 

Finnchadh, a man's name, 292 

Finncharadh, battle of, 211 

Finnen, Saint, of Cluain Iraird, . 26, 27, n. 
Finnen, Saint, of Magh bile, . ib. 

Flaithe, a man's name, 290 

Flann, a man's name, 289 

Flann, the poet, 250 

Fleasc-lamha, meaning of, . . . 62, 63, n. 
Fodhla, a name of Ireland, . . . .125 
Fort, garden of, referred to, . . 34, 35, n. 
Forts or lis's, erected by the ancient Irish 

and Danish works, 34, n. 

Fosterage, curious reference to, 134, 135, 160 


Fothadh na Canoine, who, 168 

France, King of, 44, 45 

Fuinidh, meaning of, 202 

Furies, offices of, 169 


Ga. See Javelin. 

Gaeth, meaning of, 288 

Gailians, who, 242 

Gair Gann, son of Feradhach, . . .119 
Gair Gann Mac Stuagain, .... 30, 31 

Gealtacht, meaning of, 236 

Giraldus Cambrensis, quoted, . . . .141 

Glasnaidhen, where, 27, n. 

Glenn Conn, 144 

Gleann nan- Gealt, in Kerry, .... 175 

Glenn Righe, where, 143 

Gleann Scoithin, in Kerry, . . . .138 

2 ! 

Graine, daughter of King Cormac Mac 

Art, 6, 7 

Grianan, meaning of the word, . . . 7, n. 
Grianan in én uaithne, at Tara, . . . 6, 7 

Hair, flowing on the shoulders, and cut 

off by the sword in battle, . . 239, 240 
Helmets, 141, 299 


Idal, son of Aille, a Briton, sons of, . . 264 

Illann, a man's name, 288 

Illann, King of Desmond, . . . . 22, 23 
Imbas for Osnae, a Druidical incanta- 
tion, 46, 47, n. 

Inar, meaning of, 181 

Inis Cloithrinn, where, 213 

Inis Fail, 104, 105 

Innrachtach, a man's name, .... 293 
Iobhar Chinn Choiche, .... 276, 277 

Iobhar Chinn Tragha, 276 

Ir, descendants of, 172 

Irial, son of Conall, King of Ulster, . 210 
Javelin, 152, 199 


Kernes, 140, 267, 350 

Kilmacrenan, Book of, quoted, . . .164 


Laeghaire, a man's name, 291 

Laeghaire, the victorious, 207 

Laighis or Leix, extent of, . . . 242, 243 
Laighne, meaning of, .... 196, 197 

Lances, 141, 193 

Lann Beachaire, 35, n. 

Leath Chuinn, 302 

Leath Mogha, 124, 125 

Leath Mhogha, 302 

Lenn-bhrat, meaning of, ... 180, 181 



Liamhain, where, 188 

Liathdruim, an old name of Tara, . . 195 
Lis. See Forts. 

Lis or Fort, 130 

Long Laighean, a house at Tara, . . 6, 7 
Long Mumhan, a house at Tara, . ib. 

Lochlann, King of, 80, 81 

Lorcan, a man's name, 291 

Lothra, where, 4, n. 

Lughaidh, a man's name, 291 

Luighne, extent of, 252 

Lunatics, 234 

Lusca, now Lusk, 52, 53 


Mac Carthy, pedigree of, 341 

Mac Dary, his ode to Donogh O'Br., 

quoted, 100, 101 

Mac Gillafinnen, pedigree of, . . . . 335 

Macha, 202 

Mac Namara, pedigree of, 341 

Madh Ininnrighi, 106, 107 

Magh bile, where, 26, n. 

Magh Muirtheimhne, battle of, . . .211 
Magh Rath, battle of, when fought, 114, 115 
Maelcobha Cleirech, monarch, . . 10, 11 
Maelduin, son of Aedh Bennan, 22, 23, 278 
Maelmaighnes, the seven, champions of 

the name, 274 

Maelodhar Macha, chief of Oirghiall, 28, 29, 

38, 39 

Maenach, a man's name, 292 

Mail, coats of, 192 

Meadha Siuil, extent of, 252 

Medhbh, queen of Connaught, . . .137 

Miadhach, 272 

Midir, of Bri Leith, 36, n. 

Midhchuairt, a great house at Tara, . 6 
Mobhi Clarainech, Saint, . . . . 26, 27 
Molaise, son of Nadfraech, ib. 

Monarch, worthiness of, ... 100, 101 
Monarchs, Irish, seats of, . . . 4, 5, re. 
Moore, Thomas, errors of, . . . 226, 227 
Morrigu, the Bellona of the ancient 

Irish, 198 

Muirchertach Mac Erca, monarch, . .144 
Muireadhach, a man's name, .... 290 

Muirgis, a man's name, 290 

Mullach Macha, . . . . . . 172, 173 

Munremar Mac Gerrginn, hero, . . . 209 
Murchadh, son of Maenach, .... 272 

Muscraigh, different districts of the name, 

where, 122, 123 


Naisi, an Ulster hero, 207 

Niall, a man's name, 290 

Ninnidh the pious, Saint, . . .26, 27, n. 
Nocha, a negative particle, 310 


Oaths, 3 

Obeid, a king, 72, 73 

O'Boyle, pedigree of, 336 

O'Brien, pedigree of, 341 

O'Canannain, pedigree of, 335 

O' Conor, Dr., errors of, 280 

O'Dea, pedigree of, 341 

O'Doherty, descent of, 164 

-, pedigree of, 336 

O'Donnell, pedigree of, ib. 

O'Donohoe, pedigree of, ib. 

O'Donovan, pedigree of, ib. 

O' Gallagher, high descent of, . . 160, 161 

, pedigree of, 336 

O'Keeffe, pedigree of, 341 

O'Mahony, pedigree of, . ..... ib. 

O'Quin, pedigree of, ib. 

Oilioll, a man's name, now obsolete, . . 293 
Oilioll Olum, King of Munster, descen- 
dents of, 122, 123, 341 


Oirghialls, their descent, . . . 139, 142 

, extent of their country, 8, 9, 28, 

29, 38, 39, 142 

O'Lawler, descent of, , 33 

Oldas, meaning of, 67 

Ollamh Fodhla, monarch of Ireland, de- 
scendants of, 171 

Ollghothach, meaning of, 188 

Omens, 272 

O'More, descent of, 33, 221 

O'Moriarty, descent of, 23, 341 

O'Muldory, pedigree of, 335 

Orchur of Ath an eich, 272 

Orior, barony, ancient name of, . . . 274 

Osgleann, in Umhall, 105 

Osraighe, Ossory, ancient extent of, 124, 125 


Patron Saints of Irish Churches, . . . 327 

Pedigrees, utility of, 96 

Phantoms, description of, ... . 20, 21 

Poets, 40, 41 

Predestination referred to, . . 172, 269 
Prison of the hostages at Tara, ... 6 

Prophecies, Irish, 95, 127 

Proverbs, Irish, . . . . 90, 91, 159, 287 


Race of Rudhraighe, 42 

Raghallach, King of Connaught, . . 22, 23 

Rathain, battle of, 210 

Ravens, reference to, 64, 65 

Rechtaire, meaning of, 33 

Reochaidh, a man's name, now obsolete, 291 
Retla na bh-filedh, at Tara, . . . . 6, 7 

Riagan, King of Ros Cille, 272 

Ridearg, a man's name, 291 

Rionaigh, a man's name, ib. 

Rithlearg, meaning of, ... . 92, 154 
Rodan, Saint, curses Tara, .... 232 
Ronan Finn, Saint, . . . . 40, 41, 232 

Ros, descendants of, 206 

Ros Cille, King of, 272, 273 

Ros na Riogh, where, 210 


Scalaidh, a man's name, 291 

Scannall of the Broad Shield, . . .38, 39 
Seachnasach, a man's name, . . . .291 

Seasons, favourable, 100, 101 

Seimhne, people of, 211 

Senach, Comharba of Saint Patrick, . 283 
Shirt. See Lenn-bhrat, 

Sil Fidhrach, 157 

Sil Ninnidh, 157 

Sil Setna, extent of their country, . . ib. 
Sleagha. See Lances. 

Sleep, an omen of death, 170 

Sliabh Fuirri, where, 52 

Sliabh Monaidh, in Alba, . . . . 56, 57 

Soraidh, a man's name, 291 

Stuagh, or Sduagh, meaning of, . . . 260 
Suibhne Menn, monarch of Ireland, . 34, 35 
Suibhne, son of Eochaidh Buidhe, King 

of Alba, 50,51, 85 

Suibhne, son of Colman Cuar, chief of 

Dal Araidhe, madness of, . . . .231 
Suilidhe, now S willy, river of, . . .158 
Sun, brilliance of, described, . . 114,115 

Swearing 190 

Sword, 193 


Tadhg, a man's name, now Anglicised 

Timothy, 293 

Tailgenn, meaning of, 183 

Tailtenn, where, 108, 109 

Tain Bo Cuailgne, story called, . . . 209 

Tara, sovereignty of, 5 

Tara, tribes of, who, 8, 9 

Tara, denounced by St. Rodan, or Ro- 
danus, of Lorrah, 5 

3 6o 

Teamhair. See Tara. 
Teinm Loeghdha, a druidical incanta- 
tion, 46, 47 

Teinne beg an Bhroghadh, . . 106, 107 

Tesiphone, the Fury, 32, S3 

Time, subdivisions of, . . . 108, 109, 3S6 

Tinne, meaning of, 58 

Tir Enda, where, 150 

Tir O'm-Breasil, where, . . . 274, 275 

Tolg, meaning of, 42 

Tory island, cliffs of, ... . 106, 107 

Tradesmen, Irish, 102, 103 

Traigh Rudhraighe, where, .... 35 

Trealmhach na troda, 273 

Troch, meaning of, 294 

Tuaim Drecain, now Tomregan, in the 

County of Cavan, 282 

Tuathal, a man's name, 293 

Tuige, meaning of, 162 

Tuilen, now Dulane, where situated, 20, 147 

Tulach Dathi, 152, 254 

Tulchan na d-tailgenn, 119 

Tunics. See Inar. 

Tympan, what, 168, 169 


Ua Ainmire, 153 

Ualraig, near Derry, 144 

Ucut, meaning of, 25 


Ui Ceinsellaigh, 243 

Ui Failghe, Offaly, extent of, .... ib. 
Ui Fiachrach. [This was also the ancient 
name of a people seated in the counties 

of Sligo and Mayo], 252 

Ui Maine, extent of, 253 

Ui Neill, the northern, 28, 29 

Ui Neill, the southern, ib. 

Uisce chaoin, now Eskaheen, where, . . 145 

Uisnech, where, 109 

Uladh. See Ulster. 

Ulster, heroes of, enumerated, . 221,222 

, ancient extent of, . . . 128, 129 

, famed for heroes, 205 

, chieftains of, in the first century, 207 

Ultan, the long-handed, . . . 274, 275 

Uluidh, meaning of, 298 

Umhall territory, extent of, . . . .104 
Uraicept na n-Eiges, 280 


Warrior, described, 64, 65 

Weapons, military, of the ancient Irish, 255 

Winds, the four, names of, 238 

Wolves 64, 65, 189 

Woman-slaughter, 213 

Zones, 112, 113 




I. Tracts relating to Ireland, vol. 1. containing : 

1. The Circuit of Ireland ; by Muircheartach Mac Neill, Prince of Aileacli; a 
Poem written in the year 942 by Cormacan Eigeas, Chief Poet of the North 
of Ireland. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by John O'Donovan. 

2. "A Brife Description of Ireland: Made in this year 1589, by Robert Payne 
vnto xxv. of his partners for whom he is vndertaker there." Reprinted from 
the second edition, London, 1590, with a Preface and Notes, by Aquilla Smith 

II. The Annals of Ireland; by James Grace of Kilkemry. Edited from the MS. 
in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, in the original Latin, with a Translation and 
Notes, by the Rev. Richard Butler, A. B., M. E. I. A. 

III. The Book of Obits and Martyrology of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, com- 
monly called Christ Church, Dublin. Edited from the original MS. in the Library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, with Notes, by the Rev. John Clarke Crosthwaite, A. M., 
Dean's Vicar of Christ Church Cathedral. In the Press. 


I. Coxh TTluighi "Rack The Battle of Moira, from an ancient MS. in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited in the original Irish, with a Translation and Notes, 
by John O'Donovan. 

II. Tracts relating to Ireland, vol. 11. containing : 

1. " A Treatice of Ireland; by John Dymmok." Edited from a MS. in the British 
Museum, with Notes, by the Rev. Richard Butler, A. B., M. R. I. A. 

2. The Annals of Multifernam ; from the original MS. in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. Edited by Aquilla Smith, M. D., M. R. I. A. Nearly ready. 

3. A Statute passed at a Parliament held at Kilkenny, A. D. 1367 ; from a MS. 
in the British Museum. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by James 
Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. Nearly ready. 

III. An Account of the Tribes and Customs of the District of Hy-Many, commonly 
called O'Kelly's country, in the Counties of Galway and Roscommon. Edited from 
the Book of Leacan in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy ; in the original Irish, 
with a Translation and Notes, by John O'Donovan. Nearly ready. 



I. The Royal Visitation Book of the Province of Armagh in 1622, from the original 
MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited by James Hentiiorn Todd, 
D. D., V. P. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, and Treasurer of St. Patrick's Cathedral, 

II. The Progresses of the Lords Lieutenants in Ireland ; from MSS. in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited by Joseph Huband Smith, Esq., M. A., M. R. I. A. 

III. Óopama The Origin and History of the Boromean Tribute. Edited from a 
MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, with a Translation and Notes, by Eugene 

IV. Cormac's Glossary ; in the original Irish. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, 
by John O'Donovan. 

V. "Registrum Coenobii Omnium Sanctorum juxta Dublin;" from the original 
MS. in the Library of Trinity College. Edited by James Henthorn Todd, D.D., 
V. P. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, &c. 

VI. Car Caipn Chonaill. The battle of Carn Chonaill, between Guaire, King 
of Aidhne and Dermot, King of Ireland, A. D. 648. From the Leabhar na-hUidhre, 
a very ancient MS. in the collection of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, with a Translation 
and Notes, by Eugene Curry. 

VII. Sir William Petty's Narrative of his Proceedings in the Survey of Ireland. 
From a MS. recently purchased by Government, and deposited in the Library of Trin. 
Coll., Dublin. Edited, with Notes, by Thos. A. Larcom, Esq., Capt. R. E., M.R.L A. 

VIII. Articles of Capitulation and Surrender of Cities, Towns, Castles, Forts, &c, 
in Ireland, to the Parliamentary Forces, from A. D. 1649 ^° x ^54- Edited, with His- 
torical Notices, by James Hardiman, Esq., M.R.I. A. 

IX. The Irish Version of the " Historia Britonum" of Nennius, from the Book of 
Ballimote, collated with copies in the Book of Leacan, and in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. With a Translation and Notes, by James Henthorn Todd, D. D., 
V. P. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity CoUege, &c. 


PB • 





Fleadh Duin na nGeadh. English and 
The banquet of Dun na n-Gedh 
and The battle of Magh Rath : 



&3 queen's park 

Toronto 5* Canada